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1.
J Biophotonics ; : e201900242, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804752

RESUMO

Development of label-free methods for accurate classification of cells with high throughput can yield powerful tools for biological research and clinical applications. We have developed a deep neural network of DINet for extracting features from cross-polarized diffraction image (p-DI) pairs on multiple pixel scales to accurately classify cells in five types. A total of 6185 cells were measured by a polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry (p-DIFC) method followed by cell classification with DINet on p-DI data. The averaged value and SD of classification accuracy were found to be 98.9% ± 1.00% on test data sets for 5-fold training and test. The invariance of DINet to image translation, rotation, and blurring has been verified with an expanded p-DI data set. To study feature-based classification by DINet, two sets of correctly and incorrectly classified cells were selected and compared for each of two prostate cell types. It has been found that the signature features of large dissimilarities between p-DI data of correctly and incorrectly classified cell sets increase markedly from convolutional layers 1 and 2 to layers 3 and 4. These results clearly demonstrate the importance of high-order correlations extracted at the deep layers for accurate cell classification.

2.
J Biophotonics ; 12(4): e201800287, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447049

RESUMO

Methods for rapid and label-free cell assay are highly desired in life science. Single-shot diffraction imaging presents strong potentials to achieve this goal as evidenced by past experimental results using methods such as polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry. We present here a platform of methods toward solving these problems and results of optical cell model (OCM) evaluations by calculations and analysis of cross-polarized diffraction image (p-DI) pairs. Four types of realistic OCMs have been developed with two prostate cell structures and adjustable refractive index (RI) parameters to investigate the effects of cell morphology and index distribution on calculated p-DI pairs. Image patterns have been characterized by a gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm and four GLCM parameters and linear depolarization ratio δL have been selected to compare calculated against measured data of prostate cells. Our results show that the irregular shapes of and heterogeneity in RI distributions for organelles play significant roles in the spatial distribution of scattered light by cells in comparison to the average RI values and their differences among the organelles. Discrepancies in GLCM and δL parameters between calculated and measured p-DI data provide useful insight for understanding light scattering by single cells and improving OCM.

3.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-5, 2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical approaches for Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) complicated with syringomyelia (SM) are controversial, so we assessed the efficacy and safety of two widely used procedures. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed results from posterior fossa decompression (PFD) using bony decompression with dura-splitting or a combined technique (duraplasty with arachnoid dissection and coagulation of the herniated tonsils) for CM-I associated with SM between Jan 2008 and Feb 2016. Patients were followed up for at least one year. General data, primary outcomes (symptom improvement, syrinx reductions, and complications) and secondary outcomes (operating time, blood loss, postoperative hospital stay) for each procedure were compared. RESULTS: Of the 49 patients treated, 17 had dura-splitting decompression and 32 had the combined technique. There were no significant differences in general data. The combined technique was significantly superior to dura-splitting for long-term syrinx reductions (length, 100.03 ± 44.79 vs 72.73 ± 34.79 mm, p = 0.040; diameter, 8.09 ± 3.46 vs 5.73 ± 3.02 mm, p = 0.026) and symptom improvement (75.00% vs 47.06%, p = 0.036). No postoperative complications occurred during dura-splitting cases; however, complications occurred in 9 combined technique cases (31.25%, p = 0.010) and surgical time was longer for the combined technique (248.03 ± 60.12 vs 167.94 ± 60.11 min, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The combined technique improved long-term symptoms and reduced syringes compared to dura-splitting; however, postoperative complications are more likely.

4.
Biomed Opt Express ; 9(5): 2081-2094, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760971

RESUMO

A new and noncontact approach of multispectral reflectance imaging has been developed to inversely determine the absorption coefficient of µ a , the scattering coefficient of µs and the anisotropy factor g of a turbid target from one measured reflectance image. The incident beam was profiled with a diffuse reflectance standard for deriving both measured and calculated reflectance images. A GPU implemented Monte Carlo code was developed to determine the parameters with a conjugate gradient descent algorithm and the existence of unique solutions was shown. We noninvasively determined embedded region thickness in heterogeneous targets and estimated in vivo optical parameters of nevi from 4 patients between 500 and 950nm for melanoma diagnosis to demonstrate the potentials of quantitative reflectance imaging.

5.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0184726, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28886199

RESUMO

Morphological changes in apoptotic cells provide essential markers for defining and detection of apoptosis as a fundamental mechanism of cell death. Among these changes, the nuclear fragmentation and condensation have been regarded as the important markers but quantitative characterization of these changes is yet to be achieved. We have acquired confocal image stacks of 206 viable and apoptotic MCF-7 cells stained by three fluorescent dyes. Three-dimensional (3D) parameters were extracted to quantify and compare their differences in morphology. To analyze nuclear fragmentation, a new method has been developed to determine clustering of nuclear voxels in the reconstructed cells due to fluorescence intensity changes in nuclei of apoptotic cells. The results of these studies reveal that the 3D morphological changes in cytoplasm and nuclear membranes in apoptotic cells provide sensitive targets for label-free detection and staging of apoptosis. Furthermore, the clustering analysis and morphological data on nuclear fragmentation are highly useful for derivation of optical cell models and simulation of diffraction images to investigate light scattering by early apoptotic cells, which can lead to future development of label-free and rapid methods of apoptosis assay based on cell morphology.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Apoptose/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Fragmentação do DNA , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo
6.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 48(4): 570-574, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28752976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the difference of liver enzymes in different metabolism state groups of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: We use prospective cross-sectional study to analyze the difference of liver enzymes in different metabolism state groups in 110 cases of CHB, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glutamyl transferase (GGT). RESULTS: Regardless of the presence or absence of fatty liver, the levels of ALP and GGT were increased along with the deterioration of glucose metabolism (P<0.05).The levels of ALP and GGT in the presence of fatty liver group were higher than those in the absence of fatty liver group (P<0.05). The levels of AST, ALP and GGT showed the trend of increasing along with the increase of HOMA-IR and the decrease of HOMA-ß. There was no difference of liver enzymes among the groups with or without other metabolism disorder (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: In CHB, abnormal glucose metabolism and fatty liver can lead to the increase of ALP and GGT. The increase of HOMA-IR and the decrease of HOMA-ß may lead to the increase of AST, ALP and GGT. Other metabolism disorder did not show any effect on the level of liver enzymes.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica/enzimologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Estudos Prospectivos , gama-Glutamiltransferase/metabolismo
7.
Opt Express ; 25(9): 9628-9633, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468345

RESUMO

Diffraction imaging in the far-field can detect 3D morphological features of an object for its coherent nature. We describe methods for accurate calculation and analysis of diffraction images of scatterers of single and double spheres by an imaging unit based on microscope objective at non-conjugate positions. A quantitative study of the calculated diffraction imaging in spectral domain has been performed to assess the resolving power of diffraction imaging. It has been shown numerically that with coherent illumination of 532 nm in wavelength the imaging unit can resolve single spheres of 2 µm or larger in diameters and double spheres separated by less than 300 nm between their centers.

8.
EXCLI J ; 15: 75-84, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27065775

RESUMO

It has been shown that the intratumor heterogeneity can be characterized with quantitative analysis of the [18]F-FDG PET image data. The existing models employ multiple parameters for feature extraction which makes it difficult to implement in clinical settings for the quantitative characterization. This article reports an easy-to-use and differential SUV based model for quantitative assessment of the intratumor heterogeneity from 3D [18]F-FDG PET image data. An H index is defined to assess tumor heterogeneity by summing voxel-wise distribution of differential SUV from the [18]F-FDG PET image data. The summation is weighted by the distance of SUV difference among neighboring voxels from the center of the tumor and can thus yield increased values for tumors with peripheral sub-regions of high SUV that often serves as an indicator of augmented malignancy. Furthermore, the sign of H index is used to differentiate the rate of change for volume averaged SUV from its center to periphery. The new model with the H index has been compared with a widely-used model of gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) for image texture characterization with phantoms of different configurations and the [18]F-FDG PET image data of 6 lung cancer patients to evaluate its effectiveness and feasibility for clinical uses. The comparison of the H index and GLCM parameters with the phantoms demonstrate that the H index can characterize the SUV heterogeneity in all of 6 2D phantoms while only 1 GLCM parameter can do for 1 and fail to differentiate for other 2D phantoms. For the 8 3D phantoms, the H index can clearly differentiate all of them while the 4 GLCM parameters provide complicated patterns in the characterization. Feasibility study with the PET image data from 6 lung cancer patients show that the H index provides an effective single-parameter metric to characterize tumor heterogeneity in terms of the local SUV variation, and it has higher correlation with tumor volume change after radiotherapy (R(2) = 0.83) than the 4 GLCM parameters (R(2) = 0.63, 0.73, 0.59 and 0.75 for Energy, Contrast, Local Homogeneity and Entropy respectively). The new model of the H index has the capacity to characterize the intratumor heterogeneity feature from 3D [18]F-FDG PET image data. As a single parameter with an intuitive definition, the H index offers potential for clinical applications.

9.
Appl Opt ; 55(8): 2079-85, 2016 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26974805

RESUMO

Spectrophotometric quantification of turbidity by multiple optical parameters has wide-ranging applications in material analysis and life sciences. A robust system design needs to combine hardware for precise measurement of light signals with software to accurately model measurement configuration and rapidly solve a sequence of challenging inverse problems. We have developed and validated a design approach and performed system validation based on radiative transfer theory for determination of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor without using an integrating sphere. Accurate and rapid determination of parameters and spectra is achieved for microsphere suspension samples by combining photodiode-based measurement of four signals with the Monte Carlo simulation and perturbation-based inverse calculations. The three parameters of microsphere suspension samples have been determined from the measured signals as functions of wavelength from 400 to 800 nm and agree with calculated results based on the Mie theory. It has been shown that the inverse problems in the cases of microsphere suspension samples are well posed with convex cost functions to yield unique solutions, and it takes about 1 min to obtain the three parameters per wavelength.


Assuntos
Microesferas , Fenômenos Ópticos , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Método de Monte Carlo , Nefelometria e Turbidimetria
10.
Opt Express ; 24(1): 366-77, 2016 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26832267

RESUMO

Coherent light scattering presents complex spatial patterns that depend on morphological and molecular features of biological cells. We present a numerical approach to establish realistic optical cell models for generating virtual cells and accurate simulation of diffraction images that are comparable to measured data of prostate cells. With a contourlet transform algorithm, it has been shown that the simulated images and extracted parameters can be used to distinguish virtual cells of different nuclear volumes and refractive indices against the orientation variation. These results demonstrate significance of the new approach for development of rapid cell assay methods through diffraction imaging.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/fisiologia , Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Refratometria/métodos , Tamanho Celular , Células Cultivadas , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
J Biomed Opt ; 21(7): 71102, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26616011

RESUMO

Accurate classification of malignant cells from benign ones can significantly enhance cancer diagnosis and prognosis by detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). We have investigated two approaches of quantitative morphology and polarization diffraction imaging on two prostate cell types to evaluate their feasibility as single-cell assay methods toward CTC detection after cell enrichment. The two cell types have been measured by a confocal imaging method to obtain their three-dimensional morphology parameters and by a polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry (p-DIFC) method to obtain image texture parameters. The support vector machine algorithm was applied to examine the accuracy of cell classification with the morphology and diffraction image parameters. Despite larger mean values of cell and nuclear sizes of the cancerous prostate cells than the normal ones, it has been shown that the morphologic parameters cannot serve as effective classifiers. In contrast, accurate classification of the two prostate cell types can be achieved with high classification accuracies on measured data acquired separately in three measurements. These results provide strong evidence that the p-DIFC method has the potential to yield morphology-related "fingerprints" for accurate and label-free classification of the two prostate cell types.


Assuntos
Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Próstata/citologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Citometria de Fluxo/instrumentação , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal/instrumentação , Espalhamento de Radiação , Análise de Célula Única/instrumentação , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
12.
Appl Opt ; 54(16): 5223-8, 2015 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26192687

RESUMO

Blurred diffraction images acquired from flowing particles affect the measurement of fringe patterns and subsequent analysis. An imaging unit with one time-delay-integration (TDI) camera has been developed to acquire two cross-polarized diffraction images. It was shown that selected elements of Mueller matrix of single scatters can be imaged with pixel matching precision in this configuration. With the TDI camera, the effect of blurring on imaging of scattered light propagating along the side directions was found to be much more significant for biological cells than microspheres. Despite blurring, classification of MCF-7 and K562 cells is feasible since the effect has similar influence on extracted image parameters. Furthermore, image blurring can be useful for analysis of the correlations among texture parameters for characterization of diffraction images from single cells. The results demonstrate that with one TDI camera the polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry can be significantly improved and angular distribution of selected Mueller matrix elements can be accurately measured for rapid and morphology-based assay of particles and cells without fluorescent labeling.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo/instrumentação , Aumento da Imagem/instrumentação , Microscopia de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase/instrumentação , Refratometria/instrumentação , Frações Subcelulares/ultraestrutura , Rastreamento de Células/instrumentação , Rastreamento de Células/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Células K562 , Células MCF-7 , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase/métodos , Refratometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Integração de Sistemas
13.
PLoS One ; 9(9): e108823, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25268643

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dual-energy (DE) radiographic imaging improves tissue discrimination by separating soft from hard tissues in the acquired images. This study was to establish a mathematic model of DE imaging based on intrinsic properties of tissues and quantitatively evaluate the feasibility of applying the DE imaging technique to tumor localization in radiotherapy. METHODS: We investigated the dependence of DE image quality on the radiological equivalent path length (EPL) of tissues with two phantoms using a stereoscopic x-ray imaging unit. 10 lung cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy each with gold markers implanted in the tumor were enrolled in the study approved by the hospital's Ethics Committee. The displacements of the centroids of the delineated gross tumor volumes (GTVs) in the digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) and in the bone-canceled DE image were compared with the averaged displacements of the centroids of gold markers to evaluate the feasibility of using DE imaging for tumor localization. RESULTS: The results of the phantom study indicated that the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was linearly dependent on the difference of EPL and a mathematical model was established. The objects and backgrounds corresponding to ΔEPL less than 0.08 are visually indistinguishable in the bone-canceled DE image. The analysis of patient data showed that the tumor contrast in the bone-canceled images was improved significantly as compared with that in the original radiographic images and the accuracy of tumor localization using the DE imaging technique was comparable with that of using fiducial makers. CONCLUSION: It is feasible to apply the technique for tumor localization in radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Algoritmos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Imagens de Fantasmas , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/instrumentação
14.
Biomed Opt Express ; 5(7): 2172-83, 2014 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25071957

RESUMO

A quantitative method for measurement of apoptosis in HL-60 cells based on polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry technique is presented in this paper. Through comparative study with existing methods and the analysis of diffraction images by a gray level co-occurrence matrix algorithm (GLCM), we found 4 GLCM parameters of contrast (CON), cluster shade (CLS), correlation (COR) and dissimilarity (DIS) exhibit high sensitivities as the apoptotic rates. It was further demonstrated that the CLS parameter correlates significantly (R(2) = 0.899) with the degree of nuclear fragmentation and other three parameters showed a very good correlations (R(2) ranges from 0.69 to 0.90). These results demonstrated that the new method has the capability for rapid and accurate extraction of morphological features to quantify cellular apoptosis without the need for cell staining.

15.
Cytometry A ; 85(9): 817-26, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25044756

RESUMO

Label-free and rapid classification of cells can have awide range of applications in biology. We report a robust method of polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry (p-DIFC) for achieving this goal. Coherently scattered light signals are acquired from single cells excited by a polarized laser beam in the form of two cross-polarized diffraction images. Image texture and intensity parameters are extracted with a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm to obtain an optimized set of feature parameters as the morphological "fingerprints" for automated cell classification. We selected the Jurkat T cells and Ramos B cells to test the p-DIFC method's capacity for cell classification. After detailed statistical analysis, we found that the optimized feature vectors yield accuracies of classification between the Jurkat and Ramos ranging from 97.8% to 100% among different cell data sets. Confocal imaging and three-dimensional reconstruction were applied to gain insights on the ability of p-DIFC method for classifying the two cell lines of highly similar morphology. Based on these results we conclude that the p-DIFC method has the capacity to discriminate cells of high similarity in their morphology with "fingerprints" features extracted from the diffraction images, which may be attributed to subtle but statistically significant differences in the nucleus-to-cell volume ratio in the case of Jurkat and Ramos cells.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/citologia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Citometria por Imagem/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Algoritmos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Células Jurkat , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia de Polarização
16.
Opt Express ; 22(25): 31568-74, 2014 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25607106

RESUMO

Diffraction imaging of scattered light allows extraction of information on scatterer's morphology. We present a method for accurate simulation of diffraction imaging of single particles by combining rigorous light scattering model with ray-tracing software. The new method has been validated by comparison to measured images of single microspheres. Dependence of fringe patterns on translation of an objective based imager to off-focus positions has been analyzed to clearly understand diffraction imaging with multiple optical elements. The calculated and measured results establish unambiguously that diffraction imaging should be pursued in non-conjugate configurations to ensure accurate sampling of coherent light distribution from the scatterer.

17.
Opt Express ; 21(21): 24819-28, 2013 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24150325

RESUMO

It was found that the diffraction images acquired along the side scattering directions with objects in a cell sample contain pattern variations at both the global and local scales. We show here that the global pattern variation is associated with the categorical size and morphological heterogeneity of the imaged objects. An automated image processing method has been developed to separate the acquired diffraction images into three types of global patterns. Combined with previously developed method for quantifying local texture pattern variations, the new method allows fully automated analysis of diffraction images for rapid and label-free classification of cells according to their 3D morphology.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares , Separação Celular/métodos , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Refratometria/métodos , Algoritmos
18.
Opt Lett ; 38(12): 2095-7, 2013 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23938988

RESUMO

Solving inverse problems requires multiple forward calculations of measured signals. We present a fast method combining graphic processing unit-accelerated Monte Carlo simulations of individual photons and a new perturbation scheme for a 300-fold speedup in comparison to conventional CPU-based approaches. The method allows rapid calculations of the diffuse reflectance and transmittance signals from a turbid sample of absorption coefficient µ(a), scattering coefficient µ(s), and anisotropy factor g based on the principle of correlated sampling. To demonstrate its strong utility, we have applied the method for determining the optical parameters of diluted intralipid samples with satisfactory results.


Assuntos
Método de Monte Carlo , Fenômenos Ópticos , Absorção , Algoritmos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Cytometry A ; 83(11): 1027-33, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23839922

RESUMO

Achieving effective hydrodynamic focusing and flow stability at low speed presents a challenging design task in flow cytometry for studying phenomena such as cell adhesion and diffraction imaging of cells with low-cost cameras. We have developed different designs of flow chamber and sheath nozzle to accomplish the above goal. A 3D computational model of the chambers has been established to simulate the fluid dynamics in different chamber designs and measurements have been performed to determine the velocity and size distributions of the core fluid from the nozzle. Comparison of the simulation data with experimental results shows good agreement. With the computational model significant insights were gained for optimization of the chamber design and improvement of the cell positioning accuracy for study of slow moving cells. The benefit of low flow speed has been demonstrated also by reduced blurring in the diffraction images of single cells. Based on these results, we concluded that the new designs of chamber and sheath nozzle produce stable hydrodynamic focusing of the core fluid at low speed and allow detailed study of cellular morphology under various rheological conditions using the diffraction imaging method.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Humanos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Reologia/instrumentação
20.
Onco Targets Ther ; 6: 311-3, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23579278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze "small world" characteristics in glioma patients in order to understand the relationship between cognitive dysfunction and brain functional connectivity network in the resting state. METHODS: Resting-state magnetoencephalography was performed in 20 patients with glioma and 20 healthy subjects. The clustering coefficient of the resting functional connectivity network in the brain, average path length, and "small world" index (SWI) were calculated. Cognitive function was estimated by testing of attention, verbal fluency, memory, athletic ability, visual-spatial ability, and intelligence. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, patients with glioma showed decreased cognitive function, and diminished low and high gamma band "small world" characteristics in the resting functional connectivity network. CONCLUSION: The SWI is associated with cognitive function and is diminished in patients with glioma, and is therefore correlated with cognition dysfunction.

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