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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(14): e25354, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the current literature, it is still controversial whether intravitreal aflibercept injection can provide better vision restoration compared with vitrectomy with panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients. Given that there is no high-quality meta-analysis or review to incorporate existing evidence, the purpose of this study is to systematically review the level I evidence in the literature to ascertain whether intravitreal aflibercept injection can provide better vision restoration compared with vitrectomy with PRP for PDR patients. METHODS: The systematic literature review is structured to adhere to PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses), which include requirements deemed essential for the transparent reporting of results. A systematic search will be performed in Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, Science Direct, Cochrane Library up to and inclusive of March 19, 2021. The method of data extraction will follow the approach outlined by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The primary outcome is change in best-corrected visual acuity. The secondary outcomes are change in area of neovascularization and change in area of retinal nonperfusion. Where disagreement occurs, this will be resolved through discussion. All outcomes are pooled on random-effect model. A P value of < .05 is considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: The results of our review will be reported strictly following the PRISMA criteria. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis of the study was that visual acuity recovery would be faster with vitrectomy because the blood is mechanically cleared during surgery. REGISTRATION NUMBER: 10.17605/OSF.IO/NCAXW.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 424, 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survivin has been recently identified as a promising novel therapeutic target and prognostic marker in different types of cancer. Here we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to better clarify they the precise prognostic and diagnostic value of survivin in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: Database of PubMed (Medline), Embase, and Web of Science were systematically searched for related published literature up to September 2020. Pooled hazards ratios (HR) and related 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the association of survivin expression and survival outcomes in HNSCC patients. RESULTS: Twenty eight studies with 4891 patients were finally included in this meta-analysis, the pooled analysis indicated that the survivin expression was significantly correlated with poorer overall survival (OS) (HR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.65-2.47, P < 0.001), and poorer disease-free survival (DFS)/ disease-specific survival (DSS) (HR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.64-2.52, P < 0.001; HR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.41-2.60, P < 0.001, receptively). Similar results were observed in subgroup analysis stratified by different cancer types, such as laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) (HR = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.05-1.74, P < 0.001), oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) (HR = 2.45, 95%CI: 1.89-3.17, P < 0.001), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) (HR = 2.53, 95%CI: 1.76-3.62, P < 0.001) and HNSCC (HR = 1.52, 95%CI: 1.25-1.86, P < 0.001). Furthermore, ethnicity-stratified analysis indicated that survivin was significantly associated with poorer OS among both Asian and Non- Asian HNSCC patients (HR = 2.16, 95%CI: 1.76-2.66; HR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.33-1.82, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that survivin is predictors of worse prognosis in HNSCC patients. Hence, survivin is a potential therapeutic target for HNSCC.

3.
Appl Opt ; 60(6): 1550-1557, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690488

RESUMO

A simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer with a monitored spatial light modulator (SLM) flexible reference mirror is proposed to balance the flexibility and accuracy of aspheric-surface in-process measurements. In this method, polarization simultaneous phase-shifting camera systems are applied to reduce the influence of environmental vibrations on the in-process measurements. An SLM reference mirror is employed to improve the flexibility of in-process measurements. A device is integrated to monitor the SLM surface in order to improve measurement accuracy caused by the spatial phase nonuniformity and modulation instability of the SLM. Thus, the SLM surface is monitored and the aspheric surface is measured simultaneously in only one interferometer, which presents the advantages of a compact structure and simple calibration. A flat acrylic mirror with an unknown surface figure error is measured by the proposed interferometer. Cross tests demonstrate the feasibility of this interferometer.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3269, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558610

RESUMO

The forage species Caucasian clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.), a groundcover plant, is resistant to both cold and drought. However, reference genes for qRT-PCR-based analysis of Caucasian clover are lacking. In this study, 12 reference genes were selected on the basis of transcriptomic data. These genes were used to determine the most stably expressed genes in various organs of Caucasian clover under cold, salt and drought stress for qRT-PCR-based analysis. Reference gene stability was analyzed by geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, the ∆Ct method and RefFinder. Under salt stress, RCD1 and PPIL3 were the most stable reference genes in the leaves, and NLI1 and RCD1 were the most stable references genes in the roots. Under low-temperature stress, APA and EFTu-GTP were the most stable reference genes in the leaves, and the RCD1 and NLI2 genes were highly stable in the roots. Under 10% PEG-6000 stress, NLI1 and NLI2 were highly stable in the leaves, and RCD1 and PPIL3 were the most stable in the roots. Overall, RCD1 and NLI2 were the most stable reference genes in organs under normal conditions and across all samples. The most and least stable reference genes were validated by assessing their appropriateness for normalization via WRKY genes.

5.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 20(2): 92-103, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560033

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Infectious dermatoses represent a significant source of morbidity and missed athletic participation among athletes. Close quarters and skin trauma from contact sports can lead to outbreaks among teams and athletic staff. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and National Federation of State High School Associations have published guidance with recommended management and return-to-play criteria for common fungal, bacterial, viral, and parasitic rashes. In addition to rapidly diagnosing and treating infectious dermatoses, team physicians should counsel athletes and athletic staff on proper equipment care and personal hygiene to reduce infection transmission. Clinicians should always consult sport and athlete governing bodies for sport-specific recommendations.

6.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(3): 254-257, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346966

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the distribution of pathogenic bacteria in donor semen and the effect of bacterial infection on semen quality. METHODS: We performed bacterial culture on and counted the bacterial colonies (BC) in the semen samples collected from 4 897 sperm donors from 2008 to 2018 and divided them into groups A (BC <104 cfu/ml, n = 4 229), B (BC ≥104 cfu/ml, n = 150) and C (BC = 0 cfu/ml, n = 518). Using the biochemical reaction system of the French Biological Merry Emmanuel Company, we identified the bacterial species in group B, subjected all the semen samples to SCA computer assisted semen analysis, and compared the semen quality among different groups. RESULTS: In the 4 897 semen samples, hybrid bacterial contamination was found in 6 (0.12%) and non-hybrid bacteria in 4 379 (89.42%), including 150 (3.43%) in group B. In the semen samples with BC ≥104 cfu/ml, Gram-negative (G-) bacteria were observed in 104 (69.33%), mainly including Escherichia coli, followed by Proteusbacillus vulgaris and Enterobacteria, Gram-positive cocci (G+) in 39 (26.00%), G- bacteria in 4 (2.67%) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 3 (2.00%). Compared with group C, groups A and B showed remarkably reduced total sperm count (P < 0.05) and percentage of progressively motile sperm (P < 0.05) but no statistically significant differences in the semen liquefaction time, semen PH value, total sperm motility or the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial culture of donor semen revealed a positive rate of 89.42% and varied the bacterial species, mainly including G- bacteria. And the semen quality decreased with the increase of bacterial colonies.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Análise do Sêmen , Sêmen/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Humanos , Masculino , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides
7.
Life Sci ; : 118707, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144187

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are formed from the genome through diverse back splicing and feature the closed loop. circRNAs are widely available in a variety of cells and characterized by conservation, structural stability, high abundance and tissue-specific or developmental-specific expression. Recent studies have shown that circRNAs are closely related to liver diseases, such as metabolic-associated fatty liver disease, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. circRNAs play an important role in the progression of liver diseases, are potential diagnostic and prognostic markers, and have translational value in therapy. This article reviews the research on circRNAs in liver diseases, with a view to providing a theoretical basis and new ideas for future research and treatment of liver diseases.

8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 113629, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246120

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Duoxuekang (DXK, ཁྲག་འཕེལ་བདེ་བྱེད།) is a clinical experience prescription of CuoRu-Cailang, a famous Tibetan medicine master, which has effective advantages in the treatment of hypobaric hypoxia (HH)-induced brain injury. However, its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of DXK on cerebrovascular function of HH-induced brain injury in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DSC-MR imaging was used to evaluate the effect of DXK on the brain blood perfusion of patients with hypoxic brain injury. HPLC analysis was used to detect the content of salidroside, gallic acid, tyrosol, corilagin, ellagic acid, isorhamnetin, quercetin and gingerol in DXK. The model of HH-induced brain injury in mice was established by an animal hypobaric and hypoxic chamber. The BABL/c mice were randomly divided into six groups: control group, model group, Hongjingtian oral liquid group (HOL, 3.3 ml/kg) and DXK groups (0.9, 1.8 and 3.6 g/kg). All mice (except the control group) were intragastrically administrated for a continuous 7 days and put into the animal hypobaric and hypoxic chamber after the last intragastric administration. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was employed to evaluate the pathological changes of brain tissue. Masson and Weigert stainings were used to detect the content of collagen fibers and elastic fibers of brain, respectively. Routine blood test and biochemical kits were used to analyze hematological parameters and oxidative stress indices. Immunofluorescence staining was applied to detect the protein levels of VEGF, CD31/vWF and α-SMA. RESULTS: The results of DSC-MR imaging confirmed that DXK can increased CBV in the left temporal lobe while decreased MTT in the right frontal lobe, right temporal lobe and right occipital lobe of the brain. DXK contains salidroside, gallic acid, tyrosol, corilagin, ellagic acid, isorhamnetin, quercetin and gingerol. Compared with the model group, DXK can ameliorate the atrophy and deformation, and increase the number of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA3 area and cortical neurocytes. Masson and Weigert stainings results revealed that DXK can significantly increase the content of collagen fibers and elastic fibers in brain. Routine blood test results demonstrated that DXK can dramatically decrease the levels of WBC, MCH and MCHC, while increase RBC, HGB, HCT, MCV and PLT in the blood samples. Biochemical results revealed that DXK can markedly increase SOD, CAT and GSH activities, while decrease MDA activity. Immunofluorescence revealed that DXK can notably increase the protein levels of VEGF, CD31/vWF and α-SMA. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study proved that DXK can ameliorate HH-induced brain injury by improving brain blood perfusion, increasing the number of collagen and elastic fibers and inhibiting oxidative stress injury. The underlying mechanisms may be involved in maintaining the integrity of cerebrovascular endothelial cells and vascular function. However, further in vivo and in vitro investigations are still needed to elucidate the mechanisms of DXK on regulating cerebral blood vessels.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003438

RESUMO

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an invasive epithelial neoplasm that is influenced by various risk factors, with a low survival rate and an increasing death rate. In the past few years, with the verification of the close relationship between different types of cancers and the microbiome, research has focused on the compositional changes of oral bacteria and their role in OSCC. Generally, oral bacteria can participate in OSCC development by promoting cell proliferation and angiogenesis, influencing normal apoptosis, facilitating invasion and metastasis, and assisting cancer stem cells. The study findings on the association between oral bacteria and OSCC may provide new insight into methods for early diagnosis and treatment development.

10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 559446, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117278

RESUMO

Background: To evaluate whether metformin use assuredly alters overall all-cause death in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched from inception to Feb. 29, 2020 with no language restriction. All related articles comparing all-cause death of T2DM and CKD patients after metformin use (monotherapy or combination) versus non-metformin treatment were identified. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using random-effects models regardless of the heterogeneity quantified by Cochrane χ2 and I2 statistics. Results: Totally 13 studies (9 cohort studies [CSs], 3 subanalyses or post-hoc analyses of randomized controlled trials [RCTs], and 1 nested case-control article) involving 303,540 patients were included. Metformin-based treatments relative to any other measure displayed significantly lower risks of all-cause mortality (Pooled RRs 0.71, 95%CI 0.61 to 0.84; I2 = 79.0%) and cardiovascular events (Pooled RRs 0.76, 95%CI 0.60 to 0.97; I2 = 87.0%) in CKD patients at stage G1-3, with substantial heterogeneity. Metformin use was not significantly related with these end points in advanced CKD patients. Conclusions: Metformin use is connected with significantly less risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with T2DM and mild/moderate CKD. However, RCTs with large sample sizes are warranted in the future to assess whether these key benefits extend to later stages of CKD by dose adjustment.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(41): 46609-46620, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955240

RESUMO

Owing to the diminishing resources and growing awareness of environmental issues, significant scientific attention has been paid to the development of physical gel materials using renewable and low-cost natural resources. Inspired by the strengthened mechanism of double-network and nanocomposite (NC) gels, we report a facile and green method to realize a mechanically stiff, fatigue-resistant, and adhesive-debranched waxy corn starch/poly(vinyl alcohol) double-crosslinked NC gel (W-Gel) skeleton material with dynamic noncovalent bonds. The in situ formation of debranched starch nanoparticles leads to self-assembly into three-dimensional waxberry-like microspheres, which act as physical cross-linkers by embedding themselves within network skeleton structures. The resulting hydrogel exhibited an excellent mechanical behavior, including a good stretchability over 1200% strain, a maximum compressive strength of up to 780.7 ± 27.8 kPa, and the ability to sustain as much weight as 4.6 kg (about 2000 times its own weight). Notably, the recovery efficiency exceeded 93% after the 60th compressive successive loading-unloading cycle at 50% strain. The hydrogel successfully adhered onto soft and hard substrates, such as skins, plastics, gauzes, glasses, and metals, manifesting in long-term, stable, sustained release of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The EGCG-loaded W-Gels exhibited predominant antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhus).

12.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 generated severe emotional reactions, and restricted mobility was a crucial measure to reduce the spread of the virus. This study describes the changes in public emotional reactions and mobility patterns in the Chinese population during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: We collected data on public emotional reactions in response to the outbreak through Weibo, the Chinese Twitter, between 1st January and 31st March 2020. Using anonymized location-tracking information, we analyzed the daily mobility patterns of approximately 90% of Sichuan residents. RESULTS: There were three distinct phases of the emotional and behavioral reactions to the COVID-19 outbreak. The alarm phase (19th-26th January) was a restriction-free period, characterized by few new daily cases, but a large amount public negative emotions [the number of negative comments per Weibo post increased by 246.9 per day, 95% confidence interval (CI) 122.5-371.3], and a substantial increase in self-limiting mobility (from 45.6% to 54.5%, changing by 1.5% per day, 95% CI 0.7%-2.3%). The epidemic phase (27th January-15th February) exhibited rapidly increasing numbers of new daily cases, decreasing expression of negative emotions (a decrease of 27.3 negative comments per post per day, 95% CI -40.4 to -14.2), and a stabilized level of self-limiting mobility. The relief phase (16th February-31st March) had a steady decline in new daily cases and decreasing levels of negative emotion and self-limiting mobility. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 outbreak in China, the public's emotional reaction was strongest before the actual peak of the outbreak and declined thereafter. The change in human mobility patterns occurred before the implementation of restriction orders, suggesting a possible link between emotion and behavior.

13.
Chin Med Sci J ; 35(3): 283-285, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972507

RESUMO

A 32-year-old man who complained of recurrent nauseat and vomiting was admitted to our hospital. The contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a cystic mass located behind the duodenum which was suggestive of lymphangioma. Laparoscopic resection of the retroperitoneal mass was successfully performed. The postoperatively pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous lymphangioma. Ultrasound and enhanced CT can be used for making a preoperative diagnosis. Once symptoms of the disease develop, complete surgical resection should be performed.

14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 429, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caucasian clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) is a strongly rhizomatous, low-crowned perennial leguminous and ground-covering grass. The species may be used as an ornamental plant and is resistant to cold, arid temperatures and grazing due to a well-developed underground rhizome system and a strong clonal reproduction capacity. However, the posttranscriptional mechanism of the development of the rhizome system in caucasian clover has not been comprehensively studied. Additionally, a reference genome for this species has not yet been published, which limits further exploration of many important biological processes in this plant. RESULT: We adopted PacBio sequencing and Illumina sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in five tissues, including taproot (T1), horizontal rhizome (T2), swelling of taproot (T3), rhizome bud (T4) and rhizome bud tip (T5) tissues, in the caucasian clover rhizome. In total, we obtained 19.82 GB clean data and 80,654 nonredundant transcripts were analysed. Additionally, we identified 78,209 open reading frames (ORFs), 65,227 coding sequences (CDSs), 58,276 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 6821 alternative splicing (AS) events, 2429 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and 4501 putative transcription factors (TFs) from 64 different families. Compared with other tissues, T5 exhibited more DEGs, and co-upregulated genes in T5 are mainly annotated as involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. We also identified betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) as a highly expressed gene-specific to T5. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of transcription factors and physiological indicators were combined to reveal 11 hub genes (MEgreen-GA3), three of which belong to the HB-KNOX family, that are up-regulated in T3. We analysed 276 DEGs involved in hormone signalling and transduction, and the largest number of genes are associated with the auxin (IAA) signalling pathway, with significant up-regulation in T2 and T5. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to our understanding of gene expression across five different tissues and provides preliminary insight into rhizome growth and development in caucasian clover.

15.
Opt Lett ; 45(17): 4956-4959, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870901

RESUMO

Fourier ptychography microscopy is a powerful tool for wide-field and high-spatial-resolution imaging. It can achieve a large field of view and high-spatial-resolution imaging with a low numerical aperture objective by capturing a series of low-resolution (LR) images that contain the information of different spatial frequencies and then stitching them together in the Fourier domain. Furthermore, the phase information of the object can also be recovered simultaneously. In this Letter, we propose a method to realize adaptive high-dynamic-range (HDR) LR image acquisition with a red, green, and blue camera, which needs only single exposure for each light-emitting diode (LED) illumination. According to the imaging principle of a color camera, the filter of each color channel still allows additional light within a certain wavelength range to pass through, but with a much smaller transmittance. By illuminating the sample with monochromatic light and combining the raw data from three color channels together, an HDR image corresponding to each LED illumination is obtained. The feasibility and good performance of our method are demonstrated by the experimental results.

16.
Pediatr Investig ; 4(2): 133-137, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851357

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection caused by mother-to-child transmission (MTCT, also known as vertical transmission) during the perinatal period is a major public health problem worldwide. Despite the availability of the combined active-passive immunization with a hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin after birth, about 9% of newborns are still infected with HBV, especially those born to hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive mothers. Currently, the management of HBV infection during pregnancy remains controversial. This article briefly reviews the recent advances in the epidemiology of HBV, immunization against it, and management strategies in the third trimester.

17.
Exp Ther Med ; 20(4): 3161-3173, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855685

RESUMO

The aim of present study was to evaluate the potential effects of Rhodiola crenulata oral liquid (RCOL) on exhaustive exercise (EE)-induced fatigue in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice from five treatment groups (n=10 per group) were orally administered with sterilized water for the Control and EE groups and/or RCOL at doses of 1.02, 3.03 and 6.06 ml/kg/day, once daily for 2 weeks. Anti-fatigue activity was subsequently evaluated by measuring the levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactic acid (LA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total anti-oxidative capability (T-AOC). Histopathology was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Ultrastructures of mitochondria were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Energy supply capacity was assessed using citrate synthase (CS), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), Na+-K+-ATPase, and liver and quadriceps glycogen content assays. Expression levels of mRNA and protein associated with mitophagy in the skeletal muscle were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. RCOL was observed to markedly inhibit fatigue-induced oxidative stress by increasing the activities of SOD, CAT and T-AOC, whilst reducing the accumulation of LA, CK, LDH and MDA. Histological analysis of the quadriceps femoris tissue suggested increased numbers of muscle fibers in the RCOL groups compared with those in the EE group. RCOL administration was found to reverse EE-induced mitochondrial structural damage and alleviated defects inflicted onto the energy supply mechanism by increasing CS, SDH, Na+-K+-ATPase and glycogen levels. Additionally, RCOL reduced the protein expression of PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), Parkin, microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3, sequestosome 1 and ubiquitin, whilst lowering the gene expression of PINK1 and Parkin. Taken together, results from the present study clarified the anti-fatigue effect of RCOL, where the underlying mechanism may be associated with increased antioxidant activity, enhanced energy production and the inhibition of mitophagy by suppressing the PINK1/Parkin signaling pathway.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635267

RESUMO

Scientific determination of energy and environmental efficiency and productivity is the key foundation of green development policy-making. The hyperbolic distance function (HDF) model can deal with both desirable output and undesirable output asymmetrically, and measure efficiency from the perspective of "increasing production and reducing pollution". In this paper, a nonparametric linear estimation method of an HDF model including uncontrollable index and undesirable output is proposed. Under the framework of global reference, the changes of energy environmental efficiency and productivity and their factorization of 107 resource-based cities in China from 2003 to 2018 are calculated and analyzed. With the classification of resource-based cities by resource dependence (RD) and region, we discuss the feature in green development quality of those cities. The results show that: (1) On the whole, the average annual growth rate of energy and environmental productivity of resource-based cities in China is 2.6%, which is mainly due to technological changes. The backward of relative technological efficiency hinders the further growth of productivity, while the scale diseconomy is the main reason for the backward of relative technological efficiency. (2) For the classification of RD, the energy and environmental efficiency of the high-dependent group are significantly lower than the other two, and the growth of productivity of the medium-dependent group is the highest. (3) In terms of classification by region, the energy and environmental efficiency of the eastern region is the highest, and that of the middle and western regions is not as good as that of the eastern and northeastern regions. The middle region shows the situation of "middle collapse" in both static efficiency and dynamic productivity change, and the main reason for its low productivity growth is the retreat of relatively pure technical efficiency. This conclusion provides practical reference for the classification and implementation of regional energy and environmental policies.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Política Ambiental , China , Cidades , Fenômenos Físicos
19.
Trials ; 21(1): 602, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, China has more than 11 million patients with stable coronary heart disease and this is becoming a major public health problem. The pathological changes of coronary heart disease can lead to dysfunction of the cardiac autonomic nervous system, which increases the risk of complications such as malignant arrhythmia (ventricular flutter, ventricular fibrillation, etc.), heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and rate-pressure product (RPP), which is highly correlated with myocardial oxygen consumption and indirectly reflects myocardial blood supply and oxygen consumption. Although the guidelines recommend that such patients take drugs to reduce heart rate and myocardial oxygen consumption, the clinical control of heart rate is still not ideal. Thus, in this trial, we will use voluntary breathing exercises as the strategy of exercise rehabilitation for patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD), in order to increase the vagus nerve activity and/or reduce the sympathetic nervous activity, help maintain or rebuild the balance of plant nerve system, improve the time-domain index of heart rate variability, reduce the burden on the heart, and relieve patients' anxiety and other negative emotions. METHODS: This is a 6-month single-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial that will be conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University. A total of 140 patients who fill out the Informed Consent Form are registered and randomized 1:1 into the Voluntary Breathing Exercises (VBE)-based clinical trial monitoring group (n = 70) or the Routine follow-up group (n = 70). The VBE-based clinical trial monitoring group is given VBE training on the basis of conventional treatment and health education, while the control group received conventional health education and follow-up. The primary outcomes will be measured heart rate variability and RPP. Secondary outcomes will include changes in Self-rating Anxiety Scale, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, weight, and body mass index. DISCUSSION: This trial will carry out scientific respiratory exercise for patients with SCAD, which belongs to the category of active secondary prevention for patients, and changes from remedial to pre-protective. VBE is easy to operate and is not limited by time and place. It is important and meaningful to carry out VBE for patients with SCAD. This study will provide considerable evidence for further large-scale trials and alternative strategies for the rehabilitation nursing of patients with SCAD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry, 1900024043 . Registered on 23 June 2019.

20.
Appl Spectrosc ; 74(10): 1230-1237, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597684

RESUMO

The confocal Raman microscope (CRM) is a powerful tool in analytical science. Image quality is the most important performance indicator of CRM systems. The point spread function (PSF) is one of the most useful tools to evaluate the image quality of microscopic systems. A method based on a point-like object is proposed to measure the PSF of CRM, and the size effect of spherical objects is discussed. A series of phantoms are fabricated by embedding different sizes of polystyrene microspheres into polydimethylsiloxane matrix. The diameters of microspheres are from 0.2 µm to 5 µm. The phantoms are tested by measuring the PSF of a commercial CRM whose nominal lateral resolution is about 1 µm. Results of the PSF are obtained and the accuracy of resolution is used to evaluate the size effect of the microspheres. Experimental results are well consistent with theoretical analysis. The error of the PSF can be decreased by reducing the diameter of the microsphere but meanwhile the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) will be lowered as well. The proper diameter of microspheres is proposed in consideration of the trade-off between the S/N and the measurement error of the PSF. Results indicate that the method provides a useful approach to measurement of the PSF and the resolution of the CRM.

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