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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230126, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226034

RESUMO

The generation of genetically modified mouse models derived from gene targeting (GT) in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells (mESCs) has greatly advanced both basic and clinical research. Our previous finding that gene targeting at the Myh9 exon2 site in mESCs has a pronounced high homologous recombination (HR) efficiency (>90%) has facilitated the generation of a series of nonmuscle myosin II (NM II) related mouse models. Furthermore, the Myh9 gene locus has been well demonstrated to be a new safe harbor for site-specific insertion of other exogenous genes. In the current study, we intend to investigate the molecular biology underlying for this high HR efficiency from other aspects. Our results confirmed some previously characterized properties and revealed some unreported observations: 1) The comparison and analysis of the targeting events occurring at the Myh9 and several widely used loci for targeting transgenesis, including ColA1, HPRT, ROSA26, and the sequences utilized for generating these targeting constructs, indicated that a total length about 6 kb with approximate 50% GC-content of the 5' and 3' homologous arms, may facilitate a better performance in terms of GT efficiency. 2) Despite increasing the length of the homologous arms, shifting the targeting site from the Myh9 exon2, to intron2, or exon3 led to a gradually reduced GT frequency (91.7, 71.8 and 50.0%, respectively). This finding provides the first evidence that the HR frequency may also be associated with the targeting site even in the same locus. Meanwhile, the decreased trend of the GT efficiency at these targeting sites was consistent with the reduced percentage of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in the sequences for generating the targeting constructs, suggesting the potential effects of these DNA elements on GT efficiency; 3) Our series of targeting experiments and analyses with truncated 5' and 3' arms at the Myh9 exon2 site demonstrated that GT efficiency positively correlates with the total length of the homologous arms (R = 0.7256, p<0.01), confirmed that a 2:1 ratio of the length, a 50% GC-content and the higher amount of SINEs for the 5' and 3' arms may benefit for appreciable GT frequency. Though more investigations are required, the Myh9 gene locus appears to be an ideal location for identifying HR-related cis and trans factors, which in turn provide mechanistic insights and also facilitate the practical application of gene editing.

2.
Neural Regen Res ; 15(10): 1807-1813, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246621

RESUMO

Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is a transmembrane serine/threonine receptor kinase of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) receptor superfamily. ALK1 is specifically expressed in vascular endothelial cells, and its dynamic changes are closely related to the proliferation of endothelial cells, the recruitment of pericytes to blood vessels, and functional differentiation during embryonic vascular development. The pathophysiology of many cerebrovascular diseases is today understood as a disorder of endothelial cell function and an imbalance in the proportion of vascular cells. Indeed, mutations in ALK1 and its co-receptor endoglin are major genetic risk factors for vascular arteriovenous malformation. Many studies have shown that ALK1 is closely related to the development of cerebral aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and cerebral atherosclerosis. In this review, we describe the various roles of ALK1 in the regulation of angiogenesis and in the maintenance of cerebral vascular homeostasis, and we discuss its relationship to functional dysregulation in cerebrovascular diseases. This review should provide new perspectives for basic research on cerebrovascular diseases and offer more effective targets and strategies for clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

3.
Cancer Med ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the importance of commensal microbes in vaginal health is well appreciated, little is known about the effects of gynecological cancer (GynCa) and radiation therapy (RT) on the vaginal microbiome (VM) of postmenopausal women. METHODS: We studied women with GynCa, pre- (N = 65) and post-RT (N = 25) and a group of healthy controls (N = 67) by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from vaginal swabs and compared the diversity and composition of VMs between the three groups accounting for potential confounding factors in multivariate analysis of variance. RESULTS: Comparisons of cancer vs healthy groups revealed that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have significantly higher relative abundance in the healthy group, while the cancer group was enriched in 16 phylogroups associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and inflammation, including Sneathia, Prevotella, Peptoniphilus, Fusobacterium, Anaerococcus, Dialister, Moryella, and Peptostreptococcus. In our sample, RT affected the α-diversity and correlated with higher abundance of typically rare VM species, including several members of the Lacnospiraceae family, a taxon previously linked to vaginal dysbiosis. In addition to cancer and treatment modalities, age and vaginal pH were identified as significant parameters that structure the VM. CONCLUSIONS: This is among the first reports identifying VM changes among postmenopausal women with cancer. RT alone seems to affect several phylogroups (12 bacterial genera), while gynecological cancer and its treatment modalities are associated with even greater significant shifts in the vaginal microbiota including the enrichment of opportunistic bacterial pathogens, which warrants further attention.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160466

RESUMO

Design and construction of new functionalized supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) via coordination-driven self-assembly strategy is highly important in supramolecular chemistry and materials science. Herein, we present a family of well-defined metallacycles decorated with mesogenic forklike dendrons through the strategy of coordination-driven self-assembly. Due to the existence of mesogenic forklike dendrons, the obtained metallacycles displayed the smectic A liquid crystal phase at room temperature while their precursors exhibited the rectangular columnar liquid crystal phase. Interestingly, by taking advantage of the electrostatic interactions between the positively charged metallacycle and the negatively charged heparin, the doping of heparin induced a significant change of the liquid-crystalline behaviors of metallacycles. More importantly, the prepared liquid-crystalline metallacycles could be further applied for holographic storage of colored images. Notably, the rhomboidal metallacycle and hexagonal metallacycle gave rise to different holographic performances although they featured a similar liquid crystal phase behavior. Therefore, this research not only provides the first successful example of supramolecular liquid-crystalline metallacycles for holographic storage of colored images but also opens a new door for supramolecular liquid-crystalline metallacycles toward advanced optical applications.

5.
Cancer Res ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193289

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable refractory hematological malignancy arising from plasma cells in the bone marrow. Here we investigated miR-26a function in MM and tested single-wall carbon nanotube delivery of miR-26a in vitro and in vivo. miR-26a was downregulated in patient MM cells compared with plasma cells from healthy donors. miR-26a overexpression inhibited proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis in MM cell lines. To identify the targets of miR-26a, RPMI8226-V-miR-26-GFP and RPMI8226-V-GFP cells were cultured using Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) medium followed by mass spectrometry analysis. In MM cells overexpressing miR-26a, CD38 protein was downregulated and subsequently confirmed to be a direct target of miR-26a. Depletion of CD38 in MM cells duplicated the MM inhibition observed with exogenous expression of miR-26a, whereas restoration of CD38 overcame the inhibition of miR-26a in MM cells. In a human MM xenograft mouse model, overexpression of miR-26a inhibited CD38 expression, provoked cell apoptosis, and inhibited cell proliferation. Daratumumab is the first CD38 antibody drug for monotherapy and combination therapy for MM patients, but eventually resistance develops. In MM cells, CD38 remained at low level during daratumumab treatment, but a high quality response is sustained. In daratumumab-resistant MM cells, CD38 expression was completely restored but failed to correlate with daratumumab-induced cell death. Therefore, a therapeutic strategy to confer selection pressure to maintain low CD38 expression in MM cells may have clinical benefit.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(6)2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204414

RESUMO

Nowadays, integrated joint modules are increasingly adopted in manipulators for their advantages of high integration, miniaturization and high repeatability positioning accuracy. The problem of generally low absolute positioning accuracy (namely angle measurement accuracy) must be solved before they can be introduced into the self-driven articulated arm coordinate measuring machine which is under study in our laboratory. In this study, the sources of joint module's angle error were analyzed and the error model based on harmonic analysis was established. Two integrated joint modules were calibrated on the self-designed calibration platform and the model parameters were deduced, respectively. The angle error was then compensated in the experiments and the results demonstrated that the angle error of the joint modules was reduced by 82.03% on average. The established angle error model can be effectively applied into the self-driven articulated arm coordinated measuring machine.

7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008070, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150558

RESUMO

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has become a major public health issue in China. The disease incidence varies substantially over time and across space. To understand the heterogeneity of HFMD transmission, we compare the spatiotemporal dynamics of HFMD in Qinghai and Shanghai by conducting combined analysis of epidemiological, wavelet time series, and mathematical methods to county-level data from 2009 to 2016. We observe hierarchical epidemic waves in Qinghai, emanating from Huangzhong and in Shanghai from Fengxian. Besides population, we also find that the traveling waves are significantly associated with socio-economic and geographical factors. The population mobility also varies between the two regions: long-distance movement in Qinghai and between-neighbor commuting in Shanghai. Our findings provide important evidence for characterizing the heterogeneity of HFMD transmission and for the design and implementation of interventions, such as deploying optimal vaccine and changing local driving factors in the transmission center, to prevent or limit disease spread in these areas.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(12): 13731-13738, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155326

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) biofilms are associated with a wide range of infections, from chronic tissue diseases to implanted medical devices. In a biofilm, the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) causes an inhibited penetration of antibacterial agents, leading to a 100-1000 times tolerance of the bacteria. In view of the water-filled channels in biofilms and the highly negative charge of EPS, we design a chitosan-polyethylene glycol-peptide conjugate (CS-PEG-LK13) in this study. The CS-PEG-LK13 prefers a neutrally charged assembly at a size of ∼100 nm in aqueous environment, while undergoes disassembly to expose the α-helical peptide at the bacterial cell membrane. This behavior provides CS-PEG-LK13 superiorities in both penetrating the biofilms and inactivating the bacteria. At a concentration of 8 times the minimum inhibitory concentration, CS-PEG-LK13 has a much higher antibacterial efficiency (72.70%) than LK13 peptide (15.24%) and tobramycin (33.57%) in an in vitro P. aeruginosa biofilm. Moreover, CS-PEG-LK13 behaves comparable capability of combating an implanted P. aeruginosa biofilm to highly excess tobramycin. This work has implications for the design of new antibacterial agents in biofilm combating.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230548, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191764

RESUMO

Radiologic characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (NCIP) which had not been fully understood are especially important for diagnosing and predicting prognosis. We retrospective studied 27 consecutive patients who were confirmed NCIP, the clinical characteristics and CT image findings were collected, and the association of radiologic findings with mortality of patients was evaluated. 27 patients included 12 men and 15 women, with median age of 60 years (IQR 47-69). 17 patients discharged in recovered condition and 10 patients died in hospital. The median age of mortality group was higher compared to survival group (68 (IQR 63-73) vs 55 (IQR 35-60), P = 0.003). The comorbidity rate in mortality group was significantly higher than in survival group (80% vs 29%, P = 0.018). The predominant CT characteristics consisted of ground glass opacity (67%), bilateral sides involved (86%), both peripheral and central distribution (74%), and lower zone involvement (96%). The median CT score of mortality group was higher compared to survival group (30 (IQR 7-13) vs 12 (IQR 11-43), P = 0.021), with more frequency of consolidation (40% vs 6%, P = 0.047) and air bronchogram (60% vs 12%, P = 0.025). An optimal cutoff value of a CT score of 24.5 had a sensitivity of 85.6% and a specificity of 84.5% for the prediction of mortality. 2019-nCoV was more likely to infect elderly people with chronic comorbidities. CT findings of NCIP were featured by predominant ground glass opacities mixed with consolidations, mainly peripheral or combined peripheral and central distributions, bilateral and lower lung zones being mostly involved. A simple CT scoring method was capable to predict mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Idoso , China , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
J Immunol ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169843

RESUMO

Nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) and RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) detect diverse pathogen-associated molecular patterns to activate the innate immune response. The role of mammalian NLR NOD1 in sensing bacteria is well established. Although several studies suggest NOD1 also plays a role in sensing viruses, the mechanisms behind this are still largely unknown. In this study, we report on the synergism and antagonism between NOD1 and MDA5 isoforms in teleost. In zebrafish, the overexpression of NOD1 enhances the antiviral response and mRNA abundances of key antiviral genes involved in RLR-mediated signaling, whereas the loss of NOD1 has the opposite effect. Notably, spring viremia of carp virus-infected NOD1-/- zebrafish exhibit reduced survival compared with wild-type counterparts. Mechanistically, NOD1 targets MDA5 isoforms and TRAF3 to modulate the formation of MDA5-MAVS and TRAF3-MAVS complexes. The cumulative effects of NOD1 and MDA5a (MDA5 normal form) were observed for the binding with poly(I:C) and the formation of the MDA5a-MAVS complex, which led to increased transcription of type I IFNs and ISGs. However, the antagonism between NOD1 and MDA5b (MDA5 truncated form) was clearly observed during proteasomal degradation of NOD1 by MDA5b. In humans, the interactions between NOD1-MDA5 and NOD1-TRAF3 were confirmed. Furthermore, the roles that NOD1 plays in enhancing the binding of MDA5 to MAVS and poly(I:C) are also evolutionarily conserved across species. Taken together, our findings suggest that mutual regulation between NOD1 and MDA5 isoforms may play a crucial role in the innate immune response and that NOD1 acts as a positive regulator of MDA5/MAVS normal form-mediated immune signaling in vertebrates.

12.
Molecules ; 25(5)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121474

RESUMO

Sensitive and selective detection of harmful gas is an important task in environmental monitoring. In this work, a gas sensor based on cataluminescence (CTL) for detection of acetaldehyde was designed by using nano-NiO as the sensing material. The sensor shows sensitive response to acetaldehyde at a relatively low working temperature of 200 °C. The linear range of CTL intensity versus acetaldehyde concentration is 0.02-2.5 mg/L, with a limit of detection of 0.006 mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio of three. Mechanism study shows that electronically excited CO2 is the excited intermediate for CTL emission during the catalytic oxidation of acetaldehyde on the NiO surface. The proposed sensor has promising application in monitoring acetaldehyde in residential buildings and in the workplace.

13.
Toxicon ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135197

RESUMO

T-2 and HT-2 widely found in food products can seriously affect human and animal health. In this study, sterilized corn was inoculated with F. poae and incubated to allow fungal growth before being examined via liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to determine the concentrations of T-2/HT-2. Broilers were then fed with a mix of moldy corn and normal feed at different ratios to obtain different toxin doses. After 35 days, the contaminated feed was replaced with mycotoxin-free feed and the distribution and concentration of residual toxins in the tissues and organs of the chickens were examined at different time points. The results showed that at the time of feed replacement (0 h), T-2 residue was present at significantly higher concentrations in the lungs and small intestines than in other tissues (P < 0.05). In addition, T-2 concentrations increased in a dose-dependent manner in the tissues of chickens in the low-, medium-, and high-dose groups; however, the differences in concentration between the groups were not statistically significant. The HT-2 content (0 h) in the livers and small intestines was significantly higher than that in other tissues (P < 0.05). At 48 h post-feed replacement, the concentration of T-2 dropped below detectable levels in all tissues while HT-2 could still be detected at 192 h post-feed replacement. Thus, this study reveals the distribution and persistence of residual T-2/HT-2 from moldy feed in broilers, providing a reference for the detection of these toxins in animal-derived food products and a theoretical basis for formulating food-safety and quality standards.

14.
Neuroimage ; 211: 116657, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068165

RESUMO

The neural mechanisms that support naturalistic learning via effective pedagogical approaches remain elusive. Here we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to measure brain activity from instructor-learner dyads simultaneously during dynamic conceptual learning. Results revealed that brain-to-brain coupling was correlated with learning outcomes, and, crucially, appeared to be driven by specific scaffolding behaviors on the part of the instructors (e.g., asking guiding questions or providing hints). Brain-to-brain coupling enhancement was absent when instructors used an explanation approach (e.g., providing definitions or clarifications). Finally, we found that machine-learning techniques were more successful when decoding instructional approaches (scaffolding vs. explanation) from brain-to-brain coupling data than when using a single-brain method. These findings suggest that brain-to-brain coupling as a pedagogically relevant measure tracks the naturalistic instructional process during instructor-learner interaction throughout constructive engagement, but not information clarification.

15.
Neuroimage ; 211: 116655, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084565

RESUMO

Why is some music well-received whereas other music is not? Previous research has indicated the close temporal dependencies of neural activity among performers and among audiences. However, it is unknown whether similar neural contingencies exist between performers and audiences. Here, we used dual near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to assess whether inter-brain synchronization between violinist and audience underlies the popularity of violin performance. In the experiment, individual audience members (16 females) watched pre-recorded videos, each lasting 100 â€‹s or so, in which a violinist performed 12 musical pieces. The results showed that the popularity of the performance correlated with the left-temporal inter-brain coherence (IBC) between the audience and the violinist. The correlation was stronger at late watching (>50 â€‹s) than at early watching (≤50 â€‹s). The smaller the Granger causality from the audience to the violinist was, the higher was the popularity of the piece with the audience. Discriminant analysis showed that the IBC could distinguish high popularity from low popularity. Further analysis using support vector regression showed that the IBC could also predict the popularity. These findings reveal the association of IBC with the popularity of violin performance. Music appreciation involves the brains of music producers and perceivers in a temporally aligned network through which audiences perceive the intentions of the performer and show positive emotions related to the musical performance.

16.
Otol Neurotol ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) versus placebo or no intervention in the treatment of tympanic membrane (TM) perforations from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective and retrospective studies. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were screened from their inceptions to June 2019. STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria: 1) English language; 2) observational (retrospective or prospective) or treatment (RCT) studies; 3) reported the outcomes on the application of bFGF in adult or pediatric population. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: 1) studies without a control group; 2) animal studies, in vitro studies, review studies, and case reports. DATA EXTRACTION: Number of patients, cause of TM perforation, perforation size, treatment, mean age, follow-up time, sex, closure rate, healing time, mean air-bone gap improvement. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 14 studies were included, including seven RCTs and seven non-RCTs with a total of 1,072 participants. The odds ratio for closure rate of bFGF treatment was 7.33 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.65 to 11.53; p < 0.01; I = 44%) and the standardized mean difference (SMD) for healing time was -5.89 (95% CI: -7.85 to -3.93, p < 0.01, I = 98%), suggesting bFGF application has a significant effect on closure of TM perforations. However, no significant change in hearing (SMD: 0.08, 95% CI: -0.11 to 0.27, p = 0.39, I = 0%) was seen as a result of bFGF treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis has revealed that the application of bFGF can significantly enhance the closure rate as well as shorten the healing time for TM perforations. In terms of hearing, there is as yet no evidence that bFGF has a significant effect. Given its ease, availability, and safety, bFGF can be used effectively for TM repair.

17.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 189: 110854, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086023

RESUMO

Photothermal therapy emerges as a promising approach in antitumor treatment. A major challenge for conventional photothermal therapy is its unselective hyperthermia distribution within tumor tissues, which leads to detrimental effects on surrounding healthy tissues and compromised therapeutic effectiveness. In this study, a targeted photothermal delivery nanoplatform (P-D-CS-CNTs) was facilely fabricated by decoration of an acidity-labile polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivative onto chitosan nanoparticles encapsulating single-walled carbon nanotubes. P-D-CS-CNTs displayed a good stability in serum at normal physiological pH and convertibility of surface charges upon exposure to tumoral acidic pH, which was attributed to the acidity-triggered dePEGylation. The confocal laser scanning microscopic observations suggested that such surface-convertibility of nanoparticles facilitated tumor cell uptake, endo/lyososomal escape, and enhanced mitochondrial targeting. Furthermore, upon irradiation with an 808 nm laser, P-D-CS-CNTs could sabotage mitochondria with mild hyperthermia, which further induced the ROS burst from damaged mitochondria. The overdosed ROS ultimately resulted in mitochondrial damage and cell death. These findings indicate that the surface-convertible nanoplatform is promising for improved photothermal anticancer therapy.

18.
Target Oncol ; 15(1): 93-100, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy based on programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors has revolutionized the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with high PD-L1 expression or DNA mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR)/microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) cancer are reported to benefit from PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. However, additional biomarkers are needed, and whether tumor mutation burden (TMB) can be a robust biomarker or not is still controversial. OBJECTIVE: We conducted this study to assess TMB as a biomarker for PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor treatment in advanced NSCLC patients in a real-world setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Chinese NSCLC patients who received a PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor at the People's Liberation Army General Hospital and who had pathological tissues available for TMB were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic and clinical information were evaluated. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the tumor tissue was performed. The relationship between TMB and clinical benefit was assessed. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients treated with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors between March 2015 and January 2019 were analyzed. The TMB was greater in patients with complete response (CR)/partial response (PR) versus stable disease (SD) versus progressive disease (PD) (median 11 vs. 9.7 vs. 4.2 mutations/megabase [Mb]; p = 0.049). The median progression-free survival was 10.6 months in the TMB-high group versus 3.9 months in the TMB-low group (cut-off value = 10 mutations/Mb) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.26 [95% confidence interval 0.12-0.57], p = 0.0007). The median overall survival was 21.0 months and 11.6 months (HR 0.37 [0.17-0.81], p = 0.0126) in the TMB-high group and the TMB-low group, respectively. The disease control rate was higher in the TMB-high group than in the TMB-low group (100% vs. 70%, p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: High TMB was associated with a better outcome in advanced NSCLC patients who received PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in China. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

19.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Jin Yin-tan Hospital of Wuhan, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. RESULTS: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown ß-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. CONCLUSION: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.

20.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(530)2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051229

RESUMO

Sudden death could be the first symptom of patients with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC), a disease for which clinical indicators predicting adverse progression remain lacking. Recent findings suggest that metabolic dysregulation is present in AC. We performed this study to identify metabolic indicators that predicted major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with AC and their relatives. Comparing explanted hearts from patients with AC and healthy donors, we identified deregulated metabolic pathways using quantitative proteomics. Right ventricles (RVs) from patients with AC displayed elevated ketone metabolic enzymes, OXCT1 and HMGCS2, suggesting higher ketone metabolism in AC RVs. Analysis of matched coronary artery and sinus plasma suggested potential ketone body synthesis at early-stage AC, which was validated using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) in vitro. Targeted metabolomics analysis in RVs from end-stage AC revealed a "burned-out" state, with predominant medium-chain fatty acid rather than ketone body utilization. In an independent validation cohort, 65 probands with mostly non-heart failure manifestations of AC had higher plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate (ß-OHB) than 62 healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). Probands with AC with MACE had higher ß-OHB than those without MACE (P < 0.001). Among 94 relatives of probands, higher plasma ß-OHB distinguished 25 relatives having suspected AC from nonaffected relatives. This study demonstrates that elevated plasma ß-OHB predicts MACE in probands and disease progression in patients with AC and their clinically asymptomatic relatives.

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