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1.
Res Int Bus Finance ; 59: 101510, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539027

RESUMO

In this paper, we investigate both constant and time-varying hedge ratios in terms of the effectiveness of CSI300 index futures during the COVID-19 crisis. Using naïve, OLS and EC/ROLS strategies to estimate constant hedge ratios, results indicate that the CSI300 spot index presents decreased effectiveness using the naïve hedging strategy; however, increased effectiveness of OLS and EC hedge ratios are identified. Differential behaviour is identified when considering five newly introduced COVID-19 concept-based stock indices. Time-varying hedge ratios indicate the weakened effectiveness, ranging between 20% and 40% variance reduction. Evidence suggests that the capability of the CSI300 index futures to hedge against the risks of the COVID-19 is impaired, regardless of whether constant or time-varying hedge ratios are used. Such results provide important implications to both local and foreign investors in the Chinese stock market.

2.
Plant Physiol ; 186(4): 2239-2252, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618106

RESUMO

Grain characteristics, including kernel length, kernel width, and thousand kernel weight, are critical component traits for grain yield. Manual measurements and counting are expensive, forming the bottleneck for dissecting these traits' genetic architectures toward ultimate yield improvement. High-throughput phenotyping methods have been developed by analyzing images of kernels. However, segmenting kernels from the image background and noise artifacts or from other kernels positioned in close proximity remain as challenges. In this study, we developed a software package, named GridFree, to overcome these challenges. GridFree uses an unsupervised machine learning approach, K-Means, to segment kernels from the background by using principal component analysis on both raw image channels and their color indices. GridFree incorporates users' experiences as a dynamic criterion to set thresholds for a divide-and-combine strategy that effectively segments adjacent kernels. When adjacent multiple kernels are incorrectly segmented as a single object, they form an outlier on the distribution plot of kernel area, length, and width. GridFree uses the dynamic threshold settings for splitting and merging. In addition to counting, GridFree measures kernel length, width, and area with the option of scaling with a reference object. Evaluations against existing software programs demonstrated that GridFree had the smallest error on counting seeds for multiple crop species. GridFree was implemented in Python with a friendly graphical user interface to allow users to easily visualize the outcomes and make decisions, which ultimately eliminates time-consuming and repetitive manual labor. GridFree is freely available at the GridFree website (https://zzlab.net/GridFree).

3.
Cereb Cortex ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649270

RESUMO

Individuals with obesity (OB) prefer immediate rewards of food intake over the delayed reward of healthy well-being achieved through diet management and physical activity, compared with normal-weight controls (NW). This may reflect heightened impulsivity, an important factor contributing to the development and maintenance of obesity. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the greater impulsivity in OB remain unclear. Therefore, the current study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging with a delay discounting (DD) task to examine the association between impulsive choice and altered neural mechanisms in OB. During decision-making in the DD task, OB compared with NW had greater activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal cortex, which was associated with greater discounting rate and weaker cognitive control as measured with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). In addition, the association between DLPFC activation and cognitive control (TFEQ) was mediated by discounting rate. Psychophysiological interaction analysis showed decreased connectivity of DLPFC-inferior parietal cortex (within executive control network [ECN]) and angular gyrus-caudate (ECN-reward) in OB relative to NW. These findings reveal that the aberrant function and connectivity in core regions of ECN and striatal brain reward regions underpin the greater impulsivity in OB and contribute to abnormal eating behaviors.

4.
Food Chem ; 372: 131260, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628122

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of different reheating methods (microwave, water boiling, steaming, and frying) on the flavor of surimi gels with untreated sample as control. Electronic nose and electronic tongue results showed that microwave could better maintain the original odor and taste characteristics of surimi gels. Additionally, 43 kinds of volatile aroma compounds were detected in surimi gels, including aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, heterocycles, and esters. The aroma fingerprints of surimi gels were similar between water boiling and steaming and between microwave and the control, whereas frying showed the most unique aroma profile possibly related to the highest TBARS values. The total contents of nucleotides, carnosine and lactic acid were significantly higher in fried samples relative to other samples. In conclusion, all the reheating treatments can alter the flavor of samples, but microwave showed better performance in sensory evaluation and maintaining the original flavor of surimi gels.

5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647728

RESUMO

Neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation and proliferation are important biological processes in the cerebral neural network. However, these two abilities of NSCs are limited. Thus, the induction of differentiation and/or proliferation through the administration of plant-derived small-molecule compounds could be used to repair damaged neural networks. The present study reported that gallic acid (GA), an important phenolic acid found in tea, selectively caused NSCs to differentiate into immature neurons and promoted NSC proliferation by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway. In addition, it was found that 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid was the main active structure exhibiting neurotrophic activity. The substitution of the carboxyl group on the benzene ring with the ester group may promote differentiation based on the structure of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Furthermore, the introduction of the 5-hydroxyl group may promote proliferation. The present study identified that GA can promote the differentiation and proliferation of NSCs in vitro and exert pharmacological activity on NSCs.

6.
Antiviral Res ; : 105192, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687821

RESUMO

Due to the lack of relevant therapies for infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) infection, the viral outbreak invariably causes serious economic losses in salmonid species. In this study, we evaluated the anti-IHNV effects of 7-(6-benzimidazole) coumarin (C10) and 4-phenyl-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5H-chromeno[4,3-d]pyrimidin-5-one (S5) in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that C10 at 12.5 mg/L and S5 at 25 mg/L significantly inhibited IHNV replication in epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells with a maximum inhibitory rate >90%, showing that IHNV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) was alleviated by C10 and S5. There are two complementary effects on antiviral mechanism: 1. C10 completely inhibited IHNV infectivity when the virus was preincubated with C10 at 12.5 mg/L, determining that C10 may have a negative impact on IHNV binding to the cell; 2. C10 also up-regulated the gene expression of extracellular proto type galectin-1 (Gal1-L2) and a chimera galectin-3 (Gal3-L1) of EPC cells to inhibit IHNV adhesion. For the in vivo study, injection and immersion of the coumarins enhanced the survival rate of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles by 25% (at least) at 12 dpi. IHNV loads in the kidney and spleen were also obviously decreased at 96 h, and thus we considered that they had a delaying effect on IHNV replication in vivo. Meanwhile, C10 with a high stability in aquacultural water in immersion suppressed IHNV horizontal transmission by decreasing the viral loads in recipient fish. Overall, our data suggest that there is a positive effect of C10 and S5 against IHNV infection in aquaculture, and C10 had the potential to be a broad-spectrum antiviral against fish rhabdoviruses.

7.
Br J Sociol ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605018

RESUMO

This article charts the transformation, between 1997 and 2021, of the family visa and immigration permit infrastructure from a public into a commercial service in the United Kingdom. In doing so, it reveals a process of state-market hybridization underpinning the commercialization of migration regulation. Drawing on the analysis of legal archives, policy reports, and marketing materials directed at family migrants spanning 1997-2021, it presents fresh, systematic evidence of how, since 2007, a commercialized state-market hybrid migration infrastructure for visas and immigration permits has developed in the UK. We show how the trend of state-market hybridized commercialization has cascaded through three dimensions of migration infrastructure, as follows: (1) state and public immigration agencies, (2) outsourcing visa application firms, and (3) private immigration advisers. Predicated on this hybrid public-private commercial infrastructure, application procedures for visas and immigration permits have become increasingly reconstituted as commercial, rather than public, services. This transformation has created a new transactional logic that stratifies individuals' right to family life along socioeconomic lines.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 191: 925-933, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597696

RESUMO

Effects of konjac glucomannan (KGM) with different deacetylation degrees on silver carp surimi gel properties were studied. As deacetylation degree increased, viscosity, solubility, and water absorption capability of KGM decreased gradually while particle size increased. The gel strength of surimi gel increased with the KGM deacetylation degree up to 50.72% and then significantly decreased. The maximum gel strength was 3.26 times higher than that of surimi gel with native KGM. The relaxation time of immobilized water decreased from 108.22 to 104.70 ms and then increased up to 110.92 ms with the deacetylation degree, while the proportion of the immobilized water increased from 92.74 to 98.59% and then decreased to 97.46%. Water distribution became less uniform as the deacetylation degree exceeded 50.72%. Surimi gel with KGM of a higher deacetylation degree formed a denser microstructure along with a higher dimensional fraction value. However, the microstructure was disrupted and the dimensional fraction value decreased as the deacetylation degree exceeded 50.72%. Chemical interactions including hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and cross-linking extent increased with the KGM deacetylation degree up to 50.72% and then gradually decreased. The results suggest that KGM with a deacetylation degree of 50.72% is the most suitable for surimi products.

9.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583980

RESUMO

Taxanes remain one of the most effective medical treatments for breast cancer. Clinical trials have coupled taxanes with immune checkpoint inhibitors in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients with promising results. However, the mechanism linking taxanes to immune activation is unclear. To determine if paclitaxel could elicit an antitumoral immune response, we sampled tumor tissues from patients with TNBC receiving weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/m2) and found increased stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and micronucleation over baseline in three of six samples. At clinically relevant concentrations, paclitaxel can induce chromosome missegregation on multipolar spindles during mitosis. Consequently, post-mitotic cells are multinucleated and contain micronuclei, which often activate cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and may induce a type I interferon response reliant on the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway. Other microtubule-targeting agents, eribulin and vinorelbine, recapitulate this cGAS/STING response and increased the expression of immune checkpoint molecule, PD-L1, in TNBC cell lines. To test the possibility that microtubule-targeting agents sensitize tumors that express cGAS to immune checkpoint inhibitors, we identified ten TNBC patients treated with PD-L1 or PD-1, seven of whom also received microtubule-targeting agents. Elevated baseline cGAS expression significantly correlated with treatment response in patients receiving microtubule-targeting agents in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Our study identifies a mechanism by which microtubule-targeting agents can potentiate an immune response in TNBC. Further, baseline cGAS expression may predict patient treatment response to therapies combining microtubule-targeting agents and immune checkpoint inhibitors.

11.
J Fish Dis ; 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536027

RESUMO

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogenic and threatening virus in shrimp culture for which there is no effective control strategy. Finding antiviral lead compounds for the development of anti-WSSV drugs is urgent and necessary; in this study, esculin from 12 monomeric compounds exhibited an excellent anti-WSSV activity. The results showed that esculin increased the survival rate of WSSV-infected shrimps by 59% and reduced the virus copy number in vivo over 90% at 100 µM. In the pre-treatment and post-treatment experiments, esculin could prevent and treat WSSV infection. Compared with the control group, the virus copy number decreased by 30% after 6 h of esculin pre-incubation with WSSV particles and inhibited horizontal transmission of WSSV to a certain extent. Considering that the antiviral activity of esculin was stable in the aquacultural water for 2 days, we evaluated the dosing pattern of continuous medication changes. Obviously, the survival rate of WSSV-infected shrimps was 0% at 108 h when no esculin exchange was made, while at 120 h the survival rate was over 40% at continuous medicine changes. In addition, esculin significantly increased the expression of antimicrobial peptides and thus improved the ability of shrimp to resist WSSV. Overall, our findings suggest that esculin has the potential to be developed into an anti-WSSV medicine.

12.
J Control Release ; 338: 583-592, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481020

RESUMO

Glioblastoma, the most common malignant tumor of the central nervous system, readily relapses after surgery. Based on the CD47-SIRPα axis, we designed and implanted a thermo-sensitive hydrogel loaded with a gene complex into the postoperative cavity to inhibit the immune escape of residual tumor cells after surgery. A novel non-viral vector, G5-BGG, was synthesized and formed into a gene complex with shRNA plasmid. Our results showed that the G5-BGG/shRNA871 complex downregulated CD47 protein expression, leading to enhanced phagocytosis of U87MG cells by marrow-derived macrophages. G5-BGG/pDNA complex was loaded into a poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) hydrogel. Studies confirmed that the G5-BGG/pDNA complex remained integrated in the hydrogel and was sustainably released for up to 7 days. In an in vivo orthotopic U87MG postoperative tumor model, G5-BGG/shRNA871-loaded hydrogel combined with temozolomide downregulated CD47 protein expression, increased macrophage infiltration into residual tumors, and significantly prolonged the survival time of mice, indicating potential applications for glioblastoma treatment.

13.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 21(10): 1179-1189, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538154

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although experimental data suggest that Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may improve motor recovery after stroke, the results from clinical studies are conflicting. AREAS COVERED: Six international electronic databases (Cochrane, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) and four Chinese electronic databases (CBM, CNKI, WanFang Data, and VIP) were systematically searched up to April 2021. Co-primary outcomes were motor function and tolerability. Secondary outcomes included disability, neurological function, continuous depression scores, and adverse events. RESULTS: 25 randomized controlled trials including 4777 participants were identified. Pooled analyses found SSRIs significantly improved motor function [standardized mean differences (SMD), 0.72; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.99], disability (SMD, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.06), neurological function (SMD, -0.58; 95% CI, -0.77 to -0.39) and continuous depression scores (SMD, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.70 to -0.02). SSRIs were associated with increased seizure (risk ratio, 9.00; 95% CI, 1.69 to 47.91) and gastrointestinal side effects (risk ratio, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.56 to 3.28), but similar risk of all-cause discontinuations when compared with the control group (risk ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.56). EXPERT OPINION: SSRIs are effective and well-tolerated to promote motor recovery after stroke, but may increase the risk of seizures and gastrointestinal adverse effects.

14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 349: 109652, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 80-85% of total lung cancer cases. Identifying the molecular mechanisms of anti-tumor drugs is essential for improving therapeutic effects. Herein, we aim to investigate the role of thalidomide in the tumorigenicity of NSCLC. METHODS: The A549 xenograft nude mouse model was established to explore therapeutic effects of thalidomide. The expression of FGD5-AS1 was evaluated in carcinomatous and paracarcinomatous tissues from NSCLC patients as well as NSCLC cell lines. CCK-8 assay was performed to assess cell viability. The invasive capacity was examined using transwell assay. The tube formation assay was applied to determine cell angiogenesis. Flow cytometry was subjected to validate CD8+ T cell activity. The FGD5-AS1/miR-454-3p/ZEB1 regulatory network was analyzed using luciferase reporter, RIP and ChIP assays. RESULTS: Thalidomide reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis and increased CD8+ T cell ratio in a mouse model. Enhanced expression of FGD5-AS1 was positively correlated with the poor survival of NSCLC patients. Knockdown of FGD5-AS1 notably suppressed the proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis of cancer cells as well as the apoptosis of CD8+ T cells. Thalidomide targeted FGD5-AS1 to exert its anti-tumor activity in NSCLC. FGD5-AS1 acted as a sponge of miR-454-3p to upregulate ZEB1, thus increasing the expression of PD-L1 and VEGFA. Simultaneous overexpression of FGD5-AS1 and silencing of miR-454-3p reversed thalidomide-mediated anti-tumor effects in NSCLC. CONCLUSION: Thalidomide inhibits NSCLC angiogenesis and immune evasion via FGD5-AS1/miR-454-3p/ZEB1 axis-mediated regulation of VEGFA expression and PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint.

15.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583971

RESUMO

Compared with cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery, positive findings have been acquired through the approach of blocking the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) pathway with antibodies that exert inhibitory effects on PD-1 or cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1). Results from clinical trials showed great potential in adult patients with cancers, such as melanoma, non-small cell carcinoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, studies of checkpoint inhibitors specifically targeting PD-1/PD-L1 in pediatric patients are limited. We evaluated ongoing clinical trials using PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors alone or in combination with other therapies to treat pediatric cancer. The proportion of PD-1/PD-L1 combination clinical trials has increased since 2018; the three most common trials over the past 2 years used CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies, chemotherapy, and therapies that target the vascular endothelial growth factor axis. This commentary aimed to provide trends and specific insights into methods for conducting clinical trials of immunotherapy in the pediatric population.

16.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538863

RESUMO

Arrhythmias associated with antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are rare but potentially life-threatening adverse events (AEs). No study has systemically compared arrhythmias associations for various marketed ADCs. This needs to be clarified to guide antitumor therapies. We extracted data of patients treated with ADCs registered between 2004 q1 and 2020 q3 from the US Food and Drug Administration adverse event reporting system (FAERS). The medical dictionary for regulatory activities was used to identify arrhythmias cases. Disproportionality analysis was performed by calculating the reporting odds ratios (ROR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Clinical characteristics of patients with ADCs-associated arrhythmias and the time to onset of arrhythmias following different ADCs were collected. A total of 140 reports were considered after inclusion criteria were used. Exposure to gemtuzumab ozogamicin (2.23, 1.67-2.97; 48 cases) and brentuximab vedotin (1.27, 1.00-1.61; 67 cases) were associated with a positive signal of arrhythmia. The highest number of arrhythmia reports was for brentuximab vedotin (n = 67). Also 88.00% of arrhythmia occurred within 60 days for all these ADCs. Arrhythmia was commonly reported in patients with hematologic tumors and breast cancer. In the time to onset of adverse events after administration, brentuximab vedotin was significantly earlier than gemtuzumab ozogamicin (38.21 vs. 40.50 days; P = 0.0093), and gemtuzumab ozogamicin was significantly earlier than trastuzumab emtansine (40.50 vs. 147.50 days; P = 0.0035). We reviewed arrhythmia adverse drug reactions associated with ADCs from the FAERS database. This study is practical for clinicians to enhance the management of arrhythmia associated with ADCs and improve ADCs treatment safety.

18.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(9): 882-888, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the quality of life and related demographic factors in long-term survivors of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical and demographic data of the NHL patients who received treatment in the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center and achieved long-term survival at follow-up, with an age of <18 years at initial diagnosis and a present age of ≥18 years. A questionnaire survey was performed using 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the symptom subscale of the Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (QLQ-C30). The health status of long-term survivors of NHL was evaluated by comparing the scores of various dimensions of the SF-36 scale of general adult population in the United States (American norm) and those of the SF-36 scale of general adult population in Hong Kong, China (Hong Kong norm). The correlation between the score of each dimension of the scale and demographic characteristics was evaluated. The symptoms of long-term NHL survivors were evaluated according to the score of QLQ-C30 scale. RESULTS: A total of 23 patients with NHL with complete follow-up data were enrolled. The pathological types included diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in 10 patients, Burkitt lymphoma in 4 patients, T-cell lymphoblastoma in 5 patients, B-cell lymphoblastoma in 3 patients, and natural killer/T cell lymphoma in 1 patient. All patients received the chemotherapy regimen containing anthracyclines and alkylating agents. The median present age was 26.2 years (range: 16.9-55.8 years), and the median age at initial diagnosis was 10.4 years (range: 2.4-17.6 years). Among the 23 patients, 6 were married and had children and 2 had chronic diseases. There was no significant difference between the long-term survivors and the US norm in role physical, general health, role-emotional, and mental health (P>0.05), while the long-term survivors had significantly better scores of the other dimensions than the US norm (P<0.05). Similar results were obtained for the comparison between the long-term survivors and the China Hong Kong norm. Age at initial diagnosis was negatively correlated with the scores of social functioning, role physical, and general health in the SF-36 scale (P<0.05), and the present age of patients was positively correlated with the score of physical functioning and was negatively correlated with the score of general health (P<0.05). The urban and rural distribution of patients was related to the general health status (P<0.05). In addition, the long-term survivors of childhood NHL had relatively low scores of the symptom domain of QLQ-C30, and few moderate or severe symptoms were found. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survivors of childhood NHL tend to have a good overall health status, with no significant differences compared with the general population. Age at initial diagnosis is the main demographic factor that affects patients' quality of life. Citation.


Assuntos
Linfoma não Hodgkin , Linfoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sobreviventes , Adulto Jovem
19.
Front Neurol ; 12: 678013, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512503

RESUMO

Background: Cognitive impairment is one of the most prominent non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), due in part to known cerebellar dysfunctions. Furthermore, previous studies have reported altered cerebellar functional connectivity (FC) in PD patients. Yet whether these changes are also due to the cognitive deficits in PD remain unclear. Methods: A total of 122 non-dementia participants, including 64 patients with early PD and 58 age- and gender-matched elderly controls were stratified into four groups based on their cognitive status (normal cognition vs. cognitive impairment). Cerebellar volumetry and FC were investigated by analyzing, respectively, structural and resting-state functional MRI data among groups using quality control and quantitative measures. Correlation analysis between MRI metrics and clinical features (motor and cognitive scores) were performed. Results: Compared to healthy control subjects with no cognitive deficits, altered cerebellar FC were observed in early PD participants with both motor and cognitive deficits, but not in PD patients with normal cognition, nor elderly subjects showing signs of a cognitive impairment. Moreover, connectivity between the "motor" cerebellum and SMA was positively correlated with motor scores, while intracerebellar connectivity was positively correlated with cognitive scores in PD patients with cognitive impairment. No cerebellar volumetric difference was observed between groups. Conclusions: These findings show that altered cerebellar FC during resting state in early PD patients may be driven not solely by the motor deficits, but by cognitive deficits as well, hence highlighting the interplay between motor and cognitive functioning, and possibly reflecting compensatory mechanisms, in the early PD.

20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(7): 666-678, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding lignan consumption in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk remains limited and mixed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to prospectively examine associations between lignan intake and CHD risk in U.S. men and women. METHODS: We prospectively followed 214,108 men and women in 3 cohorts who did not have cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. Diet was repeatedly assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire every 2-4 years since baseline. RESULTS: During 5,517,225 person-years of follow-up, we documented 10,244 CHD cases, including 6,283 nonfatal myocardial infarction and 3,961 fatal CHD cases. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, comparing extreme quintiles, the pooled hazard ratios of CHD were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.79-0.92) for total lignans, 0.76 (95% CI: 0.71-0.82) for matairesinol, 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81-0.93) for secoisolariciresinol, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.95) for pinoresinol, and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.95) for lariciresinol (all P values for trend ≤0.003). Nonlinear relationships were found for total lignan, matairesinol, and secoisolariciresinol: the risk reduction plateaued at intakes above approximately 300 µg/d, 10 µg/d, and 100 µg/d, respectively (P < 0.01 for all nonlinearity). The inverse associations for total lignan intake appeared to be more apparent among participants with higher total fiber intake (P = 0.04 for interaction). In addition, lignan intake was more strongly associated with plasma concentrations of enterolactone when fiber intake was higher. CONCLUSIONS: Increased long-term intake of lignans was associated with a significantly lower risk of total CHD in both men and women. Possible synergistic effects may exist between lignan and fiber intake in relation to CHD risk reduction, possibly through enhancing the production of enterolignans.

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