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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 101, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900395

RESUMO

Sensitive photodetection is crucial for modern optoelectronic technology. Two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) with unique crystal structure, and extraordinary electrical and optical properties is a promising candidate for ultrasensitive photodetection. Previously reported methods to improve the performance of MoS2 photodetectors have focused on complex hybrid systems in which leakage paths and dark currents inevitably increase, thereby reducing the photodetectivity. Here, we report an ultrasensitive negative capacitance (NC) MoS2 phototransistor with a layer of ferroelectric hafnium zirconium oxide film in the gate dielectric stack. The prototype photodetectors demonstrate a hysteresis-free ultra-steep subthreshold slope of 17.64 mV/dec and ultrahigh photodetectivity of 4.75 × 1014 cm Hz1/2 W-1 at room temperature. The enhanced performance benefits from the combined action of the strong photogating effect induced by ferroelectric local electrostatic field and the voltage amplification based on ferroelectric NC effect. These results address the key challenges for MoS2 photodetectors and offer inspiration for the development of other optoelectronic devices.

2.
Small ; 16(1): e1904369, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769618

RESUMO

2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) based photodetectors have shown great potential for the next generation optoelectronics. However, most of the reported MoS2 photodetectors function under the photogating effect originated from the charge-trap mechanism, which is difficult for quantitative control. Such devices generally suffer from a poor compromise between response speed and responsivity (R) and large dark current. Here, a dual-gated (DG) MoS2 phototransistor operating based on the interface coupling effect (ICE) is demonstrated. By simultaneously applying a negative top-gate voltage (VTG ) and positive back-gate voltage (VBG ) to the MoS2 channel, the photogenerated holes can be effectively trapped in the depleted region under TG. An ultrahigh R of ≈105 A W-1 and detectivity (D*) of ≈1014 Jones are achieved in several devices with different thickness under Pin of 53 µW cm-2 at VTG = -5 V. Moreover, the response time of the DG phototransistor can also be modulated based on the ICE. Based on these systematic measurements of MoS2 DG phototransistors, the results show that the ICE plays an important role in the modulation of photoelectric performances. The results also pave the way for the future optoelectrical application of 2D TMDs materials and prompt for further investigation in the DG structured phototransistors.

3.
Adv Mater ; 32(6): e1907527, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867813

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (PVKs) have recently emerged as attractive materials for photodetectors. However, the poor stability and low electrical conductivity still restrict their practical utilization. Owing to the quantum-well feature of two-dimensional (2D) Ruddlesden-Popper PVKs (2D PVKs), a promising quasi-2D PVK/indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) heterostructure phototransistor can be designed. By using a simple ligand-exchange spin-coating method, quasi-2D PVK fabricated on flexible substrates exhibits a desirable type-II energy band alignment, which facilitates effective spatial separation of photoexcited carriers. The device exhibits excellent photoresponsivity values of >105 A W-1 at 457 nm, and broadband photoresponse (457-1064 nm). By operating the device in the depletion regime, the specific detectivity is found to be 5.1 × 1016 Jones, which is the record high value among all PVK-based photodetectors reported to date. Due to the resistive hopping barrier in the quasi-2D PVK, the device can also work as an optoelectronic memory for near-infrared information storage. More importantly, the easy manufacturing process is highly beneficial, enabling large-scale and uniform quasi-2D PVK/IGZO hybrid films for detector arrays with outstanding ambient and operation stabilities. All these findings demonstrate the device architecture here provides a rational avenue to the design of next-generation flexible photodetectors with unprecedented sensitivity.

4.
Small ; 16(4): e1905902, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867892

RESUMO

Semiconducting nanowires offer many opportunities for electronic and optoelectronic device applications due to their unique geometries and physical properties. However, it is challenging to synthesize semiconducting nanowires directly on a SiO2 /Si substrate due to lattice mismatch. Here, a catalysis-free approach is developed to achieve direct synthesis of long and straight InSe nanowires on SiO2 /Si substrates through edge-homoepitaxial growth. Parallel InSe nanowires are achieved further on SiO2 /Si substrates through controlling growth conditions. The underlying growth mechanism is attributed to a selenium self-driven vapor-liquid-solid process, which is distinct from the conventional metal-catalytic vapor-liquid-solid method widely used for growing Si and III-V nanowires. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the as-grown InSe nanowire-based visible light photodetector simultaneously possesses an extraordinary photoresponsivity of 271 A W-1 , ultrahigh detectivity of 1.57 × 1014 Jones, and a fast response speed of microsecond scale. The excellent performance of the photodetector indicates that as-grown InSe nanowires are promising in future optoelectronic applications. More importantly, the proposed edge-homoepitaxial approach may open up a novel avenue for direct synthesis of semiconducting nanowire arrays on SiO2 /Si substrates.

5.
Small ; 15(52): e1903362, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736239

RESUMO

Recent years have witnessed rapid progresses made in the photoelectric performance of two-dimensional materials represented by graphene, black phosphorus, and transition metal dichalcogenides. Despite significant efforts, a photodetection technique capable for longer wavelength, higher working temperature as well as fast responsivity, is still facing huge challenges due to a lack of best among bandgap, dark current, and absorption ability. Exploring topological materials with nontrivial band transport leads to peculiar properties of quantized phenomena such as chiral anomaly, and magnetic-optical effect, which enables a novel feasibility for an advanced optoelectronic device working at longer wavelength. In this work, the direct generation of photocurrent at low energy terahertz (THz) band at room temperature is implemented in a planar metal-PtTe2 -metal structure. The results show that the THz photodetector based on PtTe2 with bow-tie-type planar contacts possesses a high photoresponsivity (1.6 A W-1 without bias voltage) with a response time less than 20 µs, while the PtTe2 -graphene heterostructure-based detector can reach responsivity above 1.4 kV W-1 and a response time shorter than 9 µs. Remarkably, it is already exploitable for large area imaging applications. These results suggest that topological semimetals such as PtTe2 can be ideal materials for implementation in a high-performing photodetection system at THz band.

6.
Small ; 15(46): e1904396, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617328

RESUMO

Room-temperature operating means a profound reduction of volume, power consumption, and cost for infrared (IR) photodetectors, which promise a wide range of applications in both military and civilian areas, including individual soldier equipment, automatic driving, etc. Inspired by this fact, since the beginning of 1990s, great efforts have been made in the development of uncooled thermal detectors. During the last two decades, similar efforts have been devoted using IR photon detectors, especially based on photovoltaic effects. Herein, the proven technologies, which have been commercialized with a large format, like InGaAs/InP pin diodes, InAsSb barrier detectors, and high-operating-temperature HgCdTe devices, are reviewed. The newly developed technology is emphasized, which has shown unique superiority in detecting mid-wavelength and long-wavelength IR signals, such as quantum cascade photodetectors. Finally, brand-new concept devices based on 2D materials are introduced, which are demonstrated to provide additional degrees of freedom in designing and fabricating room-temperature IR devices, for example, the construction of multi-heterojunctions without introducing lattice strain, the convenient integration of optical waveguides and electronic gratings. All information provided here aims to supply a full view of the progress and challenges of room-temperature IR detectors.

7.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(20): 1901072, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637163

RESUMO

The human memory system plays an indispensable role in oblivion, learning, and memorization. Implementing a memory system within electronic devices contributes an important step toward constructing a neuromorphic system that emulates advanced mental functions of the human brain. Given the complex time-tailoring requirement, integrating a human memory system into one system is a great challenge. Here, one van der Waals heterostructure with flexible time-tailoring ability is demonstrated, which can meet the high requirement of human memory system programming. By stacking volatile and nonvolatile function layers, all basic memory types, including sensory memory, short-term and long-term memory are integrated into the device and the transition between these memory types are flexible. Moreover, decision-making action and in situ result storage are also demonstrated. It is anticipated that the demonstrated time-tailoring system will support the model of a human memory system.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4663, 2019 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604944

RESUMO

Van der Waals (vdW) heterodiodes based on two-dimensional (2D) materials have shown tremendous potential in photovoltaic detectors and solar cells. However, such 2D photovoltaic devices are limited by low quantum efficiencies due to the severe interface recombination and the inefficient contacts. Here, we report an efficient MoS2/AsP vdW hetero-photodiode utilizing a unilateral depletion region band design and a narrow bandgap AsP as an effective carrier selective contact. The unilateral depletion region is verified via both the Fermi level and the infrared response measurements. The device demonstrates a pronounced photovoltaic behavior with a short-circuit current of 1.3 µA and a large open-circuit voltage of 0.61 V under visible light illumination. Especially, a high external quantum efficiency of 71%, a record high power conversion efficiency of 9% and a fast response time of 9 µs are achieved. Our work suggests an effective scheme to design high-performance photovoltaic devices assembled by 2D materials.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(42): 38895-38901, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556289

RESUMO

A Schottky barrier is a double-edged sword in electronic and optoelectronic devices, especially devices based on two-dimensional materials. It may restrict the carrier transport in devices, but it can also realize multifunctional devices by architecture design. We designed a simple but novel device structure based on theWSe2-Cr Schottky junction with an asymmetric Schottky contact area of the source and drain. A significant rectification ratio over 105 and multiple rectifying states (e.g., full pass, forward pass, off, and backward pass) were achieved in the single Schottky junction tuned by gate voltage. Furthermore, switching characteristic, rectification characteristic, and amplitude of a sin wave can be effectively modulated by the electrical field or light illumination in a signal process circuit based on the WSe2-Cr Schottky junction. The highly tunable Schottky junction working as a multimode signal processor unit has great potential in future optoelectronic-integrated chips.

10.
ACS Nano ; 13(10): 11353-11362, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525955

RESUMO

van der Waals (vdW) magnetic insulators are of significance in both fundamental research and technological application, but most two-dimensional (2D) vdW magnetic systems are unstable and of high lattice symmetry. Stable 2D vdW magnetic insulators with anisotropic structure are needed to modulate the properties and unlock potential applications. Here we present a stable vdW antiferromagnetic material, CrOCl, with low-symmetry orthorhombic structure, and investigate systematically its magnetism, phase transition behavior, and optical anisotropy. Spin-phonon coupling effects are uncovered by the abnormal frequency shifts of Raman-active modes, suggesting the formation of a magnetic superstructure. The sizable abnormal change of interplanar spacing indicates the presence of a structural transition at around 27 K. Further in-plane vibrational, reflectional, and absorptional anisotropic properties are explored both experimentally and theoretically, revealing a highly polarization sensitive characteristic and linear dichroism in 2D CrOCl. Meanwhile, the particularly high polarization dependency of the second-harmonic generation and the nonlinear susceptibility of ∼2.24 × 10-11 m/V make it suitable in the field of polarization-dependent nonlinear optics. The findings on the intricate properties of 2D CrOCl lay foundations for future applications of low-symmetry vdW magnets in spin-dependent electronic and optoelectronic devices.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(36): 33188-33193, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415147

RESUMO

Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM)-structured GaAs-based nanowire photodetectors have been widely reported because they are promising as an alternative for high-performance devices. Owing to the Schottky built-in electric fields in the MSM structure photodetectors, enhancements in photoresponsivity can be realized. Thus, strengthening the built-in electric field is an efficacious way to make the detection capability better. In this study, we fabricate a single GaAs nanowire MSM photodetector with superior performance by doping-adjusting the Fermi level to strengthen the built-in electric field. An outstanding responsivity of 1175 A/W is obtained. This is two orders of magnitude better than the responsivity of the undoped sample. Scanning photocurrent mappings and simulations are performed to confirm that the enhancement in responsivity is because of the increase in the hole Schottky built-in electric field, which can separate and collect the photogenerated carriers more effectively. The eloquent evidence clearly proves that doping-adjusting the Fermi level has great potential applications in high-performance GaAs nanowire photodetectors and other functional photodetectors.

12.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(15): 1901050, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406679

RESUMO

Broadening the spectral range of photodetectors is an essential topic in photonics. Traditional photodetectors are widely used; however, the realization of ultrabroad spectrum photodetectors remains a challenge. Here, a photodetector constructed by a hybrid quasi-freestanding structure of organic ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) with molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is demonstrated. The 2D MoS2 with the ultrathin structure brings a great benefit of heat dissipation for the pyroelectric infrared detector. By coupling the mechanisms of pyroelectrics, photoconductor, and phototransistor effect, an ultrabroad spectrum response ranging from ultraviolet (375 nm) to long-wavelength infrared (10 µm) is achieved. In the 2.76-10 µm spectral range, the 2D MoS2 is used to read and amplify the photocurrent induced by the pyroelectric effect of P(VDF-TrFE). The sensitivity of the device in this spectral range is greatly enhanced. A high responsivity of 140 mA W-1, an on/off photocurrent switching ratio up to 103, and a quick response of 5.5 ms are achieved. Moreover, the ferroelectric polarization field dramatically enhances the photoconductive properties of MoS2 and restrains dark current and noise. This approach constitutes a reliable route toward realizing high-performance photodetectors with a remarkable ultrabroad spectrum response, high responsivity, low power consumption, and room-temperature operation.

13.
ACS Nano ; 13(9): 10705-10710, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469545

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) materials with narrow band gaps (∼0.3 eV) are of great importance for realizing ambipolar transistors and mid-infrared (MIR) detections. However, most of the 2D materials studied to date have band gaps that are too large. A few of the materials with suitable band gaps are not stable under ambient conditions. In this study, the layered Nb2SiTe4 is shown to be a stable 2D material with a band gap of 0.39 eV. Field-effect transistors based on few-layer Nb2SiTe4 show ambipolar transport with a similar magnitude of electron and hole current and a high charge-carrier mobility of ∼100 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature. Optoelectronic measurements of the devices show clear response to an MIR wavelength of 3.1 µm with a high responsivity of ∼0.66 AW-1. These results establish Nb2SiTe4 as a good candidate for ambipolar devices and MIR detection.

14.
Nano Lett ; 19(9): 5920-5929, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374165

RESUMO

Owing to the relatively low hole mobility, the development of GaSb nanowire (NW) electronic and photoelectronic devices has stagnated in the past decade. During a typical catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, the adopted metallic catalyst can be incorporated into the NW body to act as a slight dopant, thus regulating the electrical properties of the NW. In this work, we demonstrate the use of Sn as a catalyst and dopant for GaSb NWs in the surfactant-assisted CVD growth process. The Sn-catalyzed zinc-blende GaSb NWs are thin, long, and straight with good crystallinity, resulting in a record peak hole mobility of 1028 cm2 V-1 s-1. This high mobility is attributed to the slight doping of Sn atoms from the catalyst tip into the NW body, which is verified by the red-shifted photoluminescence peak of Sn-catalyzed GaSb NWs (0.69 eV) compared with that of Au-catalyzed NWs (0.74 eV). Furthermore, the parallel array NWs also show a high peak hole mobility of 170 cm2 V-1 s-1, a high responsivity of 61 A W-1, and fast rise and decay times of 195.1 and 380.4 µs, respectively, under the illumination of 1550 nm infrared light. All of the results demonstrate that the as-prepared Sn-catalyzed GaSb NWs are promising for application in next-generation electronics and optoelectronics.

15.
Adv Mater ; : e1902039, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282020

RESUMO

Graphene (Gr) has many unique properties including gapless band structure, ultrafast carrier dynamics, high carrier mobility, and flexibility, making it appealing for ultrafast, broadband, and flexible optoelectronics. To overcome its intrinsic limit of low absorption, hybrid structures are exploited to improve the device performance. Particularly, van der Waals heterostructures with different photosensitive materials and photonic structures are very effective for improving photodetection and modulation efficiency. With such hybrid structures, Gr hybrid photodetectors can operate from ultraviolet to terahertz, with significantly improved R (up to 109 A W-1 ) and bandwidth (up to 128 GHz). Furthermore, integration of Gr with silicon (Si) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits, the human body, and soft tissues is successfully demonstrated, opening promising opportunities for wearable sensors and biomedical electronics. Here, the recent progress in using Gr hybrid structures toward high-performance photodetectors and integrated optoelectronic applications is reviewed.

16.
Nanotechnology ; 30(34): 345603, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051475

RESUMO

Heterostructures based on two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides semiconductors are reported to be promising building-blocks for next-generation integrated optoelectronic systems, owing to their atomic thin interface and interface-induced properties. Previously reported works have mostly been directed to focus on the 2D/2D heterostructures, and their optoelectronic performance is still inferior to the expectations for practical applications, mainly attributed to their non-ideal optical absorption when the thickness is confined at atomic scale. In this work, we have reported on high sensitivity photodetectors based on one-dimensional (1D)/2D heterostructures consisting of CdS nanowire and WS2 nanosheets grown by direct chemical vapor deposition. The components of the heterostructures were confirmed by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, photoluminescence and Raman spectra measurements, confirming the high quality heterostructures. Photodetectors were then fabricated based on the as-synthesized CdS/WS2 heterostructures, showing superior photodetection performances with a photoresponsivity of ∼50 A W-1 and an ultrahigh photodetectivity of ∼1012 Jones. Much higher responsivity of 5472 A W-1 and detectivity of 5 × 1013 Jones can be achieved through applying back gate voltage. The direct growth of such 1D/2D heterostructures may pave the way toward high performance integrated optoelectronics and systems.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(26): 23667-23672, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144499

RESUMO

Recently, two-dimensional (2D) materials, especially transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), have attracted extensive interest owing to their potential applications in optoelectronics. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid 2D-zero-dimensional (0D) photodetector, which consists of a single-layer or few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin film and a thin layer of core/shell zinc cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide (ZnCdSe/ZnS) colloidal quantum dots (QDs). It is worth mentioning that the photoresponsivity of the hybrid 2D-0D photodetector is 3 orders of magnitude larger than the TMDC photodetector (from 10 to 104 A W-1). The detectivity of the hybrid structure detector is up to 1012 Jones, and the gain is up to 105. Due to an effective energy transfer from the photoexcited QD sensitizing layer to MoS2 films, light absorption is enhanced and more excitons are generated. Thus, this hybrid 2D-0D photodetector takes advantage of high charge mobility in the MoS2 layer and efficient photon absorption/exciton generation in the QDs, which suggests their promising applications in the development of TMDC-based optoelectronic devices.

18.
Small ; 15(17): e1900236, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932339

RESUMO

Van der Waals epitaxy (vdWE) is crucial for heteroepitaxy of covalence-bonded semiconductors on 2D layered materials because it is not subject to strict substrate requirements and the epitaxial materials can be transferred onto various substrates. However, planar film growth in covalence-bonded semiconductors remains a critical challenge of vdWE because of the extremely low surface energy of 2D materials. In this study, direct growth of wafer-scale single-crystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) films is achieved on 2D layered transparent mica through molecular beam epitaxy. The vdWE CdTe films exhibit a flat surface resulting from the 2D growth regime, and high crystal quality as evidenced by a low full width at half maximum of 0.05° for 120 nm thick films. A perfect lattice fringe appears at the interfaces, implying a fully relaxed state of the epitaxial CdTe films correlated closely to the unique nature of vdWE. Moreover, the vdWE CdTe photodetectors demonstrate not only ultrasensitive optoelectronic response with optimal responsivity of 834 A W-1 and ultrahigh detectivity of 2.4 × 1014 Jones but also excellent mechanical flexibility and durability, indicating great potential in flexible and wearable devices.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(12): 12161-12169, 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817113

RESUMO

Artificial synapses/neurons based on electronic/ionic hybrid devices have attracted wide attention for brain-inspired neuromorphic systems since it is possible to overcome the von Neumann bottleneck of the neuromorphic computing paradigm. Here, we report a novel photoneuromorphic device based on printed photogating single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin film transistors (TFTs) using lightly n-doped Si as the gate electrode. The drain currents of the printed SWCNT TFTs can gradually increase to over 3000 times of their starting value after being pulsed with light stimulation, and the electrical signals can maintain for over 10 min. These characteristics are similar to the learning and memory functions of brain-inspired neuromorphic systems. The working mechanism of the light-stimulated neuromorphic devices is investigated and described here in detail. Important synaptic characteristics, such as low-pass filtering characteristics and nonvolatile memory ability, are successfully emulated in the printed light-stimulated artificial synapses. It demonstrates that the printed SWCNT TFT photoneuromorphic devices can act as the nonvolatile memory units and perform photoneuromorphic computing, which exhibits potential for future neuromorphic system applications.

20.
ACS Nano ; 13(3): 3492-3499, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817125

RESUMO

One-dimensional InAs nanowire (NW)-based photodetectors have been widely studied due to their potential application in mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) photon detection. However, the limited performance and complicated photoresponse mechanism of InAs NW-based photodetectors have held back their true potential for real application. In this study, we developed ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE)-coated InAs NW-based photodetectors and demonstrated that the electrostatic field caused by polarized ferroelectric materials modifies the surface electron-hole distribution as well as the band structure of InAs NWs, resulting in ultrasensitive photoresponse and a wide photodetection spectral range. Our single InAs NW photodetectors exhibit a high responsivity ( R) of 1.6 × 104 A W-1 as well as a corresponding detectivity ( D*) of 1.4 × 1012 cm·Hz1/2 W-1 at a light wavelength of 3.5 µm without an applied gate voltage, ∼3-4 orders higher than the maximum value of photoresponsivity reported or commercially used MWIR photodetectors. Moreover, our device shows below band gap photoresponse for 4.3 µm MWIR light with R of 9.6 × 102 A W-1 as well as a corresponding D* of ∼8.5 × 1010 cm·Hz1/2 W-1 at 77 K. Our study shows that this approach is promising for fabrication of high-performance NW-based photodetectors for MWIR photon detection.

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