Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 776
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924617

RESUMO

The revolution of molecular techniques has revealed that the composition of natural bacterial communities normally includes a few abundant taxa and many rare taxa. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying the spatial assembly process of both abundant and rare bacterial taxa had become a central goal in microbial ecology. Here we used high-throughput sequencing to explore geographic patterns and the relative importance of ecological processes in the assembly of abundant and rare bacterial subcommunities from 25 lakes across the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River basin (MLYB, located in southeast China), where most of the lakes are interconnected by river networks. We found a similar biogeographic pattern of abundant and rare subcommunities which could significantly separate between the two lake groups that were far from each other, while could not separate among the nearby lakes. Both abundant and rare bacteria followed a strong distance-decay relationship. These findings suggest that the interconnectivity between lakes homogenizes the bacterial communities in local areas, and the abundant and rare taxa therein may be affected by the same ecological process. In addition, based on the measured environmental variables, the deterministic processes explain a small fraction of variation within both abundant and rare subcommunities. While both neutral and null model revealed a high stochasticity ratio for the spatial distribution patterns of both abundant and rare taxa. These findings indicate that the stochastic processes exhibited a greater influence on both abundant and rare bacterial subcommunities assembly among interconnected lakes.Importance The Middle and Lower Yangtze Plain is a typical floodplain, in which many lakes will connect with each other, especially in the wet season. More importantly, with the frequent change of regional water level in the wet season, there is a mutual hydrodynamic exchange among these lakes. The microbial biogeography among these interconnected lakes is still poorly understood. This study aims to unravel the mechanisms underlying the assembly process of abundant and rare bacteria among the interconnected lakes in the Middle and Lower Yangtze Plain. Our findings will provide a deeper understanding of the biogeographic patterns of rare and abundant bacterial taxa and their determined processes among interconnected aquatic habitats.

2.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 1, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898493

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 55 patients with PAP were screened at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between May 2014 and May 2018. Among these, 42 were diagnosed with idiopathic PAP, 24 were included in this study, 20 were treated for 6 months, and 17 were followed up for additional 6 months. All patients received a subcutaneous injection of 75µg/d GM-CSF qd for 1 month. The therapeutic dose was adjusted according to the changes in the lesions of chest CT. If the lesions were absorbed, subcutaneous injections of 75µg/d GM- CSF qd and 75µg/d GM-CSF qod were given for 2 and 3 months, otherwise, the dose was increased to 150µg/d GM-CSF qd and 150µg/d qod for 2 and 3 months, respectively. All cases were treated once a day in the first 3 months and once every other day in the last 3 months. The total course of treatment was 6 months. After withdrawal, the patients were followed up for another 6 months. The deadline of follow up was September 30, 2019. RESULTS: Twenty patients completed the treatment and efficacy evaluation. One patient was completely cured, 16 cases improved, three cases were noneffective. After 1-month evaluation, 12 patients received an increased dose (150µg) from the second month of treatment. Seventeen patients completed the 12-month follow-up, among which fourteen improved. CT showed the lesions were slightly increased in three cases. Economic burden was the following: RMB 7324-15,190 Yuan were required for the 6-month treatment course, which is significantly lower compared to other treatment methods. CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous injection of rhGM-CSF at low dose (75µg-150µg /d) is effective treatment for patients with idiopathic PAP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01983657. Registered 16 April 2013.

3.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 5, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations of perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure with blood lipids and lipoproteins are inconsistent, and existing studies did not account for metabolic heterogeneity of lipoprotein subspecies. This study aimed to examine the associations between plasma PFAS concentrations and lipoprotein and apolipoprotein subspecies. METHODS: The study included 326 men and women from the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) Lost randomized trial. Five PFASs, including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), were measured in plasma at baseline. For lipoprotein and apolipoprotein subspecies, total plasma was fractionated first by apolipoprotein (apo) C-III content and then by density. Each subfraction was then measured for apoB, apoC-III, and apoE concentrations, as well as triglyceride and cholesterol contents, both at baseline and at 2 years. RESULTS: For lipids and apolipoproteins in total plasma at baseline, elevated plasma PFAS concentrations were significantly associated with higher apoB and apoC-III concentrations, but not with total cholesterol or triglycerides. After multivariate adjustment of lifestyle factors, lipid-lowering medication use, and dietary intervention groups, PFAS concentrations were primarily associated with lipids or apolipoprotein concentrations in intermediate-to-low density lipoprotein (IDL + LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that contain apoC-III. Comparing the highest and lowest tertiles of PFOA, the least-square means (SE) (mg/dl) were 4.16 (0.4) vs 3.47 (0.4) for apoB (P trend = 0.04), 2.03 (0.2) vs 1.66 (0.2) for apoC-III (P trend = 0.04), and 8.4 (0.8) vs 6.8 (0.8) for triglycerides (P trend = 0.03) in IDL + LDL fraction that contains apoC-III. For HDL that contains apoC-III, comparing the highest and lowest tertiles of PFOA, the least-square means (SE) (mg/dl) of apoC-III were 11.9 (0.7) vs 10.4 (0.7) (P trend = 0.01). In addition, elevated PFNA and PFDA concentrations were also significantly associated with higher concentrations of apoE in HDL that contains apoC-III (P trend< 0.01). Similar patterns of associations were demonstrated between baseline PFAS concentrations and lipoprotein subspecies measured at 2 years. Baseline PFAS levels were not associated with changes in lipoprotein subspecies during the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that plasma PFAS concentrations are primarily associated with blood lipids and apolipoproteins in subspecies of IDL, LDL, and HDL that contain apoC-III, which are associated with elevated cardiovascular risk in epidemiological studies. Future studies of PFAS-associated cardiovascular risk should focus on lipid subfractions.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reduce their overall substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality, smoking cessation is especially important for people with diabetes. However, the effect of weight change after quitting smoking on the long-term health consequences of smoking cessation is unclear. We aimed to examine smoking cessation and subsequent weight change in relation to incident cardiovascular disease events and mortality among adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we analysed data from people with type 2 diabetes from two prospective cohorts in the USA: the Nurses' Health Study (1976-2014) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014). We included participants from both cohorts who either had prevalent type 2 diabetes or were diagnosed during the study, and who were either current smokers or never smokers without cardiovascular disease or cancer at diagnosis of diabetes. Information on demographics, newly diagnosed diseases, medical history, and lifestyle factors, including smoking status and weight change, was updated every 2 years through validated questionnaires. We assessed the incidence of cardiovascular disease and all-cause and cause-specific mortality among recent quitters (within 6 years of stopping) and long-term quitters (>6 years) associated with weight change within 6 years of smoking cessation among people with type 2 diabetes. We did a multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the associations of smoking cessation and weight change on the outcomes. FINDINGS: Of 173 229 total cohort participants (121 700 from the Nurses' Health Study and 51 529 from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study), 10 809 people with type 2 diabetes were included in the incident cardiovascular disease analysis and 9688 were included in the mortality analysis. 2580 incident cases of cardiovascular disease occurred during 153 166 person-years of follow-up, and 3827 deaths occurred during 152 811 person-years of follow-up. Recent quitters (2-6 consecutive years since smoking cessation) without weight gain within the first 6 years of quitting had a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease than people who continued to smoke (multivariable-adjusted HR 0·83 [95% CI 0·70-0·99] among all recent quitters, 0·77 [0·62-0·95] among recent quitters without weight gain, 0·99 [0·70-1·41] among recent quitters with weight gain of 0·1-5·0 kg, 0·89 [0·65-1·23] among recent quitters with weight gain of >5·0 kg, and 0·72 [0·61-0·84] among longer-term quitters [>6 consecutive years since smoking cessation]). Weight gain within 6 years after smoking cessation did not attenuate the inverse relation between long-term cessation and all-cause mortality (multivariable-adjusted HR 0·69 [95% CI 0·58-0·82] among long-term quitters without weight gain, 0·57 [0·45-0·71] among long-term quitters with weight gain of 0·1-5·0 kg, and 0·51 [0·42-0·62] among long-term quitters with weight gain of >5·0 kg), with similar results observed for cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality. INTERPRETATION: Smoking cessation without subsequent weight gain is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality among smokers with type 2 diabetes. Weight gain after smoking cessation attenuates the reduction in risk of developing cardiovascular disease, but does not attenuate the beneficial effect of smoking cessation with respect to mortality. These findings confirm the overall health benefits of quitting smoking among people with type 2 diabetes, but also emphasise the importance of weight management after smoking cessation to maximise its health benefits. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.

5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 183-193, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854919

RESUMO

In order to improve water quality, many urban lakes in China have undergone environmental restoration since the introduction of China's tenth five-year plan. To understand the effectiveness of improvement projects on eutrophic urban lakes, we analyze the changes in water quality of Lihu Lake over the past 30 years, i.e., before and after comprehensive remediation. We use long-term monitoring data from TLLER and from two regional investigations undertaken in 2017. The results were as follows. ① Concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), the permanganate index, and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in Lihu Lake all increased dramatically since the 1990s and reached the worst levels during the period from 1997 to 2003. After comprehensive improvement measures for the lake undertaken by the local government in 2003, the water quality improved remarkably year by year, but reduced slightly in the past two years assessed here. There was no obvious improvement in water transparency when comparing data from before to after the remediation. ② Before the improvement measures, the water quality fluctuated greatly with season, however, water quality sampled during the winter post remediation was significantly better than during the summer. ③ Spatially, the water quality in the western region of Lihu Lake was significantly better than of that in the eastern region. When comparing government measures in different eutrophic urban lakes, we found that engineering management measures can improve the water quality of urban lakes over a relatively short time period. However, after the water quality has been improved, it is necessary to restore the macrophyte-dominated ecosystem, which should be supplemented by ecological restoration based on biological regulation. By improving species diversity, the aquatic ecosystem can be successfully transformed from being phytoplankton-dominated to macrophyte-dominated, thereby enabling the service functions of a lake ecosystem to be truly restored.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841977

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to separate, identify and assess antioxidant peptides from the simulated gastrointestinal (GI) digestion of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) cooking juice (CCCJ), which has been previously found with this activity. The CCCJ after simulated GI digestion treatment was separated gradually by ultrafiltration and RP-HPLC. Five novel antioxidant peptides with 10-13 amino acid residues were identified by UPLC-MS/MS. Their in silico assessments showed amphiphilic nature, good sensory quality and different target sites in the human body. Meanwhile, their three-dimensional structure predictions exhibited at least one ß-turn, ß-sheet and/or α-helix with partial hydrophobic and/or net-charged residues exposed to the external medium, which was good evidence for high antioxidant activity. Ultimately, four novel peptides with high antioxidant activity were found, among which IREADIDGDGQVN (1401 Da), PEILPDGDHD (1107 Da) and ASDEQDSVRL (1119 Da) exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 1.78, 1.18 and 1.45 mM, respectively, while APLEEPSSPH (1063 Da) showed the highest Fe2+ chelating ability with IC50 of 0.09 mM. This work could help understand the mechanism of CCCJ on human health promotion and improve the economic value of the crucian carp processing industry.

7.
New Phytol ; 225(1): 268-283, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400247

RESUMO

Soybean (Glycine max) production is severely affected in unfavorable environments. Identification of the regulatory factors conferring stress tolerance would facilitate soybean breeding. In this study, through coexpression network analysis of salt-tolerant wild soybeans, together with molecular and genetic approaches, we revealed a previously unidentified function of a class B heat shock factor, HSFB2b, in soybean salt stress response. We showed that HSFB2b improves salt tolerance through the promotion of flavonoid accumulation by activating one subset of flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes and by inhibiting the repressor gene GmNAC2 to release another subset of genes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. Moreover, four promoter haplotypes of HSFB2b were identified from wild and cultivated soybeans. Promoter haplotype II from salt-tolerant wild soybean Y20, with high promoter activity under salt stress, is probably selected for during domestication. Another promoter haplotype, III, from salt-tolerant wild soybean Y55, had the highest promoter activity under salt stress, had a low distribution frequency and may be subjected to the next wave of selection. Together, our results revealed the mechanism of HSFB2b in soybean salt stress tolerance. Its promoter variations were identified, and the haplotype with high activity may be adopted for breeding better soybean cultivars that are adapted to stress conditions.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(2): 485-491, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885272

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) nodal-loop (NL) semimetals have attracted tremendous attention for their abundant physics and potential device applications, whereas the realization of gapless NL semimetals robust against spin-orbit coupling (SOC) remains a big challenge. Recently, breakthroughs have been made with the realization of gapless NL semimetals in 2D half-metallic materials, where NLs were protected by a horizontal mirror plane symmetry. Here we first propose an alternative nonsymmorphic horizontal glide mirror plane symmetry which could protect the NLs in 2D materials. On the basis of comprehensive first-principles calculations and symmetry analysis, we found that the glide mirror symmetry together with intrinsic out-of-plane spin polarization can protect the NL against SOC in a half-metallic semimetal, namely, the MnNF monolayer. Moreover, we predict that the MnNF monolayer has strong anisotropic characteristics, tunable band structure by changing the magnetization direction, and 100% spin-polarized transport properties. Our work not only provides a novel 2D half-metallic semimetal with strong anisotropy but also broadens the scope of 2D nodal-loop materials.

9.
Xenobiotica ; : 1-12, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858877

RESUMO

1. Bupleuri Radix (BR) is a herbal medicine traditionally used orally in oriental countries, which inevitably comes into contact with the intestinal microbiota. However, whether gut microbiota contribute to the biotransformation of BR, and/or the formation of pharmacologically active compounds remains unknown.2. In this study, the main saikosaponins (SAPs) of Bupleurum (including saikosaponin a, b1, b2, c, d, f, h) and BR extract (BRE) were individually incubated with human fecal suspensions (HFS), and metabolic time courses of SAPs and their metabolites by human gut bacteria were systematically characterized.3. Deglycosylation and dehydration were the main metabolic pathways identified for SAPs including newly investigated saikosaponin f (SSf) and saikosaponin h (SSh); dehydration had not been reported previously. A total of 19 dehydrated and deglycosylated metabolites of SAPs were detected and characterized, and 10 of them were newly identified. Moreover, SAPs of BRE were found to be deglycosylated to prosaikogenins. In addition, 13 metabolic pathways related to human gut microbiota were identified for phytochemicals of BRE except for SAPs. Gut microbiota may play a significant role in the biotransformation of BR in humans.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(2): 953-961, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865700

RESUMO

Chemical synthesis of platinum-rare earth metal (Pt-RE) nanoalloys, one of the most active catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction, has been a formidable challenge, mainly due to the vastly different standard reduction potentials of the two metals and high oxophilicity of the latter. Here we report a universal chemical process to prepare Pt-RE nanoalloys with tunable compositions and particle sizes. Pt and RE metal ions from the most common hydrated metal salts are first atomically embedded into an in situ formed C-N network, yielding a stable compound insensitive to O2 and H2O. The Pt-RE nanoalloys are subsequently obtained by heating the compound under a mild reducing atmosphere (e.g., 3.3% H2/Ar). The key intermediate step of the process is the formation of RE carbodiimides (RE2(CN2)3) along with Pt particles. This synthesis mechanism suggests an efficient strategy to prepare nanoalloys with highly reactive metals.

11.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 186, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to cervical cancer (CC) tumorigenesis and development. Previous work showed that miR-484 which regulated the EMT process was obviously downregulated in CC. However, little is known about the precise mechanism. RESULTS: We found that the deficiency of EZH2-recruited DNA methyltransferases DNMT1 reduced the CpG methylation of miR-484 promoter and then increased the miR-484 expression. Furthermore, the cell membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase (MMP14) and the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1A (HNF1A) were found to be downregulated by miR-484. miR-484 repressed the expression of MMP14 and HNF1A inhibiting CC growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Upregulation of MMP14 and HNF1A promotes the CC cell adhesion and EMT, all of which contribute to cell motility and metastasis. Moreover, miR-484 negatively regulates the WNT/MAPK and TNF signaling pathway by downregulating HNF1A and MMP14 respectively. Thus, miR-484, who is downregulated by DNMT1-mediated hypermethylation in its promoter, functions as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting MMP14 and HNF1A expression in CC. CONCLUSION: Our finding characterizes miR-484 as a key suppressive regulator in CC metastasis and reveals a DNMT1-mediated epigenetic mechanism for miR-484 silencing, expanding our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying CC progression and metastasis.

12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816376

RESUMO

Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a biosynthesized carbohydrate polymer with excellent biocompatibility and water holding capability. However, it lacks an inherent antibacterial activity that has limited its in-depth biomedical applications. This study investigated a novel strategy of adopting a simultaneous process to chemically anchor a quaternary ammonium salt (R-N(CH3)+) with a special vinyl group (2-methacryloyloxyethyl trimethylammonium chloride, METAC) onto the BC, and meanwhile, enhance the density of (R-N(CH3)+) via free radical vinyl polymerization. The results have confirmed the transition of BC surface from a negatively-charged surface to a polycationic surface via such a simultaneous reaction. As compared to chitin film (a representative of R-NH3+), the resulting METAC-grafted BC (a representative of high-density R- N(CH3)+) acquired excellent water absorbability (40 times of dry weight of the BC), 99% antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, a satisfactory in-vitro biocompatibility, and a better in-vivo wound healing outcome with an excellent in-vivo antibacterial efficacy. This study has exhibited potential in utilizing a facile method to prepare a bio-safe, adaptive antibacterial surface for various biomedical applications.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816827

RESUMO

Bacterial pathogens are one of the causes of human diseases and have a serious impact on environmental health. In this study, we investigated the bacterial pathogen community in 88 sites at rivers around Lake Chaohu Basin, China, using Illumina miseq sequencing. The results showed that three opportunistic pathogens: Acinetobacter, Massilia, and Brevundimonas, were the three abundant bacterial genera in all samples, and had a relative abundance of 0.33 to 49.28% (average 8.80%), 0.06 to 25.4% (average 4.6%), 0.01 to 12.82% (average 2.6%) of all bacterial sequences, respectively. Our results indicated that a high abundance of opportunistic pathogens was observed in the rivers of the Lake Chaohu Basin, and that effective treatment and monitoring of sewage entering into rivers should be further strengthened.

14.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816891

RESUMO

Salvianolic acid B is one of the main water-soluble components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. Many reports have shown that it has significant anti-myocardial ischemia effect. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Our present study demonstrated that Sal B could alleviate myocardial ischemic injury by inhibiting the priming phase of NLRP3 inflammasome. In vivo, serum c-troponin I (cTn), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, the cardiac function and infract size were examined. We found that Sal B could notably reduce the myocardial ischemic injury caused by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. In vitro, Sal B down-regulated the TLR4/NF-κB signaling cascades in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated H9C2 cells. Furthermore, Sal B reduced the expression levels of IL-1ß and NLRP3 inflammasome in a dose-dependent manner. In short, our study provided evidence that Sal B could attenuate myocardial ischemic injury via inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway. And in an upstream level, MD-2 may be the potential target.

15.
J Vis Exp ; (153)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789319

RESUMO

Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a well-documented risk factor for glaucoma. Here we describe a novel, effective method for consistently inducing stable IOP elevation in mice that mimics the post-operative complication of using silicone oil (SO) as a tamponade agent in human vitreoretinal surgery. In this protocol, SO is injected into the anterior chamber of the mouse eye to block the pupil and prevent inflow of aqueous humor. The posterior chamber accumulates aqueous humor and this in turn increases the IOP of the posterior segment. A single SO injection produces reliable, sufficient, and stable IOP elevation, which induces significant glaucomatous neurodegeneration. This model is a true replicate of secondary glaucoma in the eye clinic. To further mimic the clinical setting, SO can be removed from the anterior chamber to reopen the drainage pathway and allow inflow of aqueous humor, which is drained through the trabecular meshwork (TM) at the angle of the anterior chamber. Because IOP quickly returns to normal, the model can be used to test the effect of lowering IOP on glaucomatous retinal ganglion cells. This method is straightforward, does not require special equipment or repeat procedures, closely simulates clinical situations, and may be applicable to diverse animal species. However, minor modifications may be required.

16.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792985

RESUMO

Norm violations (e.g., unfair transgressions) are often met with punishment even by people who are not directly affected. However, punishing a transgressor is not the only option for a bystander to restore justice. Empathic concerns may dictate instead to give a helping hand to a victim. Using a pre-registered, fully incentivized eye-tracking study (N = 47), we investigated the cognitive mechanism linking bystanders' empathic concern and justice-restoring intervention behaviour. The results show that not only the decision to intervene (i.e., either costly compensating the victim or punishing the transgressor) but also the attention directed towards a victim's payoffs (i.e., measured by the proportion of fixations) during the decision-making period systematically varied with the individual level of empathic concern. Exploring this link further, we additionally instructed participants to focus on specific components of the norm violation, namely the (un)fair conduct of the offender or the victim's feelings. Surprisingly, highly empathic bystanders were more likely to punish the offender when the norm violation was highlighted. However, we did not observe the modulation of the instructed focus on the link between gaze-based measures and empathic concern. Overall, these results provide initial evidence about the interacting impact of empathic concern as well as the focus on specific components of the norm violation when bystanders respond to unfair transgressions.

17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 146: 374-383, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794898

RESUMO

The plant-specific transcription factor TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING4 CELL FACTORS (TCP) plays a crucial role in plant growth and development. However, there have been no studies reporting on the function of strawberry TCP in regulating fruit development. In this study, FvTCP9, a woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) TCP gene, was isolated to explore its function in fruit ripening. The transcript accumulation levels of FvTCP9 were high in fruits, specifically in red fruits compared with other tissues or organs. Transient expression of the FvTCP9 gene in cultivated strawberry fruits revealed that over-expression of FvTCP9 promoted fruit ripening. Meanwhile, silencing FvTCP9, using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), inhibited fruit ripening. The changes in ripening-related physiological conditions in transient fruits, such as the accumulation of anthocyanins and abscisic acid (ABA), and fruit firmness confirmed above results. Results suggested that FvTCP9 was involved in the biosynthesis of ABA and anthocyanins to regulate fruit ripening. Transcription analysis showed that the expression levels of ABA signaling-related genes (FaNCED1, FaPYR1, FaSnRK2, and FaABI5) were affected by FvTCP9. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that FvTCP9 interacted physically with FaMYC1 to modulate the biosynthesis process of anthocyanins. Taken together, this study demonstrated that FvTCP9 promoted fruit ripening by regulating the biosynthesis of ABA and anthocyanins.

18.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 11: 279, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803043

RESUMO

Although lipopolysaccharides (LPS) have been used to establish animal models of memory loss akin to what is observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the exact mechanisms involved have not been substantiated. In this study, we established an animal model of learning and memory impairment induced by LPS and explored the biological processes and pathways involved. Mice were continuously intraperitoneally injected with LPS for 7 days. Learning- and memory-related behavioral performance and the pathological processes involved were assessed using the Morris water maze test and immunostaining, respectively. We detected comprehensive expression of C1q, C3, microglia, and their regulatory cytokines in the hippocampus. After 7 days of LPS administration, we were able to observe LPS-induced learning and memory impairment in the mice, which was attributed to neural impairment and synapse loss in the hippocampus. We elucidated that the immune system was activated, with the classical complement pathway and microglial phagocytosis being involved in the synapse loss. This study demonstrates that an LPS-injected mouse can serve as an early memory impairment model for studies on anti-AD drugs.

19.
Ann Transl Med ; 7(20): 549, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807531

RESUMO

Background: To introduce a modified pleurodesis as an effective treatment for refractory chylothorax and to develop a novel insight for its mechanism. Methods: Patients who underwent thoracic surgery at West China Hospital or its affiliated hospitals between 2010 and 2015 and who subsequently experienced chylothorax that was not resolved by conventional treatment, received daily pleurodesis involving 100 mL 50% glucose and 20 mL 1% lidocaine. The chest tube was clamped after 7 days of pleurodesis, regardless of drainage amount. If no remarkable pulmonary atelectasis was detected within 2 days, the chest tube was removed. All patients were followed up with for at least 3 months after discharge from our hospital. Results: Among the 34 patients, 10 did not experience an increase in the pleural fluid after the chest tube was clamped. Minor effusion increase occurred in 21 patients, while encapsulated effusion occurred in 3. In 23 patients among the latter 24 patients, pleural fluid was gradually absorbed and disappeared spontaneously. One patient suffered chylothorax recurrence after discharge but successfully recovered after the second round of modified pleurodesis. Several patients suffered from electrolyte imbalance, weakness, and dyspnea; all were cured by plasma infusion and other symptomatic treatments. Conclusions: Being safe and effective for patients with postoperative refractory chylothorax, our modified pleurodesis enhanced the process of chemical pleurodesis and could remove the chest tube right after the extensive adhesion formed instead requiring a wait for drainage decrease. This method can thus shorten the period of hospitalization and reduce fluid loss compared with traditional pleurodesis.

20.
Restor Neurol Neurosci ; 37(6): 545-552, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Permanent loss of vital functions after central nervous system (CNS) injury occurs in part because axons in the adult mammalian CNS do not regenerate after injury. PTEN was identified as a prominent intrinsic inhibitor of CNS axon regeneration about 10 years ago. The PTEN negatively regulated PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, which has been intensively explored in diverse models of axon injury and diseases and its mechanism for axon regeneration is becoming clearer. OBJECTIVE: It is timely to summarize current knowledge about the PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway and discuss future directions of translational regenerative research for neural injury and neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: Using mouse optic nerve crush as an in vivo retinal ganglion cell axon injury model, we have conducted an extensive molecular dissection of the PI3K-AKT-mTORC1/mTORC2 pathway to illuminate the cross-regulating mechanisms in axon regeneration. RESULTS: AKT is the nodal point that coordinates both positive (PI3K-PDK1-pAKT-T308) and negative (PI3K-mTORC2-pAKT-S473) signals to regulate adult CNS axon regeneration through two parallel pathways, activating mTORC1 and inhibiting GSK3ß. However, mTORC1/S6K1-mediated feedback inhibition after PTEN deletion prevents potent AKT activation. CONCLUSIONS: A key permissive signal from an unidentified AKT-independent pathway is required for stimulating the neuron-intrinsic growth machinery. Future studies into this complex neuron-intrinsic balancing mechanism involving necessary and permissive signals for axon regeneration is likely to lead to safe and effective regenerative strategies for CNS repair.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA