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1.
Front Nutr ; 9: 868209, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662938

RESUMO

Asparagus [Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.] is a traditional herbal medicine plant commonly used to nourish yin, moisten dryness, and clear fire cough symptoms. Drying is an excellent option to conserve food materials, i.e., grains, fruits, vegetables, and herbs, reducing the raw materials volume and weight. This study aims to evaluate different drying approaches that could increase the value of asparagus, particularly as an ingredient in fast foods or as nutraceutical byproducts. The volatile components of asparagus roots were analyzed by using headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectroscopy under different drying conditions, i.e., natural drying (ND) at ambient air temperature in the dark, well-ventilated room, temperature range 28-32°C, blast or oven drying at 50°C, heat pump or hot-air drying at temperature 50°C and air velocity at 1.5 ms-1 and vacuum freeze-drying at the temperature of -45°C and vacuum pressure of 10-30 Pa for 24 h. The findings revealed that the various drying processes had multiple effects on the color, odor index, and volatile compounds of the asparagus roots. As a result of the investigations, multiple characteristics of components, therefore, exploitation and comparison of various flavors; a total of 22 compounds were identified, such as alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, acids, esters, heterocyclic, and terpene. The present findings may help understand the flavor of the processed asparagus roots and find a better option for drying and processing.

2.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 28: 755, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664694

RESUMO

[This retracts the article DOI: 10.1016/j.omtn.2018.12.006.].

3.
J Virol ; : e0038322, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699445

RESUMO

Despite the rapid deployment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants and reports of their immune evasion characteristics have led to an urgent need for novel vaccines that confer potent cross-protective immunity. In this study, we constructed three different SARS-CoV-2 spike S1-conjugated nanoparticle vaccine candidates that exhibited high structural homogeneity and stability. Notably, these vaccines elicited up to 50-times-higher neutralizing antibody titers than the S1 monomer in mice. Crucially, it was found that the S1-conjugated nanoparticle vaccine could elicit comparable levels of neutralizing antibodies against wild-type or emerging variant SARS-CoV-2, with cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), the effect of which could be further enhanced using our designed nanoparticles. Our results indicate that the S1-conjugated nanoparticles are promising vaccine candidates with the potential to elicit potent and cross-reactive immunity against not only wild-type SARS-CoV-2, but also its variants of concern, variants of interest, and even other pathogenic betacoronaviruses. IMPORTANCE The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants led to an urgent demand for a broadly effective vaccine against the threat of variant infection. The spike protein S1-based nanoparticle designed in our study could elicit a comprehensive humoral response toward different SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and variants of interest and will be helpful to combat COVID-19 globally.

4.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111185, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651042

RESUMO

Tremella fuciformis is an edible and medicinal mushroom. Polysaccharides from T. fuciformis have received increasing attention due to their diversely pharmacological activities. In this study, the digestive behavior and fermentation characteristics of T. fuciformis polysaccharides (TFP) were studied. The results revealed that the reducing sugar content, chemical composition, molecular weight, rheological property, constituent monosaccharide, and FT-IR spectrum of TFP were not altered after the in vitro simulated digestion, indicating that it was indigestible under different simulated digestion conditions. However, the physicochemical characteristics of TFP, including reducing sugar content, molecular weight, constituent monosaccharide, and free monosaccharide released, were obviously altered after the in vitro fermentation for 48 h, indicating that it was remarkably utilized by intestinal microbiota in human feces. Notably, TFP could obviously modulate the microbial composition via promoting the relative abundances of Phascolarctobacterium, Bacteroides, and Lachnoclostridium. Moreover, TFP could also increase the production of short-chain fatty acids, including acetic, propionic, n-butyric, and n-valeric acids, after the in vitro fermentation for 48 h. These results showed that TFP was stable under the simulated digestion conditions, but could be utilized by intestinal microbiota in human feces, and might possess the potential to improve intestinal health.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Basidiomycota , Fezes/microbiologia , Fermentação , Humanos , Monossacarídeos , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Açúcares
5.
Ann Bot ; 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Araceae are one of the most diverse monocot families with numerous morphological and ecological novelties. Plastid and mitochondrial genes have been used to investigate the phylogeny, and interpret shifts in the pollination biology and biogeography of the Araceae. In contrast, the role of whole-genome duplication (WGD) in the evolution of eight subfamilies remains unclear. METHODS: New transcriptomes or low-depth whole-genome sequences of 65 species were generated through Illumina sequencing. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of Araceae using concatenated and species tree methods, estimated then the age of major clades using TreePL. We inferred the WGD events by Ks and gene tree methods. We investigated the diversification patterns applying time-dependent and trait-dependent models. The expansions of gene families and functional enrichments were analyzed using CAFE and InterProScan. KEY RESULTS: Gymnostachydoideae was the earliest diverging lineage followed successively by Orontioideae, Lemnoideae and Lasioideae. In turn, they were followed by the clade of 'bisexual climbers' comprised of Pothoideae and Monsteroideae, which was resolved as the sister to the unisexual-flowered clade of Zamioculcadoideae and Aroideae. A special WGD event ψ (Psi) shared by the True-Araceae clade occurred in the Early Cretaceous. Net diversification rates first declined, increased then through time in the Araceae. The best diversification rate shift along the stem lineage of the True-Araceae clade was detected, and net diversification rates enhanced following the ψ-WGD. Functional enrichment analyses revealed that some genes, such as heat shock protein, glycosyl hydrolase and cytochrome P450, expanded within the True-Araceae clade. CONCLUSIONS: Our results improve our understanding of aroid phylogeny using the large number of single/low-copy nuclear genes. In contrast to the Proto-Araceae group and the lemnoid clade adaption to aquatic environments, our analyses of WGD, diversification and functional enrichment indicated that WGD may play a more important role in the evolution of adaptations to tropical, terrestrial environments in the True-Araceae clade. These insights provide us with new resources to interpret the evolution of the Araceae.

6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 127: 155-165, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716969

RESUMO

The reduction of fishmeal in aquafeeds has been the concern of researchers. Replacing fishmeal with plant proteins affects intestinal function and inflammation, but the interaction between the intestinal responses and gut microbiota remains unclear. In this study, juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was fed with four diets in which enzymatic rice protein (RP) replaced fishmeal at levels of 0 (FM), 2.5% (RP2.5), 5.0% (RP5.0), and 7.5% (RP7.5) for 8 weeks to solve the problem mentioned above. Quantification of intestinal morphology showed that 2.5% or 5.0% RP significantly increased villus length and goblet cell number, accompanied by higher activities of intestinal trypsin, alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) in RP2.5 group (P < 0.05). In contrast, 7.5% RP slightly damaged the intestinal mucosa and significantly reduced the activities of amylase, AKP, and NKA, as well as decreased serum complement 4 (C4) and immunoglobulin M (IgM). Noteworthy, RT-qPCR showed that 2.5% RP significantly down-regulated intestinal mRNA expression level of il8, while up-regulated mif, tlr4, tlr7, tgfß3, and cldn2. In contrast, 7.5% RP up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of il1ß, il8, and mif, while down-regulated cldn3d. Analysis of gut microbiota showed that 2.5% RP increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and significantly activated potential functions of gut microbiota involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The 7.5% RP increased the diversity of the gut microbiota, accompanied by a significant increase in the relative abundance of conditionally pathogenic bacteria such as Vibrio, Serratia, and Aeromonas (classified as Proteobacteria). Notably, Vibrio was the biomarker species with the greatest difference between the FM and RP7.5 groups (genus level). Correlation analysis indicated that Vibrio may affect immunity through the C4 pathway and further lead to gut inflammation and digestive impairment. Taken above, these results indicated that RP could affect intestinal morphology, digestion, and inflammation, and interact with the composition and potential function of gut microbiota. The low RP supplement (2.5%) improved intestinal morphology and digestion, while high supplement (7.5%) disrupted gut microbiota homeostasis, resulting in damage to intestinal mucosa and inflammatory response.

7.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 17(1): 34, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for more than half of total HCC patients in developing countries. Currently, HBV-related HCC diagnosis and prognosis still lack specific biomarkers. Here, we investigated if PRKRA expression in peripheral blood could be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis/prognosis of HBV-related HCC. METHODS: The expression of PRKRA in HBV-related HCC was firstly analyzed using TCGA and GEO databases. The results were confirmed in a validation cohort including 152 blood samples from 77 healthy controls and 75 HCC patients, 60 of which were infected with HBV. The potential diagnostic and prognostic values of PRKRA were also evaluated by the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) and Kaplan-Meier method, respectively. RESULTS: PRKRA was significantly upregulated in HCC patients, especially in those with HBV infections. In addition, the combination of PRKRA expression in peripheral blood with serum AFP and CEA levels displayed a better diagnostic performance (AUROC = 0.908, 95% CI 0.844-0.972; p < 0.001). Notably, when serum AFP is less than 200 ng/mL, PRKRA expression demonstrated better diagnostic capability. Furthermore, PRKRA expression levels were associated with expression of EIF2AK2 and inflammatory cytokine genes. CONCLUSIONS: Triple combination testing of blood PRKRA expression, serum AFP and CEA levels could be a noninvasive strategy for diagnosis; and the elevation of PRKRA expression could predicate poor prognosis for HBV-related HCC.

8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729693

RESUMO

The fruits ofLycium ruthenicum Murr have long been consumed as health food and used in folk medicine in China. Apart from the well-known polysaccharides, the active small molecular constituents in this fruit have not been fully studied. In this work, a systematic phytochemical study was carried out to investigate the small molecules and their potential health benefits. Nine new polyphenolic glycosides, lyciumserin A-I (1-9), together with 16 known compounds (10-25), were isolated and elucidated by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and comprehensive NMR analyses in combination with chemical hydrolysis. Compounds 1, 2, and 16 exhibited moderate inhibitory activity of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), while compounds 1 (50 µM) and 2 (100 µM) displayed significant neuroprotective effects (69.22 and 72.38% of cell viability, respectively) in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced injury of the PC12 cell model (54.41%), comparable to the positive drug rasagiline (70.45%). The neuroprotective effect of 1 and 2 was further evidenced by the observation of the morphological change and fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide staining. In addition, the levels of the major active compounds (1, 3, 5/6, and 16-18) vary from 21.5 to 892.3 µg/g. This is the first report on phenolic glycosides from the fruits ofL. ruthenicum Murr that possess both significant MAO-B inhibitory and neuroprotective effects, indicating the promising potential of the fruits for the development of health care products and even therapeutic agents for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.

9.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 900905, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35721851

RESUMO

Aims: In revision total hip arthroplasty (THA), large acetabular bone defects pose challenges for surgeons. Recently, wide application of trabecular tantalum, which has outstanding biocompatibility and mechanical properties, and the development of three-dimensional (3D) printing have led to the introduction of new schemes for acetabular reconstruction. However, few studies have focused on the treatment of bone defects with customized 3D-printed titanium augments combined with tantalum trabecular cup. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of this therapy in patients who underwent revision THAs. Patients and Methods: We included 23 patients with Paprosky type III acetabular bone defects who underwent revision THA between January 2013 and June 2019. The preoperative hip rotation center and functional score were compared with those at 2-7 years (average 4.7 years) postoperatively to evaluate the midterm prognosis of our treatment choice. Results: Postoperatively, the rotation centres of all hips were comparable with those of the contralateral hips. Hip function improved with average Harris Hip Score improved from 33.5 (22.7-40.2) to 86.1 (73.5-95.6) and average Oxford Hip Score improved from 8.3 (0-14) to 38.8 (35-48) during follow-up. One dislocation, which occurred due to extreme hip flexion within 6 weeks, was treated with closed reduction, and no recurrent dislocation occurred. No nerve injury, infection, aseptic loosening, or osteolysis were observed and no re-revision was performed in any patient. Conclusion: Satisfactory midterm outcomes were obtained with 3D-printed titanium augment combined with tantalum cup for the treatment of acetabular defects in revision THA. Changes in the Harris Hip Score and Oxford Hip Score suggested a significant improvement in hip function.

10.
Behav Brain Res ; 431: 113952, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688293

RESUMO

Cognitive dysfunction is a common symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). Serotonin4 (5-HT4) receptors are richly expressed in the dorsal hippocampus (dHIPP) and play an important role in cognitive activities. However, the mechanism underlying the role of dHIPP 5-HT4 receptors in PD-related cognitive dysfunction remains unclear. Here we found that unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle increased the protein expression of 5-HT4 receptors in the dHIPP, decreased hippocampal theta rhythm, and impaired working memory and hippocampus-dependent memory in the T-maze and hole-board test, respectively. Both activation and blockade of dHIPP 5-HT4 receptors (agonist BIMU8 and antagonist GR113808) improved working memory and hippocampus-dependent memory in the lesioned rats, but not in sham rats. Activation of dHIPP 5-HT4 receptors increased hippocampal theta rhythm in the lesioned rats. The neurochemical studies showed that injection of BIMU8, GR113808 or GR113808/BIMU8 in the dHIPP increased the levels of dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dHIPP and amygdala, and the level of 5-HT in the amygdala in the lesioned rats, but not in sham rats. Injection of GR113808 or GR113808/BIMU8 into the dHIPP also increased the levels of noradrenaline in the mPFC, dHIPP and amygdala only in the lesioned rats. These results suggest that activation or blockade of dHIPP 5-HT4 receptors may improve the cognitive impairments in parkinsonian rats, which may be due to the increase of hippocampal theta rhythm, up-regulated expressions of 5-HT4 receptors in the dHIPP and the changes in the levels of monoamines in the relative brain areas.

11.
Am J Transl Res ; 14(5): 2779-2800, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35702100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We developed a risk model based on pyroptosis-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and assessed its prognostic value and clinical significance in breast cancer (BRCA). METHODS: BRCA RNA sequencing data with corresponding clinical information were retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Univariate Cox regression analysis was used to examine correlations between prognosis of BRCA patients and the expression levels of pyroptosis-related lncRNAs. A prognostic model was developed and validated by identifying the correlation of risk scores with tumor immune infiltration and immune cell function through immune response analysis. Functional analyses of focal dysfunction-related lncRNA were also carried out. Lastly, single sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) was conducted to determine the differences in immune responses between the low- and high-risk groups. RESULTS: We divided the TCGA-BRCA dataset into 3 clusters by consensus clustering, and identified 11 pyroptosis-related lncRNAs that are differentially expressed between tumors and normal tissues. In addition, we determined if PD-L1 expression is associated with clustering and gene expression. The list was further narrowed down to eight pyroptosis-related lncRNAs and their regression coefficients were obtained through LASSO regression analysis. The relative proportion of 22 different immune cells in the BRCA microenvironment was determined using the CIBERSORT algorithm to explore the indicative effects of risk score on the tumor microenvironment (TME). We found that the resting mast cells, M0, and M2 macrophages were positively correlated with the risk scores. CONCLUSION: The potential role of pyroptosis-related lncRNAs in BRCA prognosis may be exploited as a treatment target for patients with BRCA.

12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 881968, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719338

RESUMO

The combination of vonoprazan (VPZ) and amoxicillin (VA therapy) has been shown to achieve acceptable eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Herein, our aim was to explore the short-term effect of VA therapy on the gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using human fecal samples. A total of 119 H. pylori-positive patients were randomized into low- or high-dose VA therapy (i.e., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d. or t.i.d. and VPZ 20 mg b.i.d.) for 7 or 10 days. Thirteen H. pylori-negative patients served as controls. Fecal samples were collected from H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. The gut microbiota and SCFAs were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. The gut microbiota in H. pylori-positive patients exhibited increased richness, diversity, and better evenness than matched patients. Fifty-three patients studied before and after H. pylori eradication were divided into low (L-VA) and high (H-VA) amoxicillin dose groups. The diversity and composition of the gut microbiota among L-VA patients exhibited no differences at the three time points. However, among H-VA patients, diversity was decreased, and the microbial composition was altered immediately after H-VA eradication but was restored by the confirmation time point. The decreased abundance of Anaerostipes, Dialister, and Lachnospira induced by H-VA was associated with altered SCFA levels. VA dual therapy for H. pylori eradication has minimal negative effects on gut microbiota and SCFAs.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/genética , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Humanos , Pirróis , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sulfonamidas
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 776814, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35646784

RESUMO

Objectives: To analyze the serum lipid profiles and investigate the relationship between the lipoprotein cholesterol levels and all-cause mortality in Chinese inpatient centenarians. Design: Retrospective study. Methods: Centenarians aged 100 years and older were admitted from January 2010 to January 2021 in our hospital. All centenarians completed a follow up visit till April 2021 of all-cause mortality and serum lipid profiles, including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the association between lipid profiles and all-cause mortality. Results: (1) These 121 centenarians on average were 100.85 ± 1.37 years old (100~107 years), including 114 males and 7 females. (2) The rate of treatment with lipid-lowering drugs was 69.4%, and the lipid-lowering drugs were mainly statins (63.6%). (3) The results of serum lipid profiles were as follows: TC 3.90 ± 0.69 mmol/L, TG 1.36 ± 0.55 mmol/L, HDL-C 1.14 ± 0.24 mmol/L, and LDL-C 2.05 ± 0.46 mmol/L. (4) The median follow-up time was 589 days (95% CI: 475, 703), and the all-cause mortality rate was 66.1%. (5) Multivariable analysis showed that higher TC level (HR = 1.968, 95% CI = 1.191-3.253, P = 0.008), lower LDL-C level (HR = 0.379, 95% CI = 0.212-0.677, P = 0.001) was independent factors contributed to all-cause mortality. Sensitivity analysis showed that the above results were stable. The therapy and complication morbidity did not present significant publication bias. Conclusions: The serum lipid profiles of Chinese inpatient centenarians were lower than those of the previous studies. Low LDL-C level was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, which may indicate that more intensive lowering of LDL-C had a potential adverse effect on all-cause mortality for centenarians.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triglicerídeos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of amoxicillin-vonoprazan (VA) dual therapy remained unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA 2009 guidelines. A systematic search of the Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted using the combination of ""Helicobacter pylori or H. pylori or Hp", "amoxicillin penicillin" and "Vonoprazan or TAK-438 or Takecab or (potassium AND competitive) or potassium-competitive". The initial and secondary outcome of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of VA dual therapy. RESULTS: 3 studies and 668 H. pylori infected patients were included in this meta-analysis. The crude eradication rate of VA dual therapy was 87.5% and 89.6% by ITT and PP analysis, respectively. No significant differences were observed regarding the VA dual therapy and vonoprazan-amoxicillin-clarithromycin (VAC) triple therapy according to ITT (RR = 0.99, 95% CI, 0.93-1.05, P = 0.65) and PP (RR =0.99, 95% CI, 0.94-1.05, P =0.82) analysis. The side effect of VA dual therapy was 19.1% (95% CI, 5.9-32.4), which was lower than that of VAC triple therapy but there was no statistical significance (RR = 0.75, 95% CI, 0.59-1.06, P = 0.12). CONCLUSION: VA dual therapy shows acceptable efficacy, good safety and avoid unnecessary antibiotic use in the first-line treatment for H. pylori infection. However, its application in other regions need to be further explored.

15.
Bioinformatics ; 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35723568

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: PERMANOVA (McArdle and Anderson, 2001) is currently the most commonly used method for testing community-level hypotheses about microbiome associations with covariates of interest. PERMANOVA can test for associations that result from changes in which taxa are present or absent by using the Jaccard or unweighted UniFrac distance. However, such presence-absence analyses face a unique challenge: confounding by library size (total sample read count), which occurs when library size is associated with covariates in the analysis. It is known that rarefaction (subsampling to a common library size) controls this bias, but at the potential costs of information loss and the introduction of a stochastic component into the analysis. RESULTS: Here we develop a non-stochastic approach to PERMANOVA presence-absence analyses that aggregates information over all potential rarefaction replicates without actual resampling, when the Jaccard or unweighted UniFrac distance is used. We compare this new approach to three possible ways of aggregating PERMANOVA over multiple rarefactions obtained from resampling: averaging the distance matrix, averaging the (element-wise) squared distance matrix, and averaging the F-statistic. Our simulations indicate that our non-stochastic approach is robust to confounding by library size and outperforms each of the stochastic resampling approaches. We also show that, when overdispersion is low, averaging the (element-wise) squared distance outperforms averaging the unsquared distance, currently implemented in the R package vegan. We illustrate our methods using an analysis of data on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in which samples from case participants have systematically smaller library sizes than samples from control participants. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: We have implemented all the approaches described above, including the function for calculating the analytical average of the squared or unsquared distance matrix, in our R package LDM, which is available on GitHub at https://github.com/yijuanhu/LDM. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

16.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660864

RESUMO

Gut bacterial symbionts can support animal nutrition by facilitating digestion and providing valuable metabolites. However, changes in symbiotic roles between immature and adult stages are not well documented, especially in ants. Here, we explored the metabolic capabilities of microbiomes sampled from herbivorous turtle ant (Cephalotes sp.) larvae and adult workers through (meta)genomic screening and in vitro metabolic assays. We reveal that larval guts harbor bacterial symbionts with impressive metabolic capabilities, including catabolism of plant and fungal recalcitrant dietary fibers and energy-generating fermentation. Additionally, several members of the specialized adult gut microbiome, sampled downstream of an anatomical barrier that dams large food particles, show a conserved potential to depolymerize many dietary fibers. Symbionts from both life stages have the genomic capacity to recycle nitrogen and synthesize amino acids and B-vitamins. With help of their gut symbionts, including several bacteria likely acquired from the environment, turtle ant larvae may aid colony digestion and contribute to colony-wide nitrogen, B-vitamin and energy budgets. In addition, the conserved nature of the digestive capacities among adult-associated symbionts suggests that nutritional ecology of turtle ant colonies has long been shaped by specialized, behaviorally-transferred gut bacteria with over 45 million years of residency.

17.
Gastric Cancer ; 2022 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A complex microbiota in the gastric mucosa (GM) has been unveiled recently and its dysbiosis is identified to be associated with gastric cancer (GC). However, the microbial composition in gastric fluid (GF) and its correlation with GM during gastric carcinogenesis are unclear. METHODS: We obtained GM and GF samples from 180 patients, including 61 superficial gastritis (SG), 55 intestinal metaplasia (IM) and 64 GC and performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The concentration of gastric acid and metabolite nitrite has been measured. RESULTS: Overall, the composition of microbiome in GM was distinct from GF with less diversity, and both were influenced by H. pylori infection. The structure of microbiota changed differentially in GM and GF across histological stages of GC, accompanied with decreased gastric acid and increased carcinogenic nitrite. The classifiers of GC based on microbial markers were identified in both GM and GF, including Lactobacillus, Veillonella, Gemella, and were further validated in an independent cohort with good performance. Interestingly, paired comparison between GM and GF showed that their compositional distinction remarkably dwindled from SG to GC, with some GF-enriched bacteria significantly increased in GM. Moreover, stronger interaction network between microbes of GM and GF was observed in GC compared to SG. CONCLUSION: Our results, for the first time, revealed a comprehensive profile of both GM and GF microbiomes during the development of GC. The convergent microbial characteristics between GM and GF in GC suggest that the colonization of carcinogenic microbes in GM might derive from GF.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701881

RESUMO

Sordarin ( 1 ) is a fungal diterpene glycoside that displays potent antifungal bioactivity through inhibition of elongation factor 2. The structures of sordarin and related compounds are featured by a highly rearranged tetracyclic diterpene core. In this work we identified a concise pathway in the biosynthesis of sordarin. A diterpene cyclase (SdnA) generates the 5/8/5 cycloaraneosene framework, which was decorated by a set of P450s that catalyze a series of oxidations, including hydroxylation, desaturation, and C-C bond oxidative cleavage, to give a carboxylate intermediate with a terminal alkene and a cyclopentadiene moiety. A novel Diels-Alderase SdnG catalyzes an intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) reaction on this intermediate to forge the sordarin core structure. The subsequent methyl hydroxylation and glycosylation completed the biosynthesis of sordarin. Our work disclosed a new strategy to the rearranged diterpene skeleton used by nature.

19.
Br J Cancer ; 2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35637410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been shown to be involved in tumorigenesis, but their precise role and molecular mechanisms in gastric cancer (GC) have not yet been fully elucidated. METHODS: Bioinformatics screening analysis, qRT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to identify the expression of HDAC4 in GC. In vitro and in vivo functional assays illustrated the biological function of HDAC4. RNA-seq, GSEA pathway analysis, and western blot revealed that HDAC4 activated p38 MAPK signalling. Immunofluorescence, western blot, and IHC verified the effect of HDAC4 on autophagy. ChIP and dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the transcriptional regulation mechanism of HDAC4 and ATG4B. RESULTS: HDAC4 is upregulated in GC and correlates with poor prognosis. In vitro and in vivo assays showed that HDAC4 contributes to the malignant phenotype of GC cells. HDAC4 inhibited the MEF2A-driven transcription of ATG4B and prevented MEKK3 from p62-dependent autophagic degradation, thus activating p38 MAPK signalling. Reciprocally, the downstream transcription factor USF1 enhanced HDAC4 expression by regulating HDAC4 promoter activity, forming a positive feedback loop and continuously stimulating HDAC4 expression and p38 MAPK signalling activation. CONCLUSION: HDAC4 plays an oncogenic role in GC, and HDAC4-based targeted therapy would represent a novel strategy for GC treatment.

20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 239: 113610, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triclosan (TCS) is a widely used synthetic antibacterial compound with ubiquitous human exposure. Animal studies have suggested the obesogenic effect of TCS exposure, but knowledge regarding its impacts on childhood obesity was limited. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of TCS exposure with childhood obesity in northern China. METHODS: This study included 423 children who participated in the 7-year-old follow-up visits of Laizhou Wan Birth Cohort in Shandong, northern China. Children's TCS exposure were determined in spot urine samples via high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass. Their height, weight, waist circumference, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were measured or calculated. BMI z-score ≥ 85th percentile was defined as overweight/obesity, and WHtR ≥ 0.5 was considered to be abdominal obesity. Multivariable linear regressions, generalized linear models (GLMs), and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to examine the associations between TCS exposure and obesity measures in children. RESULTS: Linear regressions showed that TCS concentrations, when treated as continuous variables, were positively associated with BMI z-score (ß = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.24) and body fat percentage (ß = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.13, 1.52). When TCS concentrations were categorized as a four-level ordinal variable, the results of GLMs were similar those of continuous variables and both of the positive trends were significant (p-trend = 0.049 for BMI z-score; p-trend = 0.023 for body fat percentage). Moreover, the higher TCS levels versus reference group were associated with an approximate 2-3 fold increased risk of abdominal obesity (p-trend = 0.044). CONCLUSION: Exposure to TCS was positively associated with obesity measures among 7-year-old children in northern, China. Given to the cross-sectional study design, a large prospective study is warranted to confirm our findings.

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