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1.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470788

RESUMO

Upregulation of Cancerous Inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) plays an important role in disease- related phosphorylation of tau/APP and tau pathology/Aß overproduction through inhibiting PP2A in AD brain. Genistein has been shown to potently reduce CIP2A in experimental cancer treatment research. In this study, the inhibitory effect of Genistein on tau/APP phosphorylation and Aß overproduction in AD cell models have been explored. The results showed that Genistein effectively reduced CIP2A expression, and restored PP2A activities both in CIP2A/APP and CIP2A/tau co-expressed cells. Genistein reduced APP phosphorylation at T668 site and inhibited Aß production. In the meantime, Genistein ameliorated tau hyperphosphorylation by repressing the inhibitory effect of CIP2A on PP2A. Thus, Genistein has the potential to be used in AD treatment by targeting CIP2A-PP2A signaling in AD therapy.

2.
J Palliat Med ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483191

RESUMO

Background: Surrogates often do not accurately predict older people's preferences about end-of-life (EOL) care. Few studies have examined the impact of advance care planning (ACP) on EOL decision-making consistency between older people and their surrogates, and these studies have yielded conflicting results. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of ACP in improving EOL decision-making consistency between older people and their surrogates. Design: The intervention in this pre-post quasi-experimental design included an informative video, a brochure about ACP, and a guided discussion about EOL wishes. Setting: Two geriatric wards in a medical center in northern Taiwan. Subjects: One hundred eight participants, as 54 pairs of older people and their surrogates, were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. The experimental group received an intervention, while the control group received usual care. Measurements: Life-Support Preferences Questionnaire. Results: The intervention did not improve decision-making consistency between older people and their surrogates. This was the first time that most pairs discussed specific EOL decisions, so additional preparation may improve comfort with this topic. This study also found that some older people had difficulty concentrating on the educational brochure or understanding the related terms. Conclusions: Preparation for ACP discussion is needed for older people and their surrogates. Longer-term effects of ACP should be monitored because ACP interventions may have enhanced empathy between older people and their surrogates. Additionally, a culturally sensitive illustrated questionnaire that explains life-support preferences and ACP topics may improve communication between older people and their surrogates.

3.
Adv Mater ; : e1902364, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515864

RESUMO

Interface-induced modifications of the electronic, magnetic, and lattice degrees of freedom drive an array of novel physical properties in oxide heterostructures. Here, large changes in metal-oxygen band hybridization, as measured in the oxygen ligand hole density, are induced as a result of interfacing two isovalent correlated oxides. Using resonant X-ray reflectivity, a superlattice of SrFeO3 and CaFeO3 is shown to exhibit an electronic character that spatially evolves from strongly O-like in SrFeO3 to strongly Fe-like in CaFeO3 . This alternating degree of Fe electronic character is correlated with a modulation of an Fe 3d orbital polarization, giving rise to an orbital superstructure. At the SrFeO3 /CaFeO3 interfaces, the ligand hole density and orbital polarization reconstruct in a single unit cell of CaFeO3 , demonstrating how the mismatch in these electronic parameters is accommodated at the interface. These results provide new insight into how the orbital character of electrons is altered by correlated oxide interfaces and lays out a broadly applicable approach for depth-resolving band hybridization.

4.
Endocrinology ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433456

RESUMO

Human prostate stem and progenitor cells express estrogen receptors (ERs) ERα and ERß and exhibit proliferative responses to estrogens. Herein, membrane-initiated estrogen signaling was interrogated in human prostate stem-progenitor cells enriched from primary epithelial cultures and stem-like cell lines from benign and cancerous prostates. Subcellular fractionation and proximity ligation assays localized ERα and ERß to the cell membrane with cavelolin-1 interactions. Exposure to 17ß-estradiol (E2) for 15-60 min led to sequential phosphorylation of signaling molecules in MAPK and AKT pathways, IGF1R, EGFR and ERα, thus documenting an intact membrane signalosome that activates diverse downstream cascades. Treatment with an E2-dendrimer conjugate or ICI-182,870 validated E2-mediated actions through membrane ERs. Overexpression and knockdown of ERα or ERß in stem-progenitor cells identified pathway selectivity; ERα preferentially activated AKT whereas ERß selectively activated MAPK cascades. Further, prostate cancer stem-like cells expressed only ERß and brief E2 exposure activated MAPK but not AKT cascades. A gene subset selectively regulated by nongenomic E2 signaling was identified in normal prostate progenitor cells that includes BGN, FOSB, FOXQ1 and MAF. Membrane-initiated E2 signaling rapidly modified histone methyl transferases with MLL1 cleavage observed downstream of p-AKT and EZH2 phosphorylation downstream of MAPK-signaling, which may jointly modify histones to permit rapid gene transcription. Together, the present findings document ERα and ERß membrane-initiated signaling in normal and cancerous human prostate stem-progenitor cells with differential engagement of downstream effectors. These signaling pathways influence normal prostate stem-progenitor cell homeostasis and provide novel therapeutic sites to target the elusive prostate cancer stem cell population.

5.
Brain Pathol ; 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376192

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid ß plaques and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau in the brain. Aggregation of transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) in the neuronal cytoplasm is another feature of AD. However, how TDP-43 is associated with AD pathogenesis is unknown. Here, we found that casein kinase 1ε (CK1ε) phosphorylated TDP-43 at Ser403/404 and Ser409/410. In AD brains, the level of CK1ε was dramatically increased and positively correlated with the phosphorylation of TDP-43 at Ser403/404 and Ser409/410. Overexpression of CK1ε promoted its cytoplasmic aggregation and suppressed TDP-43-promoted tau mRNA instability and tau exon 10 inclusion, leading to an increase of tau and 3R-tau expressions. Levels of CK1ε and TDP-43 phosphorylation were positively correlated with the levels of total tau and 3R-tau in human brains. Furthermore, we observed, in pilot immunohistochemical studies, that the severe tau pathology was accompanied by robust TDP-43 pathology and a high level of CK1ε. Taken together, our findings suggest that the elevation of CK1ε in AD brain may phosphorylate TDP-43, promote its cytoplasmic aggregation and suppress its function in tau mRNA processing, leading to acceleration/exacerbation of tau pathology. Thus, the elevation of CK1ε may link TDP-43 to tau pathogenesis in AD brain.

6.
Nanoscale ; 11(33): 15633-15640, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408076

RESUMO

In order to further enhance the performance of photocatalysts, cocatalysts are used to accelerate the photocatalytic reactions. Herein, ultrafine cobalt oxide (CoO) nanoparticles are synthesized through a novel bottom-up strategy and explored as an efficient non-noble cocatalyst to dramatically promote the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate of CdS nanorods. CdS/CoO heterostructures, consisting of highly dispersed 3-5 nm CoO nanoparticles anchored on the CdS nanorods, can provide a high photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate of 6.45 mmol g-1 h-1 (∼36 times higher than that of bare CdS nanorods) in the visible-light region (>420 nm). Combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy analyses suggest Co-S bond formation between CoO and CdS, which guarantees efficient migration and separation of photogenerated charge carriers. This work provides a new avenue for adopting CoO as an effective cocatalyst for enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production in the visible-light region.

7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 223: 115101, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427008

RESUMO

In this work, cuprous oxide (Cu2O) particles and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were simultaneously incorporated into the microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) foam to fabricate the MCC/Cu2O/GO composite foam toward methylene blue (MB) photocatalytic degradation. The interaction between Cu2O and GO and the morphologies of the composite foams were investigated. The results showed that there was a hydrogen bonding interaction between Cu2O and GO, which promoted the exfoliation of GO nanosheets and the dispersion of Cu2O in the composite foam. The MCC/Cu2O/GO composite foams not only exhibited high photocatalytic degradation ratio toward MB compared with the pure Cu2O particles and the common MCC/Cu2O composite foams, but also exhibited much higher derogation rate compared with the Cu2O-based photocatalytic degradation materials as reported in literature. A concept of 'micro-reactor' was proposed to explain the mechanisms for the largely enhanced degradation rate. Furthermore, the cycling measurements for the photocatalytic degradation of MB was also evaluated.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220568, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461451

RESUMO

Hyperinsulinemia affects 72% of Fanconi anemia (FA) patients and an additional 25% experience lowered glucose tolerance or frank diabetes. The underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to the dysfunction of FA pancreas ß cells is unknown. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the functional role of FANCA, the most commonly mutated gene in FA, in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This study reveals that FANCA or FANCB knockdown impairs GSIS in human pancreas ß cell line EndoC-ßH3. To identify potential pathways by which FANCA might regulate GSIS, we employed a proteomics approach to identify FANCA protein interactions in EndoC-ßH3 differentially regulated in response to elevated glucose levels. Glucose-dependent changes in the FANCA interaction network were observed, including increased association with other FA family proteins, suggesting an activation of the DNA damage response in response to elevated glucose levels. Reactive oxygen species increase in response to glucose stimulation and are necessary for GSIS in EndoC-ßH3 cells. Glucose-induced activation of the DNA damage response was also observed as an increase in the DNA damage foci marker γ-H2AX and dependent upon the presence of reactive oxygen species. These results illuminate the role of FANCA in GSIS and its protein interactions regulated by glucose stimulation that may explain the prevalence of ß cell-specific endocrinopathies in FA patients.

9.
Prostate ; 79(14): 1692-1704, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: WNT signaling is implicated in embryonic development, and in adult tissue homeostasis, while its deregulation is evident in disease. This study investigates the unique roles of canonical WNT10B in both normal prostate development and prostate cancer (PCa) progression. METHODS: Organ culture and rat ventral prostates (VPs) were used to study Wnt10b ontogeny and growth effect of WNT10B protein. PB-SV40 LTag rat VPs were utilized for Wnt expression polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array and immunohistochemistry. Human localized PCa tissue microarrays (TMAs) were investigated for differential WNT10B expression. Human RNA-seq data sets were queried for differential expression of WNT10B in metastatic and localized PCa. Knockdown of WNT10B in PC3 cells was utilized to study its effects on proliferation, stemness, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and xenograft propagation. RESULTS: Wnt10b expression was highest at birth and rapidly declined in the postnatal rat VP. Exogenous WNT10B addition to culture developing VPs decreased growth suggesting an antiproliferative role. VPs from PB-SV40 LTag rats with localized PCa showed a 25-fold reduction in Wnt10b messenger RNA (mRNA) expession, confirmed at the protein level. Human PCa TMAs revealed elevated WNT10B protein in prostate intraepithelial neoplasia compared with normal prostates but reduced levels in localized PCa specimens. In contrast, RNA-seq data set of annotated human PCa metastasis found a significant increase in WNT10B mRNA expression compared with localized tumors suggesting stage-specific functions of WNT10B. Similarly, WNT10B mRNA levels were increased in metastatic cell lines PC3, PC3M, as well as in HuSLC, a PCa stem-like cell line, as compared with disease-free primary prostate epithelial cells. WNT10B knockdown in PC3 cells reduced expression of EMT genes, MMP9 and stemness genes NANOG and SOX2 and markedly reduced the stem cell-like side population. Furthermore, loss of WNT10B abrogated the ability of PC3 cells to propagate tumors via serial transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest a dual role for WNT10B in normal development and in PCa progression with opposing functions depending on disease stage. We propose that decreased WNT10B levels in localized cancer allow for a hyperproliferative state, whereas increased levels in advanced disease confer a stemness and malignant propensity which is mitigated by knocking down WNT10B levels. This raises the potential for WNT10B as a novel target for therapeutic intervention in metastatic PCa.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11056, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363139

RESUMO

Silicon nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistors (FETs) is a powerful tool in genetic molecule analysis because of their high sensitivity, short detection time, and label-free detection. In nucleic acid detection, GC-rich nucleic acid sequences form self- and cross-dimers and stem-loop structures, which can easily obtain data containing signals from nonspecific DNA binding. The features of GC-rich nucleic acid sequences cause inaccuracies in nucleic acid detection and hinder the development of precision medicine. To improve the inaccurate detection results, we used phosphate-methylated (neutral) nucleotides to synthesize the neutralized chimeric DNA oligomer probe. The probe fragment originated from a primer for the detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3b, and single-mismatched and perfect-matched targets were designed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) detection on the SiNW FET device. Experimental results revealed that the HCV-3b chimeric neutralized DNA (nDNA) probe exhibited better performance for SNP discrimination in 10 mM bis-tris propane buffer at 25 °C than a regular DNA probe. The SNP discrimination of the nDNA probe could be further improved at 40 °C on the FET device. Consequently, the neutralized chimeric DNA probe could successfully distinguish SNP in the detection of GC-rich target sequences under optimal operating conditions on the SiNW FET device.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The reported prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in Taiwan was 54.4% in 1992. An updated prevalence of H. pylori infection in asymptomatic adults is lacking in Taiwan. We aimed to assess the updated age-standardized prevalence of H. pylori infection in asymptomatic subjects and in patients with dyspepsia and to assess the accuracy of H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) test for screening of H. pylori in Chinese population. METHODS: Asymptomatic adult subjects(N=189) were screened for H. pylori infection using HpSA, serology, and 13 C-Urea Breath Test(13 C-UBT) in 2016-2017. Adult patients with dyspepsia(N=145) were screened for H. pylori using 13 C-UBT, HpSA, serology, rapid urease test, and histology during 2016-2018. Two types of HpSA, including the Diagnostec® HpSA ELISA Kit (HpSA ELISA) and Rapid Test Kit (HpSA Rapid) were used in this study. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the HpSA tests were calculated using the 13 C-UBT as golden standard test. RESULTS: The un-adjusted prevalence of H. pylori was 21.2% in asymptomatic adults and 37.9% in patients with dyspepsia (p<0.001). The age-standardized prevalence of H. pylori was 28.9% in asymptomatic adults in Taiwan. Of the 334 patients included for analysis, the area under the curve of HpSA ELISA test was 0.978, and the optimal cut-off value of OD was 0.03. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the HpSA ELISA were 0.929, 0.983, and 0.967, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the HpSA Rapid were 0.929, 0.958, and 0.949, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of H. pylori infection has decreased in Taiwan. HpSA test is an accurate tool for screening of H. pylori in Chinese population.

12.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 183: 110443, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445358

RESUMO

The development of intelligent oral drug delivery carrier aiming at efficiently bring insulin to intestine is of great significance for diabetes mellitus therapy. In the present study, a series of amphiphilic pH-sensitive block copolymer poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylicacid)-b-poly(2-amino ethyl methacrylate) [P(MMA-co-MAA)-b-PAEMA] was synthesized via activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET ATRP) and further self-assembled into pH-responsive cationic polymeric micelles (PCPMs) for oral insulin delivery. The structure and molecular weight were confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), Fourier transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC), respectively. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) values of these copolymers were measured by fluorescent probe method at pH 1.2 (8-15 µg/mL) and pH 7.4 (22-42 µg/mL), respectively, demonstrating high stability at acidic environment. A decrease in the particle size of PCPMs was associated with an increased pH at beginning, which reached around 200 nm at neutral pH, while the particle size increased obviously with pH increase, indicating the pH-sensitivity of PCPMs. The insulin was entrapped into the core of PCPMs (Ins-loaded PCPMs) with high loading efficiency via diafiltration method. The in vitro experiments show Ins-loaded PCPMs have low toxicity and exhibit pH-triggered release profile with remitted initial burst release. The results indicate that the PCPMs self-assembled from P(MMA-co-MAA)-b-PAEMA may be potential carriers for efficient oral delivery of insulin with controlled release property.

13.
Virus Genes ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372920

RESUMO

Astroviruses (AstV) are associated with enteric and systemic disease in mammals and birds. Astroviruses have received increased attention recently as they have been found to be associated with sporadic neurologic disease in mammals including humans. In pigs, porcine astrovirus (PoAstV) can be widely detected and has been grouped in five genotypes (PoAstV1 to PoAstV5). In the present study, we detected multiple PoAstVs in serum samples, nasal swabs, and fecal swabs collected from pigs suffering from respiratory disease or diarrhea but also from asymptomatic pigs, indicating a wide tissue tropism of the identified PoAstV genotypes. Coinfection of different genotypes in the same pig was commonly observed, and within an individual pig a high genetic diversity was observed for viruses belonging to the same PoAstV genotype. Two complete genomes of PoAstV2-WG-R2/2017 and PoAstV4-WG-R2/2017 were successfully obtained and characterized, with genome sizes of 6396 and 6643 nucleotides, respectively. The PoAstV2-WG-R2/2017 genome showed identities of 67.2-77.4% to other known PoAstV2 genomes, and the PoAstV4-WG-R2/2017 genome showed identities of 72.8-80.5% to other known PoAstV4 genomes. The predicted spike domain of open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of these strains showed the highest genetic heterogeneity, with amino acid identities of 13.7-70.9% for PoAstV2-WG-R2/2017 to other known PoAstV2 strains, and identities of 24.4-63.3% for the PoAstV4-WG-R2/2017 to other known PoAstV4 strains. Possible recombination events were identified in each of the two sequences. Two subclades of PoAstV2 and three subclades of PoAstV4 were defined in the present analyses. The obtained data provide further evidence for extraintestinal infectivity of PoAstVs, and confirmed the high genetic diversity of PoAstVs and the coinfection potential of different PoAstV types in a single pig.

14.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(9): 1605-1624, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is activated by collagens, upregulated in injured and fibrotic kidneys, and contributes to fibrosis by regulating extracellular matrix production, but how DDR1 controls fibrosis is poorly understood. DDR1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). RTKs can translocate to the nucleus via a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) present on the receptor itself or a ligand it is bound to. In the nucleus, RTKs regulate gene expression by binding chromatin directly or by interacting with transcription factors. METHODS: To determine whether DDR1 translocates to the nucleus and whether this event is mediated by collagen-induced DDR1 activation, we generated renal cells expressing wild-type or mutant forms of DDR1 no longer able to bind collagen. Then, we determined the location of the DDR1 upon collagen stimulation. Using both biochemical assays and immunofluorescence, we analyzed the steps involved in DDR1 nuclear translocation. RESULTS: We show that although DDR1 and its natural ligand, collagen, lack an NLS, DDR1 is present in the nucleus of injured human and mouse kidney proximal tubules. We show that DDR1 nuclear translocation requires collagen-mediated receptor activation and interaction of DDR1 with SEC61B, a component of the Sec61 translocon, and nonmuscle myosin IIA and ß-actin. Once in the nucleus, DDR1 binds to chromatin to increase the transcription of collagen IV, a major collagen upregulated in fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal a novel mechanism whereby activated DDR1 translates to the nucleus to regulate synthesis of profibrotic molecules.

15.
J Plant Physiol ; 240: 153003, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279219

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) deficiency limits rice production. Increasing the remobilization of P stored in the root cell wall is an efficient way to alleviate P starvation in rice. In the current study, we found that the addition of 50 µM H2O2 significantly increased soluble P content in rice. H2O2 stimulated pectin biosynthesis and increased pectin methylesterase (PME) activity, thus stimulating the release of P from the cell wall in roots. H2O2 also regulates internal P homeostasis by increasing the expression of P transporter genes OsPT2, OsPT6, and OsPT8 at different treatment times. In addition, the H2O2 treatment increased the expression of nitrate reductase (NR) genes OsNIA1 and OsNIA2 and the activity of NR, then increased the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) in the rice root. The application of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and the H2O2 scavenger 4-hydroxy-TEMPO significantly increased soluble P content by increasing pectin levels and PME activity to enhance the remobilization of P from the cell wall. However, the addition of NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO) with and without H2O2 had the opposite effect, suggesting that NO functions downstream of H2O2 to increase the remobilization of cell wall P in rice.

16.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 130(9): 1596-1603, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) II is a frequently observed histopathological substrate in epilepsy surgery. In the present study, we explored the spatial distribution of epileptogenic activities across FCD II lesions using stereoelectroencephalography. METHODS: Patients with histopathologically confirmed type II FCDs and who had at least one depth electrode that go through the wall of the dysplastic sulcus from the surface to the bottom were included. The dysplastic sulci were divided into the bottom and non-bottom parts manually, and contacts were defined as bottom or non-bottom contacts according to their locations. Factors (bottom location, pathological subtype, magnetic resonance imaging manifestation, and presence of bottom-of-sulcus dysplasia) potentially associated with earliest onset identified by conventional visual analysis, epileptogenicity index (EI), and standardized number of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) were analyzed. Linear regression analyses between distance (from the location of the analyzed contact to the bottom of the sulcus) and EI value and HFO number were performed. RESULTS: Sixteen patients with 19 depth electrodes containing 112 valid contacts were included. Bottom location was the sole factor significantly associated with earliest onset (P < 0.001), EI value (P < 0.001), and HFO number (P < 0.001). Most earliest onsets were recorded by the bottom contacts, bottom contacts had higher EI value (0.81 ±â€¯0.28 vs. 0.31 ±â€¯0.24, P < 0.001) and more HFOs (0.78 ±â€¯0.28 vs. 0.35 ±â€¯0.31, P < 0.001) than non-bottom contacts. Moreover, the EI value (R = -0.72, P < 0.001) and HFO number (R = -0.64, P < 0.001) were significantly negatively correlated with distance, regardless of histopathological subtype, MRI manifestation, or absence of bottom-of-sulcus dysplasia. CONCLUSION: Seizure onsets and interictal HFOs most often arise from the bottom part of a sulcus with type II FCD. SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of the present study contribute to intracranial electrode selection, trajectory planning, and, later on, resection of this kind of malformation.

17.
Head Neck ; 41(10): 3525-3534, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of home enteral nutrition (HEN) on the myelosuppression of patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) during the course of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). METHODS: A total of 18 outpatients with NPC administered oral nutritional supplementation intervention at home during the course of CCRT were designated as the HEN group, whereas 36 patients with NPC who had previously completed CCRT were retrospectively included as the control group. Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment, body mass index (BMI), and blood test were evaluated prior to CCRT. During the course of CCRT, blood test was assessed every 2 weeks. RESULTS: In male patients, hemoglobin (HB) and red blood cell were decreased (P < .05) in both HEN and control group after CCRT, whereas white blood cell (WBC) started to decrease since week 2 of CCRT in the control group but maintained in the HEN group which was significantly higher than the control (5.05 ± 1.29 vs 3.77 ± 1.5, P < .05). In female patients, HB and WBC were reduced in control group during CCRT, whereas these indicators also maintained in the HEN group. Surprisingly, all patients with lower BMI (<24 kg/m2 ) had a significant increase in platelet (PLT) after CCRT (200.78 ± 58.03 vs 253.00 ± 69.82, P < .05), while had steady HB and WBC values in the HEN group. At the end of CCRT, WBC and PLT of the HEN group were both higher than those in the control group (5.21 ± 1.07 vs 3.37 ± 1.52), (253.00 ± 69.82 vs 165.57 ± 59.56) (P < .05 for both). Our findings suggest that HEN is effective in preventing myelosuppression during CCRT for patients with NPC. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that HEN is effective in preventing myelosuppression during CCRT for patients with NPC.

18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 27087-27099, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317430

RESUMO

In recent years, China has constantly strengthened environmental regulation (ER) to force the manufacturing industry to upgrade. This study theoretically analyzes interaction mechanism of ER on the upgrading of manufacturing industry through foreign direct investment (FDI) and technological innovation (TI) and carries out empirical verification by using provincial panel data from 2000 to 2016 in China. The results demonstrate that the current ER intensity in China is unable to directly promote the upgrading of manufacturing industry, while through the interaction effects of FDI and TI do boost the upgrading of the industry. The above mechanisms are also robust even if we take the regional heterogeneity into consideration. Basic education and urbanization are favorable for the upgrading of the manufacturing industry. However, the increase in dependence on foreign trade is not conducive to upgrading manufacturing industry. Chinese government should further strengthen ER and give full play of the interaction mechanism of ER to guide the flow of foreign investment and force enterprises to carry out TI. In the meanwhile, Chinese government also needs to ensure balanced regional development, thus better promoting the upgrading of manufacturing industry.

19.
J Endocrinol ; 242(3): 211-226, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340202

RESUMO

We previously showed that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) induces intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and high susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in offspring rats, and the underlying mechanisms are associated with fetal overexposure to maternal glucocorticoids. Herein, we aimed to verify whether PCE disrupts liver development before and after birth and explore its possible programming mechanism. In vivo, reduced fetal weights and increased IUGR rates were accompanied by fetal liver developmental dysfunction in PCE rats. Increased fetal serum corticosterone and decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels were observed. Both male and female fetal livers exhibited increased glucocorticoid function-related gene (GR/C/EBPα) expression and inhibited IGF1 signaling pathway (IGF1/IGF1R/Akt2) expression. At PW6, the levels of serum corticosterone and glucocorticoid function-related genes in PCE offspring livers were decreased, while serum IGF1 and liver IGF1 signaling pathway expression were increased, accompanied by obvious catch-up growth and enhanced liver function. Furthermore, in PCE adult offspring under chronic stress, serum corticosterone and liver GR/C/EBPα expression levels were elevated, while the serum IGF1 and liver IGF1 signaling pathway levels were decreased. In vitro, cortisol (not caffeine) upregulated GR and C/EBPα expression and downregulated IGF1R expression. The IGF1R expression downregulated by cortisol was partially reversed by GR or C/EBPα knockdown. In conclusion, PCE induced liver developmental dysfunction in fetal rats and catch-up growth in IUGR offspring. The mechanisms may be closely associated with GR/C/EBPα upregulation and IGF1/IGF1R signaling pathway downregulation in the fetal liver, caused by intrauterine programming of the liver glucocorticoid-IGF1 axis induced by glucocorticoid overexposure.

20.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 155, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was to analyse the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. METHODS: A total of 3227 women met the requirements from June to December in 2014, including 207 cases of premenopausal women and 3020 cases of postmenopausal women. The prevalence of T2DM and the associated risk factors in the two groups were analysed. RESULTS: The prevalence of premenopausal women with T2DM was 12.1%, while the prevalence in postmenopausal women was 19.4% (P < 0.05). Total serum protein (TP) (OR = 1.164 95% CI = 1.023-1.324) (P = 0.021) is a major risk factor for premenopausal women with T2DM. The prevalence of T2DM increased with the increase in TP. In postmenopausal groups, the prevalence of T2DM was associated with age (OR = 1.037 95% CI = 1.024-1.051) (P < 0.001), BMI (OR = 1.076 95% CI = 1.044-1.109) (P < 0.001), blood pressure (OR = 1.521 95% CI = 1.234-1.875) (P < 0.001), triglycerides (TG) (OR = 1.106 95% CI = 1.027-1.190) (P = 0.008), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (OR = 1.065 95% CI = 1.004-1.129) (P = 0.036), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (OR = 1.009 95% CI = 1.003-1.016) (P = 0.004) and TP (OR = 1.031 95% CI = 1.005-1.057) (P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal women have a higher rate of type 2 diabetes than premenopausal women. TP is a major risk factor for premenopausal women with T2DM. TP, ALT, and BUN are postmenopausal risk factors in addition to traditional risk factors such as obesity, lipidaemia and blood pressure. We should monitor risk factors and take early prevention and intervention measures to reduce the prevalence of diabetes and improve the quality of life of postmenopausal women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR, ChiCTR-TRC-14005029. Registered 29 July 2014, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=4545.

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