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1.
Eur J Protistol ; 78: 125769, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549969

RESUMO

A little-known haptorid ciliate, Helicoprorodon multinucleatum Dragesco, 1960, was found in a sandy beach at Qingdao, China. Its morphology was studied based on microscopic observations of live and protargol-stained specimens and morphometrics, and the phylogeny was analyzed using SSU rRNA gene sequences. Helicoprorodon multinucleatum is characterized by the combination of the following features: (i) a very narrowly worm-like body with a size of about 300-1500 µm × 30-60 µm in vivo, and two circles of horn-like protuberances around the head; (ii) 50-160 spherical macronuclear nodules scattered throughout the body; (iii) rod-shaped, 10-50 µm long extrusomes gathered into several bunches, which are randomly distributed beneath pellicle; and (iv) 42-88 somatic kineties, including four oralized kineties and two dorsal brush rows. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that both the family Helicoprorodontidae and the genus Helicoprorodon might be monophyletic. In addition, we provide an illustrated key to the species and the geographical distribution of the genus Helicoprorodon.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Filogenia , China , Cilióforos/citologia , Cilióforos/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 374, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The taxonomy of tintinnine ciliates is vastly unresolved because it has traditionally been based on the lorica (a secreted shell) and it has only recently incorporated cytological and molecular information. Tintinnopsis, the most speciose tintinnine genus, is also the most problematic: it is known to be non-monophyletic, but it cannot be revised until more of its species are studied with modern methods. RESULTS: Here, T. hemispiralis Yin, 1956, T. kiaochowensis Yin, 1956, and T. uruguayensis Balech, 1948, from coastal waters of China, were studied. Lorica and cell features were morphometrically investigated in living and protargol-stained specimens, and sequences of three ribosomal RNA (rRNA) loci were phylogenetically analyzed. The three species show a complex ciliary pattern (with ventral, dorsal, and posterior kineties and right, left, and lateral ciliary fields), but differ in lorica morphology, details of the somatic ciliature and rRNA gene sequences. Tintinnopsis hemispiralis is further distinguished by a ciliary tuft (a ribbon of very long cilia originated from the middle portion of the ventral kinety and extending out of the lorica) and multiple macronuclear nodules. Both T. kiaochowensis and T. uruguayensis have two macronuclear nodules, but differ in the number of somatic kineties and the position of the posterior kinety. Two neotypes are fixed for T. hemispiralis and T. kiaochowensis to stabilize the species names objectively, mainly because of the previous unavailability of type materials. By phylogenetic analysis and comparison with closely-related species, we infer that the ciliary tuft and details such as the commencement of the rightmost kinety in the lateral ciliary field are synapomorphies that may help clarify the systematics of Tintinnopsis-like taxa. CONCLUSION: The redescriptions of three poorly known Tintinnopsis species, namely T. hemispiralis, T. kiaochowensis, and T. uruguayensis firstly revealed their ciliary patterns and rRNA sequences. This study expands knowledge and database of tintinnines and helps in identifying potential synapomorphies for future taxonomic rearrangements.

3.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770809

RESUMO

The morphology and phylogeny of two metopid ciliates, collected from anaerobic habitats in China, were investigated using live observation, protargol staining method, and SSU rDNA sequencing. The new species Metopus paravestitus nov. spec. can be distinguished by a combination of the following features: oblong cell with densely arranged ectobiotic prokaryotes perpendicular to cell surface, filiform intracytoplasmic structures packed in the anterior portion of the cell. Our work also demonstrates the wide geographical distribution of Metopus es (Müller, 1776) Lauterborn, 1916. The order Metopida is consistently depicted as a paraphylum in SSU rDNA phylogeny. Metopus paravestitus nov. spec. is closer related to its marine congeners than to freshwater forms. The present study confirms once again the non-monophyly of the genus Metopus and genus Metopidae.

4.
Eur J Protistol ; 74: 125667, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203852

RESUMO

The cosmopolitan genus Euplotes Ehrenberg, 1830 comprises a highly distinguishable group of ciliates. However, details of the cell surface, the ciliature, and molecular data are still scarce for some species. We studied Euplotes octocarinatus Carter, 1972 from two Mexican freshwater bodies, providing data on its morphology, SSU rRNA gene sequence, and phylogeny. In addition, we obtained all data of previous records to show its geographic distribution and biogeographical pattern. The current populations showed some differences as compared with the original description and we provide an improved diagnosis. Morphologically, the species is very similar to Euplotes patella and E. daidaleos but differs by invariably having eight dorsolateral kineties (vs. nine in Euplotes patella and E. daidaleos), and lacking endosymbiotic green algae (vs. present in E. daidaleos). Phylogenetically, the Mexican population of E. octocarinatus nested with four isolates of the species lacking morphological characterization. The Euplotes octocarinatus described herein grouped into a fully-supported clade, which includes E. patella, E. amieti, E. daidaleos, E. eurystomus, E. woodruffi and E. aediculatus. Biogeographically, E. octocarinatus seems to have a wide distribution.


Assuntos
Euplotes , Filogenia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Euplotes/classificação , Euplotes/citologia , Euplotes/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(4): 2515-2530, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118526

RESUMO

Two poorly known tintinnine ciliates collected from the coastal waters of PR China, viz., Codonellopsis mobilis Wang, 1936 and Tintinnopsis chinglanensis Nie & Ch'eng, 1947, were redescribed and neotypified using live observation, protargol staining and SSU rRNA gene sequencing. Ciliature information and SSU rRNA gene sequence data of both species were revealed for the first time and improved diagnoses were given based on the original descriptions and data from the present study. Further phylogenetic analyses inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences and morphological data suggested that the genus Tintinnopsis is polyphyletic and that the genus Codonellopsis is non-monophyletic. The approximately unbiased test, however, does not reject the possibility that Codonellopsis is monophyletic.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Filogenia , Água do Mar , Composição de Bases , China , Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Genes de RNAr , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Proteínas de Prata
6.
Eur J Protistol ; 73: 125670, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968298

RESUMO

Four epibiotic sessilid peritrichs, i.e., Zoothamnium wilberti n. sp., Baikalonis microdiscus n. sp., Epistylis anastatica (Linnaeus, 1767) Ehrenberg, 1830, and Rhabdostyla commensalisMöbius, 1888, were isolated from one syllid polychaete and three crustacean hosts in Qingdao, China. For each species, specimens were observed both in vivo and following silver staining. Their SSU rDNA was also sequenced for phylogenetic analyses. Zoothamnium wilberti n. sp. is characterized by the appearance of its colony, which is up to 350 µm high, and usually has fewer than 16 zooids, and the dichotomously branched stalk with transverse wrinkles, the conspicuously conical peristomial disc, and infundibular polykinety 3 comprising three isometric ciliary rows. Baikalonis microdiscus n. sp. can be recognized by its barrel-shaped zooid, small peristomial disc, smooth and short stalk, and its unusual infundibular polykinety 3 comprising a long inner row and a short outer row. Two poorly known species, i.e., Epistylis anastatica and Rhabdostyla commensalis, are redescribed and redefined. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that: (i) R. commensalis is closely related to the family Astylozoidae rather than to the morphologically similar Epistylididae; (ii) B. microdiscus n. sp. is sister to the family Scyphidiidae; (iii) E. anastatica groups with vorticellids and ophrydiids, which further supports the polyphyly of the genus Epistylis; and (iv) Z. wilberti n. sp. is nested within the Zoothamniidae, as expected.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/parasitologia , Oligoimenóforos/classificação , Poliquetos/parasitologia , Animais , China , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Oligoimenóforos/citologia , Oligoimenóforos/genética , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Eur J Protistol ; 72: 125659, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825791

RESUMO

Three species of tintinnines, namely Tintinnopsis tentaculata Nie and Cheng, 1947, Tintinnopsis orientalis Kofoid and Campbell, 1929, and Eutintinnus lususundae (Entz, 1885) Kofoid and Campbell, 1939, were isolated from coastal waters of China. The morphology of each was investigated based on observations of live and protargol-stained specimens, and their SSU rDNA- and LSU rDNA-based phylogenetic relationships were analyzed. The ciliary patterns of these species are revealed for the first time. Based on the original descriptions and data from the present study, an improved diagnosis is given for each species. Unlike its congeners, the second dorsal kinety of Eutintinnus lususundae is displaced below the left ciliary field, which may suggest that the second dorsal kinety is evolving into a posterior kinety by a migration process. The ventral kinety in Eutintinnus is redefined. A neotype is fixed for T. tentaculata to stabilize the species name objectively, mainly because of the unavailability of type material.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Água do Mar/parasitologia , China , Cilióforos/citologia , Cilióforos/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores de Eucariotos/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Zootaxa ; 4664(2): zootaxa.4664.2.3, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716677

RESUMO

Four cyrtophorian ciliates, Chlamydodon pararoseus sp. n., Chlamydodon bourlandi Qu et al., 2018, Dysteria crassipes Claparède Lachmann, 1859, and Dysteria monostyla (Ehrenberg, 1838) Kahl, 1931, isolated from coastal waters off China, were investigated using morphological and SSU rDNA sequencing techniques. C. pararoseus sp. n. can be recognized by having a kidney-shaped body, a complete cross-striated band, 44-51 somatic kineties, and 11-14 nematodesmal rods. The other three species were re-described based on new populations. Additionally, the SSU rRNA genes of C. pararoseus sp. n. and D. monostyla were sequenced for the first time. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences reveal that C. pararoseus sp. n. has a close relationship with C. bourlandi and C. mnemosyne Gong et al., 2005 within the genus Chlamydodon; and D. monostyla and D. crassipes cluster with its congeners, which confirms their generic assignments.


Assuntos
Cilióforos , Animais , China , DNA de Protozoário , DNA Ribossômico , Filogenia
9.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 66(5): 694-706, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657224

RESUMO

A new hypotrichous ciliate, Schmidtiella ultrahalophila gen. nov., spec. nov., was isolated from a solar saltern on the island of Sal, Cape Verde. The possession of only one short dorsal kinety clearly distinguishes S. ultrahalophila from other known hypotrichous genera and species. Further diagnostic characters include: a flexible and slender body, an average size of 85 × 15 µm in vivo; a bipartite adoral zone with two hypertrophied frontal adoral membranelles and nine to twelve ventral adoral membranelles; three frontal, one parabuccal, two frontoventral, two or three postoral ventral, and two or three frontoterminal cirri; and marginal cirral rows variable in number, usually one on each side. Ontogenetic data indicate the following: the frontal-ventral cirri originate from six or five anlagen; the proter inherits the parental adoral zone; the frontal and ventral cirri originate from five or six anlagen; and the marginal cirral rows and the dorsal kinety tend to originate intrakinetally. Additional marginal rows are rarely derived from de novo anlagen. Based on its morphology, morphogenesis and its SSU rRNA phylogenetic placement, the new species should be assigned to the order Sporadotrichida Fauré-Fremiet, 1961. Due to low taxon sampling, however, its exact position in this order remains enigmatic.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Cabo Verde , Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/genética , Ilhas , Morfogênese
10.
Eur J Protistol ; 65: 1-15, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787911

RESUMO

A distinct population of Anteholosticha intermedia was isolated from soil in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina, USA, and its morphology, morphogenesis and molecular phylogeny investigated by microscopic observations of live and protargol-prepared specimens and analyses of the sequence of small subunit (SSU) rDNA. Our population closely resembles the populations from Austria and Korea. Members of the genus Anteholosticha have been regarded as ontogenetically diverse, which is confirmed by the present work. The most noteworthy ontogenetic feature of the American population of A. intermedia is that the oral primordium in the proter appears apokinetally at the posterior end of the undulating membranes anlage at the beginning of division and then dedifferentiates midway through morphogenesis. Molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrate, with high support, that the American population of A. intermedia is clearly distinct from congeners and branches as part of a sister lineage to the Bakuella-Urostyla clade that belongs to the major clade comprising the order Urostylida.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/citologia , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Cilióforos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , North Carolina , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 65(5): 679-693, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498766

RESUMO

The morphology and phylogeny of four oligotrichid ciliates, Parallelostrombidium paraellipticum sp. n., P. dragescoi sp. n., P. jankowskii (Xu et al. 2009) comb. n., and P. kahli (Xu et al. 2009) comb. n., are described or redescribed based on live observation, protargol stained material, and SSU rRNA gene sequences. The new species P. paraellipticum sp. n. is characterized by its obovoidal cell shape, adoral zone composed of 17-21 collar, 9-11 buccal, and two thigmotactic membranelles, and extrusomes attached in one row along the girdle kinety. The new species P. dragescoi sp. n. is distinguished from its congeners by its obovoidal cell shape and a lack of thigmotactic membranelles. Based on ciliary patterns recognizable in the original slides, Omegastrombidium jankowskii Xu et al. 2009 and O. kahli Xu et al. 2009 should be transferred to the genus Parallelostrombidium Agatha 2004. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA gene sequence data demonstrate that all four new sequences cluster with previously described congeners. The genus Parallelostrombidium is separated into two clusters, suggesting its non-monophyly and probably corresponding to the two subgenera proposed by Agatha and Strüder-Kypke (2014), as well as their morphological difference (cell dorsoventrally flattened vs. unflattened).


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , China , Cilióforos/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética
12.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 65(2): 236-249, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28888076

RESUMO

Three new cyrtophorian ciliates isolated from coastal areas of China were described based on morphological and genetic data. The Chlamydodon mnemosyne-like species Chlamydodon similis sp. n. differs from its congeners mainly by its number of somatic kineties. Chlamydodon oligochaetus sp. n. is distinguished from its congeners mainly by having fewer somatic kineties, and/or an elongated body shape. Chlamydodon crassidens sp. n. is characterized mainly by an inverted triangular body shape, a posteriorly interrupted cross-striated band (5-6 µm wide), and a large cytostome. Moreover, we provided small-subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences of C. similis sp. n. and C. oligochaetus sp. n. Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) consistently placed C. similis sp. n. as a sister to C. paramnemosyne, but showed different branching position of C. oligochaetus sp. n., which may be due to a low taxon sampling in the Chlamydodontidae and/or an insufficient resolution of the marker gene at species level.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , China , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores de Eucariotos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 65(3): 357-371, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044809

RESUMO

The genus Oxytricha Bory de Saint-Vincent in Lamouroux, Bory de Saint-Vincent and Deslongchamps, 1824 comprises about 38 species distributed worldwide and has been considered to be a nonmonophyletic group. Based on living observations, protargol preparations, and a small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence, we describe a new subspecies Oxytricha granulifera chiapasensis n. subsp. This new taxon is morphologically characterized by undulating membranes basically in a Stylonychia-pattern, six dorsal kineties, size in vivo ca. 60-120 × 20-40 µm, 21-30 right and 21-31 left marginal cirri, 22-29 adoral membranelles, and spherical cortical granules arranged in longitudinal rows on the dorsal side. In terms of the SSU rRNA gene sequence, the new subspecies differs from populations of O. granulifera from GENBANK by 7-35 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Oxytricha granulifera gene sequences were nested into three groups, with the new subspecies included in one of them. Oxytricha granulifera chiapasensis n. subsp. is different from Oxytricha granulifera granulifera Foissner and Adam, 1983 and Oxytricha granulifera quadricirrata Blatterer and Foissner, 1988 based on: (i) undulating membranes in Stylonychia-pattern, (ii) formation of a sixth dorsal kinety during morphogenesis, (iii) the adoral membranelles number, and (iv) inhabiting freshwater habitats.


Assuntos
Lagos/parasitologia , Oxytricha/classificação , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Ecossistema , México , Oxytricha/genética , Oxytricha/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores/genética
14.
Eur J Protistol ; 61(Pt A): 29-40, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28843744

RESUMO

Most species in the anaerobic ciliate family Caenomorphidae Poche, 1913 lack detailed descriptions based on modern morphologic and molecular methods. In this report, two species, Caenomorpha medusula Perty, 1852 and Sulfonecta uniserialis (Levander, 1894) Jankowski, 1978, were isolated from freshwater anaerobic sediments in Qingdao, China. Another population of C. medusula was recorded from Boise, Idaho, USA. We reinvestigated live morphology, ciliature, and the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence of both species. The current study supports the opinion of Jankowski that, due to the variation in macronuclear nodule number, this character is of limited taxonomic significance in C. medusula. Scanning electronic micrographs clearly reveal that this species has one posterior spine. The China population of Sulfonecta uniserialis corresponds well with previously described populations in having a single macronucleus, a complex posterior spine, and one bell kinety. Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that the Caenomorphidae is monophyletic. However, the placement of the family is uncertain as it forms a closer relationship with the Litostomatea but with only a medium support value.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Filogenia , China , Cilióforos/genética , Cilióforos/ultraestrutura , Água Doce , Sedimentos Geológicos/parasitologia , Idaho , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Eur J Protistol ; 60: 119-133, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28595933

RESUMO

Two oxytrichid ciliates, Stylonychia (Metastylonychia) nodulinucleata Shi and Li, 1993 and Gastrostyla steinii Engelmann, 1862; collected from Huguangyan Maar Lake and Shenzhen Mangrove Nature Protection Area, southern China, respectively, were investigated using standard methods. The uncommon species Stylonychia (Metastylonychia) nodulinucleata can be recognized by its large body size, the conspicuous caudal cirri in vivo, and a moniliform macronucleus. We provide the first record of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence for the species. The division of Stylonychia into two subgenera based on morphological and morphogenetic data is supported by the phylogenetic analyses, in which Stylonychia (Metastylonychia) nodulinucleata is placed as a sister branch to the clade including all the sequences of Stylonychia (Stylonychia) mytilus complex. The first brackish water population of Gastrostyla steinii is described in detail, with emphasis on its morphogenesis, which corresponds well with previous populations. In the phylogenetic trees, all the available Gastrostyla sequences, except for Gastrostyla sp. Y2 (KT780432) (probably a misidentification), nest together in the big group of the subfamily Stylonychinae with moderate to high support (ML/BI, 91%/0.95), very likely revealing the monophyly of the genus Gastrostyla.


Assuntos
Hypotrichida/classificação , Hypotrichida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Morfogênese , Filogenia , China , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Hypotrichida/citologia , Hypotrichida/genética , Lagos/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 55(9): 918-925, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28595353

RESUMO

In this reported work, a sensitive and reliable method for detecting 11 hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) was established by a combination of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The aquatic products (mainly crayfish and grass carp) from 12 cities in China's HuBei province were examined for the presence of the target OH-PBDEs. The analytical process involved first extracting the OH-PBDEs from the crayfish and grass carp using a PLE, followed by purification using gel permeation chromatography. To eliminate the interference from matrix, isotopic dilution was used in the quantitative analysis. Compared with the existing methods, OH-PBDEs were determined without a need for derivatizing, and it was more efficient and quicker. The condition of extraction and cleanup were also optimized. Experimental results showed that the proposed method exhibited a low detection limit of 0.04-0.2 µg/kg, with a wide linearity range 1-400 ng/L and a good linear correlation coefficient (r2 > 0.990) using this method. These results indicated the steadiness of the established method has the advantages of high sensitivity and facile sample preparation without matrix interference.


Assuntos
Astacoidea , Carpas , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , China , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/química , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Eur J Protistol ; 59: 34-49, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28376380

RESUMO

Five scuticociliates, collected from China, were morphologically studied using standard methods One represents a new member of the genus Falcicyclidium, F. citriforme nov. spec., which can be recognised mainly by a combination of the following characters: usually two macronuclear nodules, buccal field about half of body length, ten somatic kineties, about 22 kinetal units in somatic kinety 1 and n, and excretory pore near posterior end of somatic kinety n. A redescription for Biggaria bermudensis was provided to include the feature of scutica and argyrome based on new isolate, and variations between different isolates were also discussed. The new population of Sathrophilus holtae differs from the type population by two postoral kineties and fewer kinetal units in the scutica. Its stomatogenesis belongs to the scuticobuccokinetal type, which shows similarities with Dexiotricha among loxocephalids. Morphometric data and brief descriptions were supplied for another two species, i.e., Protocyclidium citrullus and Cyclidium varibonneti.


Assuntos
Oligoimenóforos/classificação , Oligoimenóforos/citologia , China , Sedimentos Geológicos/parasitologia , Água do Mar , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 64(4): 539-554, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28061024

RESUMO

Recent advances in molecular technology have revolutionized research on all aspects of the biology of organisms, including ciliates, and created unprecedented opportunities for pursuing a more integrative approach to investigations of biodiversity. However, this goal is complicated by large gaps and inconsistencies that still exist in the foundation of basic information about biodiversity of ciliates. The present paper reviews issues relating to the taxonomy of ciliates and presents specific recommendations for best practice in the observation and documentation of their biodiversity. This effort stems from a workshop that explored ways to implement six Grand Challenges proposed by the International Research Coordination Network for Biodiversity of Ciliates (IRCN-BC). As part of its commitment to strengthening the knowledge base that supports research on biodiversity of ciliates, the IRCN-BC proposes to populate The Ciliate Guide, an online database, with biodiversity-related data and metadata to create a resource that will facilitate accurate taxonomic identifications and promote sharing of data.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Bases de Dados Factuais , Biodiversidade , Cilióforos/genética , Internet , Filogenia
19.
Eur J Protistol ; 58: 77-86, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28131036

RESUMO

The karyorelictids, a highly specialized group of ciliates, mostly inhabit marine biotopes, and there is very little information about their diversity, taxonomy, and systematics. The present paper investigates two new cryptopharyngid ciliates, Apocryptopharynx discoidalis spec. nov. and Cryptopharynx minutus spec. nov., which were isolated from the intertidal zone of Diaosuyuan Beach in Qingdao, China. Apocryptopharynx discoidalis spec. nov. can be distinguished from related species by its oval discoid body shape and highly structured epipellicular scales covering the left lateral surface. Cryptopharynx minutus spec. nov. can be recognized by its small body length (30-50µm), seven to 15 dikinetids in intrabuccal kinety, and two to five macronuclei. Based on our comparison, we believe that Cryptopharynx sp. 1 described by Foissner in 1996 represents a population of C. minutus spec. nov.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/citologia , China , Sedimentos Geológicos/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 64(2): 144-152, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27375119

RESUMO

The ciliate genus Protocruzia is a highly confused group, which was formerly placed in the class Heterotrichea or Karyorelictea, and is according to the most recent system tentatively assigned to the class Spirotrichea. In the present study, the morphology, ciliary pattern, and molecular phylogeny of two poorly known species, Protocruzia tuzeti Villeneuve-Brachon, 1940, and Protocruzia granulosa Kahl, 1933, isolated from coastal waters of China, were investigated. Protocruzia tuzeti differs from its congeners mainly in possessing 6 adoral membranelles, 8-11 somatic kineties, and postoral dikinetids. Protocruzia granulosa is characterized by its extremely slender body, three postoral kineties, and 13 or 14 somatic kineties. The morphogenesis of P. granulosa is similar to that of P. tuzeti, especially in the parakinetal mode of stomatogenesis and the reorganization of the parental paroral membrane; however, more than one somatic kinety joins in the formation of the oral primordium in P. granulosa. Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene revealed that six Protocruzia species form a fully supported clade that does not belong to any ciliate class; therefore, our data support the establishment of the class Protocruziea Gao et al. (Sci. Rep., 6, 2016, 24874).


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/genética , Cilióforos/ultraestrutura , Filogenia , Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , China , Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário/análise , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/análise , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Genes de RNAr/genética , Morfogênese , Organelas/fisiologia , Organelas/ultraestrutura , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores/genética , Água do Mar/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
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