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1.
Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int ; 20(5): 416-425, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although concomitant nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is common in chronic hepatitis B (CHB), the impact of viral factors on NASH and the outcome of CHB patients concomitant with NASH remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the outcomes of NASH in CHB patients receiving antiviral treatment. METHODS: In the post-hoc analysis of a multicenter trial, naïve CHB patients receiving 72-week entecavir treatment were enrolled. We evaluated the biochemical, viral and histopathological responses of these patients. The histopathological features of NASH were also evaluated, using paired liver biopsies at baseline and week 72. RESULTS: A total of 1000 CHB patients were finally enrolled for analysis, with 18.2% of whom fulfilling the criteria of NASH. A total of 727 patients completed entecavir antiviral treatment and received the second biopsy. Serum HBeAg loss, HBeAg seroconversion and HBV-DNA undetectable rates were similar between patients with or without NASH (P > 0.05). Among patients with NASH, the hepatic steatosis, ballooning, lobular inflammation scores and fibrosis stages all improved during follow-up (all P < 0.001), 46% (63/136) achieved NASH resolution. Patients with baseline body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23 kg/m2 (Asian criteria) [odds ratio (OR): 0.414; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.190-0.899; P = 0.012] and weight gain (OR: 0.187; 95% CI: 0.050-0.693; P = 0.026) were less likely to have NASH resolution. Among patients without NASH at baseline, 22 (3.7%) developed NASH. Baseline BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 (OR: 12.506; 95% CI: 2.813-55.606; P = 0.001) and weight gain (OR: 5.126; 95% CI: 1.674-15.694; P = 0.005) were predictors of incident NASH. CONCLUSIONS: Lower BMI and weight reduction but not virologic factors determine NASH resolution in CHB. The value of weight management in CHB patients during antiviral treatment deserves further evaluation.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(31): 37466-37474, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314153

RESUMO

An orthogonal strategy was utilized for synthesizing a novel water-soluble pillar[5]arene (m-TPEWP5) with tetraphenylethene-functionalized on the bridged methylene group (meso-position) of the pillararene skeleton. The obtained macrocycle exhibit both the aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effect and interesting host-guest property. Moreover, it can be made to bind with a tailor-made camptothecin-based prodrug guest (DNS-G) to form AIE-nanoparticles based on host-guest interaction and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer process for fabricating a drug delivery system. This novel type of water-soluble AIE-active macrocycle can serve as a potential fluorescent material for cancer diagnosis and therapy. In addition, the present orthogonal strategy for designing meso-functionalized aromatic macrocycles may pave a new avenue for creating novel supramolecular structures and functional materials.

3.
Beilstein J Org Chem ; 17: 139-155, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564325

RESUMO

Due to the unique characteristics of macrocycles (e.g., the ease of modification, hydrophobic cavities, and specific guest recognition), they can provide a suitable environment to realize photocatalysis via noncovalent interactions with different substrates. In this minireview, we emphasized the photochemical transformation and catalytic reactivity of different guests based on the binding with various macrocyclic hosts as well as on the role of macrocyclic-hosts-assisted hybrid materials in energy transfer. To keep the clarity of this review, the macrocycles are categorized into the most commonly used supramolecular hosts, including crown ethers, cyclodextrins, cucurbiturils, calixarenes, and pillararenes. This minireview not only summarizes the role that macrocycles play in photocatalytic reactions but also clarifies the photocatalytic mechanisms. Finally, the future research efforts and new pathways to apply macrocycles and supramolecular hybrid materials in photocatalysis are also discussed.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519945

RESUMO

Acute alcoholism (AAI) is a common emergency. Currently, there is a lack of preventive and therapeutic drugs with superior safety and efficacy. Curcuma longa, Panax ginseng, Pueraria lobata, Pueraria flower, and Hovenia dulcis Thunb., which are the components of compound turmeric recipe (CTR), are, respectively, used in China as adjuvant therapeutic agents for AAI and alcoholic liver injury, respectively. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of traditional compound turmeric recipe in anti-inebriation treatment and to identify its underlying mechanisms. The mice were administered with CTR mixture, and ethanol was subsequently given to mice by gavage. The effects of CTR on the righting reflex, 24-hour survival, drunken behavior, blood ethanol concentration, and pathological changes of liver are depicted. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were detected. Besides, the activities of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), cytochrome P450 (P450), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver and the levels of ß-endorphin (ß-EP) and leucine enkephalin (LENK) in the brain were also measured. Our results demonstrated that CTR can increase the activities of ADH, ALDH, P450, and SOD and decrease the contents of TNF-α, IL-8, and MDA in the liver. In addition, it can decrease the activities of ALT, AST, and ALP in serum and ß-EP and LENK activities in the brain. CTR showed effects on prevention of acute alcoholism, promoting wakefulness, and alleviating alcoholic liver injury, which were likely mediated by the above mechanisms.

5.
J Pers ; 89(3): 514-530, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: People can be categorized into one of four meaning-in-life profiles: High Presence High Search (HPHS), High Presence Low Search (HPLS), Low Presence High Search (LPHS), and Low Presence Low Search (LPLS).The main goal of this study is to provide a theoretical explanation for why Chinese people with different meaning-in-life profiles have different mental health levels than Western people, based on their emotional-cognitive-processing ability. METHOD: We adopted eye-movement analysis and recognition-judgment experimental paradigm concerning absolute-recognition judgment and relative-recognition judgment in our study. Moreover, we applied a multifactor and multilevel mixed-experimental design. We selected 118 participants for the experiments from the 788 Chinese college students who responded. RESULTS: Our results showed that HPHS individuals preferred positive-emotion pictures, LPLS individuals preferred negative-emotion pictures, HPLS individuals preferred positive- and neutral-emotion pictures, and LPHS individuals preferred neutral-emotion pictures. Moreover, HPHS individuals were better at accurately processing facial expression from pictures, while LPLS individuals lacked such ability. The fine-processing ability of HPLS and LPHS individuals was lower than that of HPHS yet higher than that of LPLS individuals. Moreover, the features of HPLS individuals were closer to HPHS, while those of LPHS individuals were closer to LPLS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that meaning-in-life profiles have different immediate processing abilities and preferences regarding facial expression recognition and different emotional-cognitive-processing ability.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(17): 9205-9214, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794352

RESUMO

The many useful features possessed by pillararenes (PAs; e.g. rigid, capacious, and hydrophobic cavities, as well as exposed functional groups) have led to a tremendous increase in their popularity since their first discovery in 2008. In this Minireview, we emphasize the use of functionalized PAs and their assembled supramolecular materials in the field of catalysis. We aim to provide a fundamental understanding and mechanism of the role PAs play in catalytic process. The topics are subdivided into catalysis promoted by the PA rim/cavity, PA-based nanomaterials, and PA-based polymeric materials. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first overview on PA-based catalysis. This Minireview not only summarizes the fabrications and applications of PAs in catalysis but also anticipates future research efforts in applying supramolecular hosts in catalysis.

7.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 34: 2058738420963818, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016797

RESUMO

Sepsis, a severe infectious disease in the neonatal period, is considered a risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). To investigate the specific risk factors for NEC in septic infants, septic infants admitted to our center from January 2010 to April 2018 were included. Septic neonates with proven NEC (Bell's stage ⩾II) were enrolled in the NEC group, and those without NEC were enrolled in the control group. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and risk factors were compared between the two groups. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the potential risk factors for NEC. A total of 610 septic neonates were included, of whom 78 (12.8%) had complicated NEC. The univariate analysis indicated that infants with NEC had a lower birth weight, a lower gestational age, and older age on admission than those without NEC (P < 0.05). Higher rates of anemia, prolonged rupture of membranes (PROM) (⩾18 h), pregnancy-induced hypertension, late-onset sepsis (LOS), red blood cell transfusion and hypoalbuminemia were observed in the NEC group than in the non-NEC group (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed LOS (P = 0.000), red blood cell transfusion (P = 0.001) and hypoalbuminemia (P = 0.001) were associated with the development of NEC. Among NEC infants, those who needed red blood cell transfusion had a longer hospitalization duration than those who did not need transfusion (P < 0.05). LOS, red blood cell transfusion and hypoalbuminemia were independent risk factors for the development of NEC in infants with sepsis. Taking measures to reduce the occurrence of hypoproteinemia and severe anemia may help to reduce the occurrence of NEC in septic neonates.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Sepse Neonatal/complicações , Fatores Etários , Peso ao Nascer , Enterocolite Necrosante/diagnóstico , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/efeitos adversos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Sepse Neonatal/diagnóstico , Sepse Neonatal/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(30): 4501-4522, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No guideline recommends antiviral therapy for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase levels and a high hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA viral load. AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a Chinese herbal formula as a therapeutic option for chronic HBV infection. METHODS: In total, 395 patients (30-65 years old) with confirmed HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B infection and persistently normal alanine aminotransferase were randomized to receive either Chinese herbal formula or placebo for 96 wk. Endpoints to evaluate therapeutic efficacy included: (1) HBV DNA levels decreased to less than 4 log10 IU/mL at weeks 48 and 96; and (2) HBeAg clearance and seroconversion rates at weeks 48 and 96. RESULTS: HBV DNA levels ≤ 4 log10 IU/mL were 10.05% at week 48 and 18.59% at week 96 in the treatment group. The HBeAg clearance and conversion rates were 8.54% and 8.04% at week 48 and 16.08% and 14.57% at week 96, respectively. However, HBV DNA levels ≤ 4 log10 IU/mL were 2.55% and 2.55% at weeks 48 and 96, respectively, and the HBeAg clearance rates were 3.06% and 5.61% at weeks 48 and 96, respectively, in the control group. The quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen and HBeAg levels at baseline and changes during the treatment period as well as the alanine aminotransferase elevation at weeks 12 and 24 were strong predictors of HBeAg clearance. CONCLUSION: High rates of HBV DNA reduction, HBeAg clearance and seroconversion could be achieved with Chinese herbal formula treatments, and the treatments were relatively safe for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B-infected patients with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase. The ability of the compound to modulate host immune function probably contributed to this effect.


Assuntos
Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , China , DNA Viral/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 34: 2058738420950586, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816593

RESUMO

To identify differences in the clinical characteristics of early- and late-onset sepsis (EOS and LOS) caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and to describe the risk factors for multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae (MDR-KP) infection. Infants with K. pneumoniae-induced sepsis who were admitted to a children's Hospital between Jan 2000 and Dec 2019 were included. All infants were divided into EOS and LOS groups, as well as MDR-KP and non-MDR-KP groups. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and risk factors were compared between the two groups. One hundred eighty infants (66 with EOS and 114 with LOS) were further analyzed, accounting for 36.8% of sepsis cases caused by MDR-KP. The frequency of respiratory failure, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and intraventricular hemorrhage were more common in the LOS group and a higher rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome was more common in infants in the EOS group (P < 0.05). K. pneumoniae showed a low sensitivity to penicillin, beta-lactams and cephalosporins, and it showed a high sensitivity to levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and amikacin. Prematurity, low birth weight, longer antibiotic exposure time, long duration of peripheral catheter insertion, long mechanical ventilation time, and long parenteral nutrition time were associated with an increased rate of MDR-KP infection by univariate analysis (P < 0.05). The regression analysis identified a long antibiotic exposure time (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.01-1.89) and long parenteral nutrition time (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.01-1.89) as independent risk factors for a MDR-KP infection, and a greater gestational age and birth weight were associated with a lower risk of MDR-KP infection (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.40-0.79). LOS caused by K. pneumoniae may lead to a higher frequency of complications. The risk factors for MDR-KP infection were longer duration of antibiotic exposure and parenteral nutrition. A greater gestational age and larger birth weight may decrease the risk of MDR-KP infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Sepse Neonatal/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Peso ao Nascer , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Idade Gestacional , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Infecções por Klebsiella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Klebsiella/mortalidade , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepse Neonatal/diagnóstico , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse Neonatal/mortalidade , Nutrição Parenteral/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Mol Model ; 26(7): 176, 2020 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535754

RESUMO

Molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method were applied to explore the impact of temperature (220-380 K) on the thermostability, sensitivity, and mechanical performance of RDX (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyco-hexane)/HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane) energetic cocrystal and mixture models. The mechanical property, the maximum trigger bond length ([Formula: see text]), binding energy, and cohesive energy density (CED) of the pure RDX, ß-HMX crystal, the cocrystal, and mixture models were acquired and compared. The results manifest that temperature has an important impact on the binding capacity between the components of the cocrystal and mixture. The binding energies decrease as the temperature rises, and the cocrystal has larger values than those of mixture. For all the models, the [Formula: see text] increases and the CEDs decrease with the rising temperature, implying that the sensitivity of the explosives increases, while the [Formula: see text] values of the cocrystal are smaller than those of HMX and the CED values are between those of RDX and ß-HMX, indicating that the sensitivity has been enhanced through co-crystallization. As the temperature increases, the shear modulus (G), bulk modulus (K), and tensile modulus (E) values of all models have an evident downtrend. Simultaneously, G, K, and E values of the cocrystal model are less than those of RDX and ß-HMX, while the K/G ratio and Cauchy pressure (C12-C44) are larger, signifying that co-crystallization can weaken the brittleness and enhance the ductility of the pure crystals. Compared with the mixture, the cocrystal has better ductility and stability.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(53): 7301-7304, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478373

RESUMO

An aggregation-induced emission (AIE) based smart singlet oxygen (1O2) generation system has been successfully fabricated based on supramolecular host-guest assembly. The controllable 1O2 generation can be achieved by conveniently changing the molar ratio between the macrocyclic host (WP5) and the guest molecule (TPEPY). Moreover, reversible control of 1O2 generation and fluorescence emission of supramolecular nanoassemblies can be achieved via adding Fe3+ and EDTA, which allows qualitatively monitoring the singlet oxygen generation efficiency by the naked eye.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(33): 13712-13721, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133747

RESUMO

Nanospaces are ubiquitous in the realm of biological systems and are of significant interest among supramolecular chemists. Understanding chemical behavior within nanospaces offers new perspectives on biological phenomena in nature and opens the way to highly unusual and selective forms of catalysis. Supramolecular chemistry exploits weak, yet effective, intermolecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding, metal-ligand coordination, and the hydrophobic effect to assemble nano-sized molecular architectures, providing reactions with remarkable rate acceleration, substrate specificity, and product selectivity. In this minireview, the focus is on the strategies that supramolecular chemists use to emulate the efficiency of biological processes, and elucidating how chemical reactivity is efficiently controlled within well-defined nanospaces. Approaches such as orientation and proximity of substrate, transition-state stabilization, and active-site incorporation will be discussed.


Assuntos
Modelos Moleculares , Nanotecnologia , Catálise , Domínio Catalítico
13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(25): 10095-10100, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625651

RESUMO

An artificial light-harvesting system with sequential energy-transfer process was fabricated based on a supramolecular strategy. Self-assembled from the host-guest complex formed by water-soluble pillar[5]arene (WP5), a bola-type tetraphenylethylene-functionalized dialkyl ammonium derivative (TPEDA), and two fluorescent dyes, Eosin Y (ESY) and Nile Red (NiR), the supramolecular vesicles achieve efficient energy transfer from the AIE guest TPEDA to ESY. ESY can function as a relay to further transfer the energy to the second acceptor NiR and realize a two-step sequential energy-transfer process with good efficiency. By tuning the donor/acceptor ratio, bright white light emission can be successfully achieved with a CIE coordinate of (0.33, 0.33). To better mimic natural photosynthesis and make full use of the harvested energy, the WP5⊃TPEDA-ESY-NiR system can be utilized as a nanoreactor: photocatalyzed dehalogenation of α-bromoacetophenone was realized with 96 % yield in aqueous medium.

14.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 33(24): 4102-4107, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885024

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate whether meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is a risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants.Materials and methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Neonatal Diagnosis and Treatment Center of the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2010 to October 2016. The maternal and neonatal characteristics in cases of very low-birth weight infants born prior to 34 weeks of gestation were collected and compared between the MSAF and non-MSAF groups.Results: In the present study, 461 medical records of very low-birth-weight preterm infants were reviewed. A total of 41 (8.9%) infants were born to mothers with MSAF; in all, 180 infants were included in the study. Demographic characteristics and neonatal complications in the MSAF (n = 30) and non-MSAF groups (n = 150) were compared. A higher incidence of NEC (26.7% versus 10%, χ2 = 4.825, p = .028) was found in the MSAF group than in the non-MSAF group. Logistic regression analysis showed that MSAF (OR = 3.385, 95% CI: 1.349-8.492, p = .009) and sepsis (OR = 3.538, 95% CI: 1.442-8.679, p = .006) were independent risk factors for NEC.Conclusions: MSAF might be a risk factor for NEC in very-low-birth-weight infants. MSAF and sepsis contribute to the development of NEC.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Mecônio , Líquido Amniótico , Peso ao Nascer , Enterocolite Necrosante/diagnóstico , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Front Chem ; 7: 743, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803713

RESUMO

Planar-chiral pillar[5]arenes bearing ß-D-galactose substituents on both rims have been successfully synthesized and effectively separated by silica gel chromatography with a high yield. The obtained (S p )- and (R p )-ß-D-galactose functionalized pillar[5]arenes [(S p-D )-GP5 and (R p-D )-GP5] exhibit the S p and R p planar chirality. Furthermore, (S p-D )-GP5 and (R p-D )-GP5 can not racemize according to dynamic 1H NMR and CD spectra. Notably, GP5 is able to capture a guest molecule (DNS-CPT) to form a host-guest supramolecular amphiphile, which can further self-assemble into chiral nanoparticles with the S p and R p planar chirality of (S p-D )-GP5 and (R p-D )-GP5 still being retained, suggesting GP5 could be as reliable chiral sources to transfer the S p and R p planar chirality.

16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(73): 10892-10895, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436766

RESUMO

Bifunctional supramolecular prodrug vesicles have been successfully constructed based on the complexation between a glutathione (GSH)-responsive prodrug guest molecule (DNS-CPT) and a water-soluble pillar[5]arene (WP5) for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Under the microenvironment of cancer cells with high GSH concentration, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) with strong yellow fluorescence can be efficiently released from the prodrug DNS-CPT for drug location and cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Compostos Macrocíclicos/química , Pró-Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Camptotecina/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Portadores de Fármacos/síntese química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Glutationa/química , Humanos , Compostos Macrocíclicos/síntese química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Células NIH 3T3 , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/toxicidade , Solubilidade , Água , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 185, 2019 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Probiotic therapy can reduce the incidence of NEC. Therapeutic use of probiotics after NEC diagnosis reduces the severity of NEC in preterm infants or full-term infants is unclear. To evaluate the effect of probiotics on preventing the deterioration of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) from stage I to II/III. METHODS: A retrospective matched cohort study was performed. Included patients were ultimately divided into two groups: the probiotic treatment group (probiotics were used ≥4 days) and the no probiotic treatment group. The differences in deterioration trends between the two groups were compared. Additionally, the risk factors associated with the deterioration of NEC were further analyzed with a case-control study. RESULTS: A total of 231 infants met the inclusion criteria. Eighty-one pairs were matched according to similar gestational age and birth weight. Before matching, we found that the rate of deterioration of NEC from stage I to II/III in the group with probiotic treatment was similar to that in the group without probiotic treatment (23.1% [25/108] vs 26.0% [32/123], P = 0.614). After matching, the rate of deterioration of NEC between the two groups still had no significant difference (21.0% [17/81] vs 27.2% [22/81], P = 0.358). Logistic regression analysis showed that sepsis after NEC was an independent risk factor for NEC deteriorating from stage I to II/III (OR 2.378, 95% CI 1.005-5.628, P = 0.049). CONCLUSION: Probiotics may not prevent the deterioration of NEC from stage I to II/III in infants, but this conclusion should be treated with caution.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Enterocolite Necrosante/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Enterocolite Necrosante/complicações , Enterocolite Necrosante/patologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise por Pareamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/complicações
18.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 356, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd)-containing chemicals can cause serious damage to biological systems. In animals and plants, Cd exposure can lead to metabolic disorders or death. However, for the most part the effects of Cd on specific biological processes are not known. DNA methylation is an important mechanism for the regulation of gene expression. In this study we examined the effects of Cd exposure on global DNA methylation in a living organism by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) using Drosophila melanogaster as model. RESULTS: A total of 71 differentially methylated regions and 63 differentially methylated genes (DMGs) were identified by WGBS. A total of 39 genes were demethylated in the Cd treatment group but not in the control group, whereas 24 showed increased methylation in the former relative to the latter. In most cases, demethylation activated gene expression: genes such as Cdc42 and Mekk1 were upregulated as a result of demethylation. There were 37 DMGs that overlapped with differentially expressed genes from the digital expression library including baz, Act5C, and ss, which are associated with development, reproduction, and energy metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation actively regulates the physiological response to heavy metal stress in Drosophila in part via activation of apoptosis.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Metilação de DNA , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Genômica , Sulfitos/química , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949222

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a global health problem. Clinically, many patients have baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels above 20 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), but there are few reports about these patients. The prospective randomized placebo-controlled clinical study was designed to investigate the effect of WSP, a Chinese herbal formula, on telbivudine- (LDT-) treated HBeAg-positive CHB patients with high baseline ALT levels (20-30 times the ULN) and kidney-yang deficiency syndrome. Eligible patients were randomized to receive LDT 600 mg/day in combination with WSP (treatment group) or placebo granules (control group) 16.28 g/day for 52 weeks. The results showed that HBeAg seroconversion (SC) rate (44.1%) in the treatment group (n=34) was significantly superior to that (20.6%) in the control group (n=34) at 52 weeks (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, WSP could promote HBV DNA negative conversion (85.3% versus 61.8%, P < 0.05) and ALT normalization (94.1% versus 76.5%, P < 0.05) compared with the placebo. There were no drug-related serious adverse events. During the treatment, the peripheral blood Th17/Treg ratio first increased and then decreased in the treatment group and reached the peak at 12 weeks (P < 0.05). At 12, 24, 36, and 52 weeks, Th17/Treg ratio in the treatment group was better than those in the control group (all P < 0.05). In addition, the patients (n=22) with HBeAg SC had higher Th17/Treg ratio than the patients (n=46) without SC at 12 weeks (0.68±0.26 versus 0.43±0.18, P < 0.001). In conclusion, WSP could safely enhance HBeAg SC and promote HBV DNA negative conversion and ALT normalization in LDT-treated HBeAg-positive CHB patients with high baseline ALT levels (20-30 times the ULN) and kidney-yang deficiency syndrome. Th17/Treg ratio was not only related to the mechanisms of WSP but also a good predictor of 52-week HBeAg SC.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(29): 4137-4149, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900718

RESUMO

Smart windows are a promising solution to improve energy-saving efficiency and indoor comfort due to their potential functionalities including solar modulation, coloration, self-cleaning, self-power, and moisture scavenging. Recently, smart windows constructed by a supramolecular strategy have attracted increasing attention due to the inherent dynamic, reversible and adaptive properties of noncovalent interactions, which can endow the fabricated smart windows with desired fascinating functionalities. In this review, emerging supramolecular strategy-based materials are outlined and their applications for fabricating smart windows are summarized. Mechanisms and properties of the functional supramolecular materials are demonstrated, especially their solar modulation ability and color change effect. Challenges and opportunities for the supramolecular strategy-based materials are also discussed for future innovation in the development of ideal smart windows.

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