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1.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 42(5): 817-827, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758672

RESUMO

Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) plays an important role in blood clotting, cardiovascular disease and anti-osteoporosis, and has been wildly used in the food additives and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of menaquinone-7 biosynthesis in response to different oxygen supplies in Bacillus natto. The differences of fermentation performance, intracellular metabolites, oxidative stress reaction and enzyme activities of Bacillus natto R127 were analyzed under different KLa. Glycerol consumption rate and MK-7 yield at 24.76 min- 1 was 2.1 and 7.02 times of that at 18.23 min- 1. Oxidative stress analysis showed the cell generated more active oxygen and possessed higher antioxidant capacity at high oxygen supply condition. Meanwhile, high pyruvate kinase and high cytochrome c oxidase activities were also observed at 24.76 min- 1. Furthermore, comparative metabolomics analyses concluded series of biomarkers for high MK-7 biosynthesis and cell rapid growth. Besides, several metabolic responses including low glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate accumulation, low flux from pyruvate to lactic acid, high active TCA pathway, were also found to be associated with high MK-7 accumulation at high oxygen supply conditions. These findings provided the information for better understanding of oxygen effect on MK-7 biosynthesis and lay a foundation for further improvement of MK-7 production as well.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/metabolismo
2.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 11: 249, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245741

RESUMO

Background: Schizochytrium sp. is a promising strain for the production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil and biodiesel, and has been widely used in the food additive and bioenergy industries. Oxygen is a particularly important environmental factor for cell growth and DHA synthesis. In general, higher oxygen supply favors lipid accumulation, but could lead to a reduction of the DHA percentage in total fatty acids in Schizochytrium sp. To tackle this problem, it is essential to understand the mechanisms regulating the response of Schizochytrium sp. to oxygen. In this study, we aimed to explore the acclimatization of this DHA producer to different oxygen supply conditions by examining the transcriptome changes. Results: Two different fermentation processes, namely normal oxygen supply condition (shift agitation speeds from 400 rpm to 300 rpm) and high oxygen supply condition (constant agitation speeds: 400 rpm), were designed to study how the fermentation characteristics of Schizochytrium sp. HX-308 were affected by different oxygen supply conditions. The results indicated that high oxygen supply condition resulted in 49% and 37.5% improvement in the maximum cell dry weight (CDW) and total lipid concentration, respectively. However, the DHA percentage in total fatty acids decreased to 35%, which was 31.4% lower than that produced by normal oxygen supply condition. Moreover, transcriptome analysis was performed to explore the effect of the oxygen supply condition on genetic expression and metabolism. The results showed that glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway metabolism-associated genes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) were substantially upregulated in response to high oxygen supply, resulting in more NADPH was available for Schizochytrium. Specially, high oxygen supply condition also led to genes (Δ6 desaturase, Δ12 desaturase, FAS, ORFA, ORFB, and ORFC) involved in fatty acid biosynthesis upregulation. In addition, a transcriptional upregulation of catalase (CAT) became apparent under high oxygen supply condition, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were found to be down-regulated. Conclusions: This study is the first to investigate the differences of gene expression at different levels of oxygen availability in the DHA producer Schizochytrium. The results of transcriptome analyses indicated that high oxygen supply condition resulting in more NADPH and acetyl-CoA production for cell growth and lipid synthesis in Schizochytrium. Δ12 desaturase and ORFC showed higher expression levels at high oxygen supply condition, which might be the key regulators for enhancing fatty acid biosynthesis in the future. These results enrich the current knowledge regarding genetic expression and provide important information to enhance DHA production in Schizochytrium sp.

3.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 182(4): 1630-1641, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28258367

RESUMO

Bacillus natto is commonly used in industrial production of menaquinone-7, an important vitamin which plays a crucial role for blood clotting and may contribute to prevention of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. This study determined the optimal combination of key nutrients and established an effective use of surfactant in a coupling medium to enhance the yield of extracellular MK-7. MK-7 yield of 31.18 mg/L was achieved under optimal conditions containing 53.6 g/L glycerol, 100 g/L soy peptone, and 10 g/L K2HPO4. A maximal yield of 40.96 mg/L MK-7 and a secretion ratio of 61.1% were obtained when 20 g/L soybean oil was supplemented at the logarithmic phase. The non-ionic surfactant span 20 was the second most promising surfactant in improving product yield, whereas addition of 2 g/L betaine exerted a minimal effect on secretion ratio of MK-7 at 19.1%. The results collectively showed that the supplementation of surfactants was an effective strategy to regulate cytomembrane permeability. Graphical abstract ᅟ.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Hexoses/farmacologia , Óleo de Soja/farmacologia , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biotecnologia , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina K 2/metabolismo
4.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 38(11): 2129-36, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26350999

RESUMO

The effects of different osmotic pressure, changed by six salts (NaCl, Na2SO4, (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4 and MSG), on cell growth and DHA synthesis by Schizochytrium sp. were investigated. Six optimal mediums were obtained to study different osmotic pressure combinations at cell growth stage and DHA synthesis stage. Results showed that cultivated cell in higher osmotic pressure condition and fermented in lower osmotic pressure condition was benefit to enhance DHA synthesis. Combination 17-6 could get the maximum cell dry weight of 56.95 g/L and the highest DHA percentage in total fatty acids of 55.21%, while combination 17-B could get the highest lipid yield of 33.47 g/L with 42.10% DHA in total fatty acids. This was the first report about the enhancement of DHA production by osmotic regulation and this work provided two novel osmotic control processes for high lipid yield and high DHA percentage in total fatty acids.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/química , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/biossíntese , Pressão Osmótica , Estramenópilas/metabolismo
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 157: 107-13, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24534791

RESUMO

Single cell oils (SCOs), a complex lipid system, contains neutral lipids (NLs), polar lipids (PLs) and unsaponifiable matters (UMs). To investigate the dynamic changes and the metabolic competition mechanism of different components of SCOs, changes in lipid composition of Schizochytrium sp. were monitored in lipid accumulation and turnover stages. Lipid content could reach 69.98% in biomass during the lipid accumulation stage, while, after the exhaustion of glucose, the content decreased to 45.51% and 20.6g/L non-oil biomass was synthesis. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were easier to bind with PLs. NLs were preferentially converted to PLs during lipid turnover stage, accompanied by the degradation of saturated fatty acids and the increase of UMs. Meanwhile, a positive correlation between the synthesis of PUFAs and unsaponifiable matters exited in Schizochytrium sp., and increasing the content of UMs from 45 to 100mg/L could increase the PUFA percentage from 64% to 74% effectively.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Estramenópilas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Fracionamento Químico , Colesterol/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esqualeno/metabolismo , Estramenópilas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
6.
J Food Sci ; 76(1): E112-8, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21535662

RESUMO

Sodium caseinate (SC) cross-linked by microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) for encapsulating microalgal oil was investigated. Protein cross-linking was evidenced in the SDS-PAGE graph. The emulsifying properties of SC depended on the cross-linked time with MTGase. The emulsifying activity and stability indexes of SC increased with the cross-linking time of 30 to 90 min (P30 to P90), and then declined with longer cross-linked time of 180 to 420 min (P180 to P420). The P30 to P90 as wall material for microencapsulation was superior to P180 to P420 and control sample. The microcapsules prepared with P30 to P90 showed more than 97% of microencapsulation efficiency in contrast to about 90% with the P180 to P420. During storage, the microcapsules prepared with P30 to P90 exhibited higher oxidative stability as compared with other microcapsules. A sustained release of microalgal oil was observed, and core release was time dependent and affected by cross-linking degree. Results showed that the powdered microalgal oil prepared with P30 to P90 demonstrated enhanced physicochemical properties and oxidative stability. Practical Application: The novel method using cross-linked proteins as wall material induced by microbial transglutaminase in food industry for sensitive ingredients could convert microcapsules into a stable form, which would lead to its more widespread utilization as a kind of food additive.


Assuntos
Caseínas/química , Caseínas/metabolismo , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Microalgas/química , Óleos/química , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/metabolismo , Transglutaminases/metabolismo , Cápsulas , Fenômenos Químicos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsificantes/metabolismo , Emulsões , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Peróxidos Lipídicos/análise , Peso Molecular , Oxirredução , Polissacarídeos/química , Solubilidade , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Biopolymers ; 89(6): 497-505, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18067155

RESUMO

The conformational transition of molecular chains of regenerated silk fibroin (SF) aqueous solution is systematically investigated by circular dichroism, Raman, IR, and UV-vis spectroscopies. It is found that an initial random coil conformation of the SF can be readily changed into an ordered beta-sheet structure by optimizing the solution conditions, such as the SF concentration, pH, temperature, or metal-ion content. Circular dichroic spectra quantitatively confirm a steadily decreased content of the random coil conformation but a significantly increased beta-sheet content after an ultrasonic or extruding treatment. Furthermore, the extrusion is more powerful to achieve high beta-sheet content than the ultrasonic. It is interesting that the polarized optical micrographs of the SF aqueous solution extruded by injection illustrate the formation and existence of liquid crystalline state. A study of extrusion in vitro could be used as a model system to understand the natural silk spinning process in silkworm.


Assuntos
Bombyx/química , Fibroínas/química , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Cristais Líquidos , Modelos Químicos , Animais , Bombyx/metabolismo , Fibroínas/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Íons/química , Íons/metabolismo , Metais/química , Metais/metabolismo , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína/fisiologia , Análise Espectral , Água/química , Água/metabolismo
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