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1.
Environ Res ; : 110450, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) are widely detected in the environment and human body, and they have been linked to asthma and a number of respiratory responses in children and mice. However, no previous studies have investigated the association between exposure to PFCs and airway inflammation in adults. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations between serum PFCs and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3630 adults aged 20-79 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2007-2012) was conducted. Serum concentrations of five major PFCs were measured using SPE-HPLC-TIS-MS/MS method, including perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDE). The detection rates of them were all >85%. Weighted multivariable linear regression and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) analyses were applied to examine the associations between serum PFCs and FeNO. RESULTS: After adjusted for potential confounding factors, linear regression analyses found that compared with their lowest tertiles, highest tertiles of PFOS, PFDE and PFOA were significantly associated with 5.02% (95% CI: 1.40%, 8.77%), 3.77% (95% CI: 0.30%, 7.36%) and 6.34% (95% CI: 2.81%, 10.01%) increases in FeNO, respectively. The second tertile of PFNA was significantly correlated with a 4.79% (95% CI: 1.41%, 8.29%) increase in FeNO compared with the lowest tertile. In the BKMR analysis, the mixture effect of PFCs on FeNO increased significantly when the PFC levels were at or above the 60th percentiles compared to those at their medians. PFOS and PFOA displayed significant positive single-exposure effects on FeNO when all the other PFCs are set at a particular threshold. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided preliminary evidence that serum PFCs were positively associated with increased FeNO in adults.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135795

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, little is known about the durability of the antibody response during COVID-19 convalescent phase. We investigated the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies including immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and the dynamic changes in antibody levels in convalescent COVID-19 patients. A total of 159 blood samples were collected from 52 recovered COVID-19 patients up to six months after symptom onset for longitudinal serological tests. The positive rate of IgG and IgM antibodies was 92.3% and 90.4% in the first month after symptom onset, and the seropositivity of IgG antibody remained high at all follow-up time points, whereas the seropositivity of IgM antibody decreased to 22.73% by the sixth months after symptom onset. The level of IgG antibody was stable, the level of IgM antibody decreased slightly in the early convalescent phase and was detected in only five patients in the sixth month after symptom onset. The level of IgG antibody was higher in the severe and critical group than in the moderate group. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies have a long-term persistence in convalescent COVID-19 patients, whether they have long-term protection need to be further investigated.

3.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200395

RESUMO

A 30-day feeding trial was carried out to investigate the interactive effects of dietary selenium (selenomethionine) and vitamin C (Vc) in Apostichopus japonicus. Two selenium (0 and 5 mg/kg) and three vitamin C (0, 5000, and 10,000 mg/kg) combined groups of feed were formulated (Designated as LSeLVc, LSeMVc, LSeHVc, HSeLVc, HSeMVc and HSeHVc, respectively) and fed the sea cucumbers. Our results showed no significant effects on the growth-related parameters in sea cucumber (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the reciprocal action between Se and Vc had significant (P < 0.05) effects on Se accumulation in the respiratory tree and intestines. Also, the lysozyme, glutathione peroxidase activity, and the relative expression levels such as LZM, GPX, Hsp70, and Hsp90 in different tissues were significantly increased in the group of sea cucumber fed diet with 5 mg Se in combination with 5000 mg Vc compared with the control group (P < 0.05). However, MDA and H2O2 contents in the body wall were significantly reduced in the HSeHVc group (P < 0.05). In addition, analysis of intestinal flora revealed that Haloferula abundance was highest in the LSeMVc group than other treatment groups, and Vibrio abundance was decreased with combined Se and Vc supplement. Finally, the species diversity of the gut microbial community of sea cucumber in HSeMVc group was lower than those in other treatment groups. The results showed that the interaction of selenium and vitamin C had positive effects on improving the immune status, antioxidant capacity, and digestive ability of A. japonicus.

4.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 63: 126651, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous experimental and occupational health studies have shown the toxic effects of relatively high-level cadmium and lead on lipid metabolism. However, limited studies investigated the relationships between serum lipid levels and exposure to low-level lead and cadmium in adults. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between lead and cadmium levels in blood and dyslipidemia in adults. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 7,457 adults aged 20-79 years who were recruited in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2005-2016) was conducted. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to examine the associations of blood lead and cadmium levels with serum lipid profiles and risk of dyslipidemia, respectively. RESULTS: The weighted geometric means [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of lead and cadmium in blood were 1.23 (1.21, 1.25) µg/dL and 0.36 (0.35, 0.37) µg/L, respectively. Blood lead was significantly associated with serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) levels after adjusting for covariates. Compared with the adults in the lowest blood lead quartile (≤0.76 µg/dL), those in the highest lead quartile (>1.90 µg/dL) had higher risks of elevated TC (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.59-2.22), non-HDL-C (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.33-1.91), LDL-C (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.41-1.99) and Apo B (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.46-2.73). However, the single effect of cadmium exposure and the joint effect of lead and cadmium exposures on dyslipidemia were not observed. CONCLUSION: Blood lead well below the current recommended level was positively associated with the risk of dyslipidemia in adults, while the low-level cadmium exposure currently observed in adults did not show any significant associations with lipid levels.

5.
J Org Chem ; 85(20): 13347-13353, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997938

RESUMO

A methodology employing CO2, amines, and phenylsilane was discussed to access aryl- or alkyl-substituted urea derivatives. This procedure was characterized by adopting hydrosilane to promote the formation of ureas directly, without the need to prepare silylamines in advance. Control reactions suggested that FeCl3 was a favorable additive for the generation of ureas, and this 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene-catalyzed reaction might proceed through nucleophilic addition, silicon migration, and the subsequent formal substitution of silylcarbamate.

6.
Nurse Educ Today ; 94: 104591, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of physical restraint to curtail dangerous or extremely disruptive behaviours in patients has been an established practice to help ensuring safety in healthcare providers' work environment. However, many have deemed it unnecessary and overused with reported negligence on patients' basic needs during its implementation. Studies have shown that having empathy and non-judgmental attitudes are vital in reducing and eliminating the use of restraint. OBJECTIVES: To explore whether experiential learning will improve empathy and confidence, among nursing and medical students when managing dangerous, aggressive, and violent patients. DESIGN: A pre- and post-test, same group quasi-experimental design was used to explore the effectiveness of using the Empathetic CAre and REsponse (ECARE), an experiential learning session to equip nursing and medical students on managing dangerous, aggressive, and violent patients. Outcome measures include students' confidence when using verbal de-escalation, physical and chemical restraint techniques. Empathy scores were also compared. SETTINGS: A University offering both medical and nursing program from undergraduate to postgraduate level. PARTICIPANTS: 249 nursing and 50 medical students undergoing the mental health nursing module in Year 2 of their nursing program and psychiatry rotation in Year 3 of their medical education. RESULTS: Results showed that, for both student populations, the empathy and confidence scores significantly improved after attending ECARE. ANCOVA conducted on the post-intervention Jefferson empathy score between the populations with an adjusted baseline score revealed a statistically significant adjusted mean difference between them. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that experiential learning could improve the learners' empathy through the integration of hands-on learning. This in turn could enhance future healthcare professionals' care quality. Experiential learning opportunities should be incorporated into existing pedagogies as this helps to improve students' confidence in managing dangerous, aggressive and violent patients, reducing the use of physical restraint, thereby enhancing the quality of patient care.

7.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(7): 721-727, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, China Biology Medicine disc, China Scientific Journal Database, CNKI Database, and Wanfang Database were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the use of LISA strategy in the treatment of NRDS. Literature screening and quality assessment were performed according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Review Manager 5.3 software was used to perform the Meta analysis. RESULTS: A total of 9 RCTs were included, with a total of 1 212 children with NRDS. There were 611 children in the experimental group (treated with LISA strategy) and 601 children in the control group [treated with intubation-surfactant-extubation (INSURE) strategy]. The Meta analysis showed that the use of LISA strategy reduced the rate of mechanical ventilation within 72 hours after birth (OR=0.39, 95%CI: 0.29-0.51, P<0.001) and the incidence rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR=0.53, 95%CI: 0.38-0.72, P<0.001) and pneumothorax (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.33-0.93, P=0.02). There were no significant differences in the mortality rate and incidence rates of other neonatal diseases between the two groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of repeated use of pulmonary surfactant (PS) between the two groups (P>0.05), but there was a higher incidence rate of PS reflux observed by LISA strategy (OR=2.60, 95%CI: 1.64-4.12, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with INSURE strategy, LISA strategy has advantages in reducing the need for mechanical ventilation and the incidence rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pneumothorax in children with NRDS.


Assuntos
Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , China , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Tensoativos
8.
Plant J ; 103(3): 937-950, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564488

RESUMO

The firmness of fleshy fruit crops has a significant effect on their quality, consumer preference, shelf life and transportability. In a combined quantitative trait locus and genome-wide association studies study of apple fruit texture, we identified a mutation (C-G) in the ethylene response factor-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in the coding region of the apple ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR4 (ERF4) gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing showed that ERF4 binds to the promoter of ERF3, which is involved in regulation of ethylene biosynthesis. The EAR mutation in ERF4 results in reduced repression of ERF3 expression, which is turn promotes ethylene production and loss of fruit firmness. ERF4 acts as a transcriptional repressor whose activity is modulated by a TOPLESS co-repressor 4 (TPL4)-binding EAR repression motif. Biolayer interferometry analysis showed that the mutation in the EAR motif causes a reduction in the interaction with TPL4. Suppression of ERF4 or TPL4 promoted fruit ripening and ethylene production. Taken together, our results provide insights into how ERF4 allelic variation underlies an important fruit quality trait.

9.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(2): 193-199, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220187

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of exogenous Apelin on pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) and its related mechanism. Methods: 26 male SD rats were randomly divided into Control group ( n=6), Model group ( n=10) and Intervention group ( n=10). The rat model of PAH was established by left pneumonectomy combined with monocrotaline injection (PE+MCT) in the Model group and the Intervention group, while the Control group rats were opened chest cavity and injected the same amount of normal saline. From the 2nd week after operation, the Intervention group was intraperitoneally injected with 10 nmol/(kg·d) Apelin-13 for 3 weeks, while the Control group and Model group were injected the same volume of normal saline. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) was measured and the right ventricular hypertrophy index ( RVHI) was calculated in all three groups of rats at the 5th week after operation. The pulmonary tissue HE staining was performed to observe the pulmonary tissue and pulmonary vascular morphology. Protein LC3 was detected by immunofluorescence staining of lung tissues, the mRNA expression level of P62 and Beclin-1 in lung tissues was measured by RT-PCR, and the protein expressions of LC3, LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, P62 and Beclin-1 in lung tissues were measured by Western blot. Results: Compared with the Control group, the Model group showed increased mPAP and RVHI ( P<0.05), disordered pulmonary tissue structure and thicker pulmonary vascular wall. In Model group rats, expression of LC3 protein and LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ increased in lung tissues, and the expression of Beclin-1 mRNA and the Beclin-1 protein also increased in lung tissues, while the level of P62 mRNA and the expression of P62 protein decreased ( P<0.05). After Apelin-13 intervention, the above indexes were all improved ( P<0.05, compared with the Model group). Conclusion: Exogenous Apelin has a certain preventive and therapeutic effect on the formation of PAH, and the mechanism may be related to its inhibition effect on autophagy.


Assuntos
Apelina/farmacologia , Autofagia , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Artéria Pulmonar , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Pulm Circ ; 10(1): 2045894019900121, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110387

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension is a fatal disease of which pulmonary vasculopathy is the main pathological feature resulting in the mean pulmonary arterial pressure higher than 25 mmHg. Moreover, pulmonary hypertension remains a tough problem with unclear molecular mechanisms. There have been dozens of studies about endoplasmic reticulum stress during the onset of pulmonary hypertension in patients, suggesting that endoplasmic reticulum stress may have a critical effect on the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. The review aims to summarize the rationale to elucidate the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in pulmonary hypertension. Started by reviewing the mechanisms responsible for the unfolded protein response following endoplasmic reticulum stress, the potential link between endoplasmic reticulum stress and pulmonary hypertension were introduced, and the contributions of endoplasmic reticulum stress to different vascular cells, mitochondria, and inflammation were described, and finally the potential therapies of attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress for pulmonary hypertension were discussed.

11.
Patient Educ Couns ; 103(5): 898-907, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has caused heavy health care burdens in many countries, and hypertension (HTN) is a well-known independent cardiovascular risk factor. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of empowerment strategies that affect systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), quality of life, and self-management behaviours for patients with hypertension. METHODS: A literature search of the Cochrane Library, PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and several Chinese medical databases was performed. Study screening, quality assessment, data extraction, and meta-analysis were conducted according to Cochrane standards. RESULTS: Eleven randomised controlled trials with 988 subjects were identified. Relative to control groups, the empowerment strategies showed significant decreases in SBP (the mean difference [MD] = 9.46, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 6.36-12.55, p <  0.00001) and DBP (MD = 6.68, 95 % CI = 3.07-10.29, p =  0.0003). However, no significant difference was found in BMI (p = 0.05). Subgroup analysis showed significant differences in the improvement of both SBP and DBP among the various groups, regardless of the duration and type of interventions. DISCUSSION: Empowerment strategies can decrease both SBP and DBP in hypertension patients. However, its influence on patients' BMI, quality of life, and self-management behaviour remains unclear. PRACTICAL VALUE: Empowerment strategies are useful for controlling the blood pressure of hypertension patients.

12.
Nurse Educ Today ; 84: 104208, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disaster nursing education is a necessity for nurses and students to improve their disaster relief competencies. Determining undergraduate student nurses' learning perceived needs for disaster nursing can help improve curricula construction. In China there is currently no valid instrument available for the evaluation of influencing factors. A disaster nursing course content system was developed using the Delphi method in 2011. However, this system was unformed and lacked psychometric evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To adapt the disaster nursing course content system into an instrument, to evaluate its psychometric properties, and to investigate undergraduate student nurses' learning perceived needs for disaster nursing. DESIGN, SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in public higher education institutions in China. In the first study, a total of 1714 undergraduate student nurses were recruited in May to October 2016; in the second study, 68 were recruited in May 2019. METHODS: The instrument was adapted through literature review, face validity and pilot testing in preliminary studies. The construct validity and reliability of the instrument were tested using exploratory factor analysis, parallel analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability. RESULTS: The exploratory factor analysis and parallel analysis extracted a three-factor solution comprising 19 items that accounted for 71.69% of the total variance, including discipline introduction, skills and knowledge in disaster relief, and disaster management. The fit indices indicated a good fit. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability was good, as indicated by a Cronbach's alpha of 0.89 and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87. CONCLUSION: The Learning Needs for Disaster Nursing questionnaire exhibited good psychometric properties, thereby proving itself a valuable instrument for evaluating learning perceived needs in undergraduate student nurses.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres/educação , Psicometria/normas , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Percepção , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Mater Chem B ; 7(47): 7525-7539, 2019 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720683

RESUMO

Transplantation of tissue-engineered neural scaffolds bears great potential for reconstructing neural circuits after spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, a 3D porous silk fibrous scaffold (3D-SF) with biomimetic interconnected micro- to nanofibrous structure and good biocompatibility is fabricated. Then, a small-molecule combination CFLSSVY (CHIR99021, Forskolin, LDN193189, SB431542, SP600125, VPA, and Y27632) that efficiently reprograms rat dermal fibroblasts into neurons is screened, and these chemically induced neurons (CiNs) are shown to readily communicate on the 3D-SF and form neural scaffolds. After transplantation of these silk-based neural scaffolds into the stumps of transected spinal cords in rats, the damaged tissue is repaired significantly, as indicated by the reduced cavity areas, decreased GFAP expression, and improved axonal regeneration and myelination in the injury site. Moreover, the hindlimb movement and motor-nerve conductivity are greatly improved as indicated by the elevated BBB score, the alternate movement of two hindlimbs during the 45° inclined grid test, and the shortened latency and enhanced amplitude in cMEP detection. Together, these results demonstrate that transplantation of neural scaffolds consisting of 3D-SF and dermal fibroblast-reprogrammed neurons leads to significant nerve regeneration and functional recovery, providing a promising therapeutic strategy for SCI.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17388, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593089

RESUMO

It is not rare to find Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) combined with other glomerular diseases, which can be called compound IgAN (cIgAN). Till now, clinical-pathological investigation of cIgAN was lacking, especially the severity of "background IgAN lesions." This research aimed to investigate the incidence, clinical and pathological characteristics of cIgAN, and thus improve the understanding of the clinical significance of this combination.Patients with cIgAN diagnosed in Peking University People's Hospital from November 2012 to April 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with IgAN without compound glomerular diseases (sIgAN) were enrolled as a control group.Among 1407 patients diagnosed with IgAN, 80 (5.69%) were cIgAN patients. Compared with sIgAN, cIgAN patients had a significantly lower prevalence of microscopic hematuria and more urine protein. There were 10 pathological types of glomerular diseases combined with IgAN, led by diabetic nephropathy 37 (46.25%) and membranous nephropathy 14 (17.5%). Histologically, although the mesangial hypercellularity was comparable in 2 groups, cIgAN patients had a lower prevalence of endocapillary proliferation, segmental glomerulosclerosis, and cellular or fibrocellular crescents formation, as well as weaker immunofluorescence intensity for IgA and C3 (all P < .05). Eight out of 27 (29.63%) cIgAN patients with follow-up data (5-48 months) developed irreversible end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis.The order of incidence of concomitant diseases was similar to that of the pure diseases. The "background IgAN associated lesions" except mesangial hypercellularity were relatively mild in cIgAN group. Those might suggest that in some cases, IgAN seems to be a chance finding, and the combined diseases may play a more important role in the clinicopathological features of the patients than the nephritis caused by IgA deposition. While diagnosing IgAN, other combined glomerular diseases need to be carefully considered by nephrologists and pathologists.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite por IGA/patologia , Glomerulonefrite/patologia , Adulto , Biópsia , Feminino , Glomerulonefrite/epidemiologia , Glomerulonefrite/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Rim/imunologia , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16957, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD), also called eczema, is one of the most familiar chronic diseases in childhood. A possible pathological mechanism is immune dysfunction resulting in IgE sensitization to allergens. The recent studies demonstrated that the immune system can be affected by probiotics or prebiotics. However, the effectiveness and safety of probiotics or prebiotics on prevention of eczema are still unclear. To investigate this question, we conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The protocol followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols. Four main databases (PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the web of science) will be searched dating until 15 July 2019 for randomized controlled trials investigating the effects and safety of probiotics or prebiotics on prevention of eczema in children with no language restrictions. In addition, a manual search of the references of relevant published studies will also be considered.Studies selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment will be conducted by two independent reviewers. The primary outcome is the incidence of eczema. The second outcome is adverse events. The duration of intervention, the timing of intervention and intervention organism will be taken into consideration. RESULTS: The results will provide useful information about the effect and safety of probiotics or prebiotics on reducing the incidence of eczema in children. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019136528.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/prevenção & controle , Eczema/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
16.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 45(4): 1393-1407, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989456

RESUMO

Probiotic is well known because of its health benefit on the host, including improve growth, treat disease, and enhance immunity. Currently, probiotic has been widely used in aquaculture. However, there is little information about the effect of probiotic on turbot. Therefore, an effort was made to explore the effect of a multi-strain probiotic on growth performance, non-specific immune response, and intestinal health of juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus L. One hundred eighty juvenile turbot (20.04 ± 0.23 g) were randomly divided into three groups (T0, T1, T2), and fed diet were formulated to contain 0%, 1%, and 5% multi-strain probiotic, respectively. Sixty days after the feeding experiment, the growth performance, body composition, enzyme activities, and intestinal microorganism of turbot were analyzed. T2 and T1 showed better growth performance and significant higher (P < 0.05) enzyme activities than T0 (except lysozyme). Moreover, the IV (intestinal villus), IW (intestinal wall), and GC (goblet cell) were well modulated in probiotic treatments. Furthermore, Lactobacillus was found colonized in the intestine of the group fed with 5% multi-strain probiotic. These results suggested adding dietary multi-strain probiotic could positively affect for turbot aquaculture.


Assuntos
Linguados , Probióticos/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Dieta/veterinária , Linguados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linguados/imunologia , Linguados/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Intestinal/enzimologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Muramidase/genética , Muramidase/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
17.
Brain Behav ; 9(6): e01290, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31007001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Proinflammatory cytokines triggered by surgery and postoperative pain are major causes of postoperative delirium (POD). This study investigated the effects of flurbiprofen axetil on POD when used for postoperative analgesia after major noncardiac surgery in elderly patients. METHODS: Patients over 65 years old were randomly divided into two groups: the sufentanil group (S group), in which 150 µg of sufentanil was used in the patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump for 3 days; the sufentanil combined with flurbiprofen axetil group (SF group), in which 150 µg of sufentanil was combined with 300 mg of flurbiprofen axetil in the PCA pump for 3 days. The Confusion Assessment Method scale was used for POD evaluation. The pain intensity, side effects, and risk factors (age, gender, surgical position, and category of surgery) for POD were evaluated. RESULTS: Ultimately, 140 patients were included. The overall incidence of POD was not significantly different between the S and SF groups. The incidence of POD was significantly lower in the SF group than in the S group among patients over 70 years (5.1% vs. 20.7%, p = 0.045, odds ratio = 0.146, 95% confidence interval = 0.020-1.041). The incidence of POD was no difference in patients classified by the category of surgery, surgical position, or gender between groups. Sufentanil and flurbiprofen axetil in the PCA pump was completely used within 72 hr. The pain intensity, consumed sufentanil dosage of the PCA, and the side effects was not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Flurbiprofen axetil might reduce POD in patients over 70 years undergoing major noncardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Flurbiprofeno/análogos & derivados , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Sufentanil/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Delírio/induzido quimicamente , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Flurbiprofeno/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212636, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840647

RESUMO

The determination of the weights of decision makers (DMs) is an important problem in multi-attribute group decision making. Many approaches have been presented to determine DMs' weights. However, the computed weight vectors of DMs are usually assumed to be constant in existing studies, and this may cause irrationalities in the decision results. Therefore, this article proposes a novel method to determine DMs' weights based on variable weights theory in which the evaluation information is described as intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs). First, DMs provide their assessment with IFSs, and the intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA) operator is applied to obtain weighted decision matrix based on the prior given DMs' and attributes' weights. Second, the DMs' weights are obtained based on variable weights theory, and an alternative decision can be computed. Finally, the converted value of the achieved IFS of each alternative is calculated, and the best appropriate alternative is acquired. Two illustrative examples and the comparisons with exsiting approaches are also used to reflect the effectiveness of the proposed approach.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Tomada de Decisões , Intuição , Modelos Biológicos , Humanos
19.
Exp Cell Res ; 379(1): 65-72, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898547

RESUMO

Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are ideal candidates for cell-based therapies aimed at repairing spinal cord injury (SCI). Accurate targeting of OECs to the lesion site is critical to reconstructing the impaired nervous system. However, the key factors guiding the homing of transplanted OECs to the damaged area after SCI are still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) can significantly facilitate the homing of OECs after SCI in rats. First, we found that OECs exhibited a robust chemotaxis response to LPA in vitro, with LPAR1 being predominant receptor expressed on OECs. We further found that ß-catenin signaling plays an important role in LPA-induced OEC migration. Moreover, silencing LPAR1 not only abolished the migration of OECs but also prevented ERK1/2 phosphorylation and ß-catenin activation, suggesting that LPAR1 ligation serves to activate the ERK1/2 and ß-catenin pathways in LPA-induced OEC chemotactic migration. Finally, cell transplantation experiments confirmed that endogenous LPA, which was observed to be produced at the lesion site after SCI in rat, is a key chemokine that facilitates OEC migration to the injury center. Collectively, our data provide a further description of the homing effects of LPA and a mechanism by which transplanted OECs migrate to the injured area after SCI in rats.

20.
Ann Bot ; 123(7): 1179-1189, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Differences in local abundance and ploidy level are predicted to impact the direction of introgression between species. Here, we tested these hypotheses on populations of Betula albosinensis (red birch) and Betula platyphylla (white birch) which were thought to differ in ploidy level, the former being tetraploid and the latter diploid. METHODS: We sampled 391 birch individuals from nine localities in China, and classified them into species based on leaf morphology. Twelve nuclear microsatellite markers were genotyped in each sample, and analysed using principal coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE software. We compared the effects of two different methods of scoring polyploid genotypes on population genetic analyses. We analysed the effect of ploidy, local species abundance and latitude on levels of introgression between the species. KEY RESULTS: Leaf morphology divided our samples into red and white birch, but genetic analyses unexpectedly revealed two groups within red birch, one of which was tetraploid, as expected, but the other of which appeared to have diploid microsatellite genotypes. Five individuals were identified as early-generation hybrids or backcrosses between white birch and red birch and five were identified between red birch and 'diploid' red birch. Cline analysis showed that levels of admixture were not significantly correlated with latitude. Estimated genetic differentiation among species was not significantly different between determined tetraploid and undetermined tetraploid genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Limited hybridization and gene flow have occurred between red birch and white birch. Relative species abundance and ploidy level do not impact the direction of introgression between them, as genetic admixture is roughly symmetrical. We unexpectedly found populations of apparently diploid red birch and this taxon may be a progenitor of allotetraploid red birch populations. Incomplete lineage sorting may explain patterns of genetic admixture between apparently diploid and allotetraploid red birch.


Assuntos
Betula , Hibridização Genética , China , Diploide , Repetições de Microssatélites
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