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1.
Theranostics ; 10(5): 2293-2308, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089743

RESUMO

Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures severely compromise quality of life in elderly people and lead to early death. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (hucMSC-EVs) possess considerable therapeutic effects in tissue repair and regeneration. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of hucMSC-EVs on primary and secondary osteoporosis and explored the underlying mechanisms. Methods: hucMSCs were isolated and cultured. EVs were obtained from the conditioned medium of hucMSCs and determined by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and Western Blot analyses. The effects of hucMSC-EVs on ovariectomy-induced postmenopausal osteoporosis and tail suspension-induced hindlimb disuse osteoporosis in mouse models were assessed by using microcomputed tomography, biomechanical, histochemical and immunohistochemical, as well as histomorphometric analyses. Proteomic analysis was applied between hucMSC-EVs and hucMSCs to screen the candidate proteins that mediate hucMSC-EVs function. The effects of hucMSC-EVs on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs), and osteoclastogenesis of the macrophage cell line RAW264.7 in vitro were determined by using cytochemical staining and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Subsequently, the roles of the key protein in hucMSC-EVs-induced regulation on BMSCs and RAW264.7 cells were evaluated. Results: hucMSCs were able to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes or chondrocytes and positively expressed CD29, CD44, CD73 and CD90, but negatively expressed CD34 and CD45. The morphological assessment revealed the typical cup- or sphere-shaped morphology of hucMSC-EVs with diameters predominantly ranging from 60 nm to 150 nm and expressed CD9, CD63, CD81 and TSG101. The systemic administration of hucMSC-EVs prevented bone loss and maintained bone strength in osteoporotic mice by enhancing bone formation, reducing marrow fat accumulation and decreasing bone resorption. Proteomic analysis showed that the potently pro-osteogenic protein, CLEC11A (C-type lectin domain family 11, member A) was very highly enriched in hucMSC-EVs. In addition, hucMSC-EVs enhanced the shift from adipogenic to osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs via delivering CLEC11A in vitro. Moreover, CLEC11A was required for the inhibitory effects of hucMSC-EVs on osteoclast formation. Conclusion: Our results suggest that hucMSC-EVs serve as a critical regulator of bone metabolism by transferring CLEC11A and may represent a potential agent for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101395

RESUMO

The aprotic lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery has triggered tremendous efforts for advanced energy storage due to the high energy density. However, realizing toroid-like Li2O2 deposition in low-donor-number (DN) solvents is still the intractable obstruction. Herein, a heterostructured NiS2/ZnIn2S4 is elaborately developed and investigated as a promising catalyst to regulate the Li2O2 deposition in low-DN solvents. The as-developed NiS2/ZnIn2S4 promotes interfacial electron transfer, regulates the adsorption energy of the reaction intermediates, and accelerates O-O bond cleavage, which are convincingly evidenced experimentally and theoretically. As a result, the toroid-like Li2O2 product is achieved in a Li-O2 battery with low-DN solvents via the solvation-mediated pathway, which demonstrates superb cyclability over 490 cycles and a high output capacity of 3682 mA h g-1. The interface engineering of heterostructure catalysts offers more possibilities for the realization of toroid-like Li2O2 in low-DN solvents, holding great promise in achieving practical applications of Li-O2 batteries as well as enlightening the material design in catalytic systems.

3.
J Endocrinol ; 245(1): 93-100, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027602

RESUMO

Remodeling of energy-storing white fat into energy-consuming beige fat has led to a promising new approach to alleviate adiposity. Several studies have shown adipokines can induce white adipose tissue (WAT) beiging through autocrine or paracrine actions. Betatrophin, a novel adipokine, has been linked to energy expenditure and lipolysis but not clearly clarified. Here, we using high-fat diet-induced obesity to determine how betatrophin modulate beiging and adiposity. We found that betatrophin-knockdown mice displayed less white fat mass and decreased plasma TG and NEFA levels. Consistently, inhibition of betatrophin leads to the phenotype change of adipocytes characterized by increased mitochondria contents, beige adipocytes and mitochondria biogenesis-specific markers both in vivo and in vitro. Of note, blocking AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway is able to abolish enhanced beige-like characteristics in betatrophin-knockdown adipocytes. Collectively, downregulation of betatrophin induces beiging in white adipocytes through activation of AMPK signaling pathway. These processes suggest betatrophin as a latent therapeutic target for obesity.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(8): 4152-4157, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029596

RESUMO

Whenever a genetically homogenous population of bacterial cells is exposed to antibiotics, a tiny fraction of cells survives the treatment, the phenomenon known as bacterial persistence [G.L. Hobby et al., Exp. Biol. Med. 50, 281-285 (1942); J. Bigger, The Lancet 244, 497-500 (1944)]. Despite its biomedical relevance, the origin of the phenomenon is still unknown, and as a rare, phenotypically resistant subpopulation, persisters are notoriously hard to study and define. Using computerized tracking we show that persisters are small at birth and slowly replicating. We also determine that the high-persister mutant strain of Escherichia coli, HipQ, is associated with the phenotype of reduced phenotypic inheritance (RPI). We identify the gene responsible for RPI, ydcI, which encodes a transcription factor, and propose a mechanism whereby loss of phenotypic inheritance causes increased frequency of persisters. These results provide insight into the generation and maintenance of phenotypic variation and provide potential targets for the development of therapeutic strategies that tackle persistence in bacterial infections.

5.
Small ; 16(8): e1905480, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994288

RESUMO

Colloidal lithography technology based on monolayer colloidal crystals (MCCs) is considered as an outstanding candidate for fabricating large-area patterned functional nanostructures and devices. Although many efforts have been devoted to achieve various novel applicatons, the quality of MCCs, a key factor for the controllability and reproducibility of the patterned nanostructures, is often overlooked. In this work, an interfacial capillary-force-driven self-assembly strategy (ICFDS) is designed to realize a high-quality and highly-ordered hexagonal monolayer MCCs array by resorting the capillary effect of the interfacial water film at substrate surface as well as controlling the zeta potential of the polystyrene particles. Compared with the conventional self-assembly method, this approach can realize the reself-assembly process on the substrate surface with few colloidal aggregates, vacancy, and crystal boundary defects. Furthermore, various typical large-scale nanostructure arrays are achieved by combining reactive ion etching, metal-assisted chemical etching, and so forth. Specifically, benefiting from the as-fabricated high-quality 2D hexagonal colloidal crystals, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors achieve an excellent refractive index sensitivity value of 3497 nm RIU-1 , which is competent for detecting bovine serum albumin with an ultralow concentration of 10-8 m. This work opens a window to prepare high-quality MCCs for more potential applications.

6.
Biomed Instrum Technol ; 54(1): 37-43, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961742

RESUMO

Hydrophilic polymer coatings on intravascular devices lower friction between the device and vasculature, thereby reducing trauma during interventional procedures. Polymer coating embolism-the detachment and downstream embolism of polymer particles-has been reported as an iatrogenic complication of coated interventional devices affecting the vasculature and various organs. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) acknowledges this complication and continues to work with stakeholders to close gaps in performance testing and standards related to polymer coating integrity. Recent innovations within interventional technologies have led to development of new hydrophilic-coated devices with expanded indications for use. The 2018 FDA draft guidance for intravascular guidewires expands the application of particulate generation testing to most devices and recommends labeling changes to increase industry awareness. This article highlights current procedural trends where the phenomenon of polymer coating embolism may be more prevalent. It describes the mechanisms of polymer separation, reported clinical sequelae, and risk factors for relevant indications. These procedural trends and associated risk factors articulate the need for particulate testing and support the FDA's draft guidance recommendations for performance testing of applied coatings. If standardized, particulate assessments may allow characterization and comparisons of coating integrity among devices from various manufacturers, and are an important foundation for setting particulate limits. As hydrophilic coatings enable endovascular treatment for a range of patient populations, setting particulate limits or finding alternative solutions without compromise to device function may be essential. Particulate testing is relevant to physicians, regulators, and manufacturers for the purposes of product development and quality improvement of interventional devices.


Assuntos
Embolia , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Polímeros , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983201

RESUMO

The exploitation of novel porous materials for capturing/adsorption of harmful gases is considered a very promising approach to deal with air pollution. Herein, bipyridinium-based ionic covalent triazine frameworks (ICTFs) were synthesized via ZnCl2-catalyzed ionothermal polymerization. The as-prepared ICTFs had a satisfactory total pore volume and specific surface of approximately 0.4582 cm3 g-1 and 1000 m2 g-1, respectively. Moreover, the specific surface area, pore size and distribution, and total pore volumes of ICTFs could be adjusted via ion-exchange of the anion. The obtained ICTFs were explored as adsorbent for the separation/adsorption of the mixed gases (SO2, CO2, NO and N2), and they showed the strong adsorption ability for CO2 (2.75 mmol g-1), SO2 (9.22 mmol g-1) and NO (4.05 mmol g-1) at 1 bar and 298K. This unique design provides a new insight to prepare high-efficiency porous materials for CO2, SO2 and NO capture.

8.
World Neurosurg ; 134: e196-e203, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic subdural hematomas (cSDHs) are common neurosurgical pathological entities and typically occur after trauma in elderly patients. The 2 most commonly used strategies for treatment have included burr hole drainage and craniotomy with decompression. However, the choice of these procedures has remained controversial and has been primarily determined by surgeon preference. We designed a matched-cohort analysis to compare these 2 procedures and identify the risk factors associated with the postoperative outcomes. Thus, we compared the rates of reoperation and mortality for patients who had undergone craniotomy versus burr hole evacuation for cSDH. METHODS: A retrospective review examining the data from 299 consecutive patients with cSHDs from 2002 to 2015 was performed. We compared the following endpoints between the 2 procedures: 30-day mortality, discharge to a skilled nursing facility, and the need for reoperation. We also compared the potential risk factors in the patients with different primary outcomes. RESULTS: Patients undergoing craniotomy had a decreased need for reoperation compared with patients treated with burr hole evacuation (7.5% vs. 15.7%; P = 0.044). Older age was associated with both increased disposition to a nursing facility and increased 30-day mortality in both groups. Increased 30-day mortality was associated with aspirin usage in patients who had undergone craniotomy and with warfarin (Coumadin) in patients who had undergone burr hole evacuation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified an increased need for reoperation for patients treated with burr hole evacuation compared with those undergoing craniotomy. Older age and low Glasgow coma scale scores were associated with worse outcomes in both groups. Certain methods of anticoagulation were also associated with worse outcomes, which varied between the 2 groups. We recommend that surgeons individualize the choice of procedure according to the specific patient characteristics with consideration of these findings.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(1): 591-600, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820918

RESUMO

With the growing demand for high energy and high power density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, increasing research is focused on improving the output voltage of these batteries. Herein, a series of pyrrolidinium and piperidinium cations with various N-substituents (including cyanomethyl, benzyl, butyl, hexyl, and octyl groups) were synthesized and investigated with respect to their electrochemical stability under high voltages. The influence of substitutions at the N-position of pyrrolidinium and piperidinium cations on their high-voltage resistance was studied by both theoretical and experimental approaches. The voltage resistance was enhanced as the electron-donating ability of the substitutes increased. Furthermore, 1-hexyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([C6Py][TFSI]) exhibited the highest decomposition voltage at approximately 5.12 V and showed promising potential in a lithium-ion battery.

10.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 9(2): 235-245, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148412

RESUMO

The effects of food and gender on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in healthy Chinese subjects were investigated from 4 bioequivalence studies. These studies were designed as randomized, open-label, and 2-period crossover in both fasting and fed states. A total of 204 subjects were enrolled, 134 men and 70 women. These subjects received a single oral 10-mg dose of rosuvastatin with a 7-day washout between 2 periods. The plasma concentrations were determined using a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental methods. Compared with the fasting condition, administration after a high-fat and high-calorie meal resulted in an approximately 40% reduction of rosuvastatin exposure and a near 50% decrease in absorption rate. Moreover, the apparent clearance was significantly greater in the fed state than that in the fasting state. It was noted that the adverse events incidence is increased by approximately 30% in the fasting state; however, no serious adverse events were observed. Additionally, small differences in pharmacokinetic characteristics were found between male and female subjects. Food effect might be considered for optimal effectiveness and safety of rosuvastatin therapy.

11.
Curr Eye Res ; : 1-5, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821058

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the pattern of growth in axial length (AL) between children with anisometropia who wear orthokeratology (OK) lenses and those who wear spectacles (SP).Methods: A retrospective study was conducted. Data of baseline and 1 year from 252 children (8-14 years old) anisomyopes who sought refraction corrections at the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center between October 2013 and June 2017 were reviewed. Seventy-nine unilateral myopic anisometropes (UMA) and 98 bilateral myopic anisometropes (BMA) treated with OK lenses were set as study groups (OK-UMA and OK-BMA groups). Age, refraction, and AL-matched unilateral (n = 38) and bilateral myopic anisometropes (n = 37) treated with spectacles were set as control groups (SP-UMA and SP-BMA groups). The 1-year change in AL between the study and control groups (OK-UMA vs. SP-UMA and OK-BMA vs. SP-BMA) was compared.Results: There were no significant differences in the baseline of age, refraction, and AL between OK-UMA and SP-UMA or OK-BMA and SP-BMA groups (all P > .05). Compared to the SP-UMA group, annual axial elongation of the myopic eyes of the OK-UMA group was smaller (0.05 ± 0.19 mm vs. 0.33 ± 0.29 mm, P < .001); however, AL elongation in the non-myopic eyes were comparable between SP-UMA and OK-UMA groups (P > .05). At the end of 1 year, the interocular difference in AL (aniso-AL) decreased by 0.29 ± 0.29 mm (P < .001) in the OK-UMA group but remained unchanged in SP-UMA group. Compared to the SP-BMA group, annual axial elongations of both eyes of the OK-BMA group were smaller (the more myopic eye, 0.05 ± 0.17 mm vs. 0.38 ± 0.21 mm; the less myopic eye, 0.15 ± 0.19 mm vs. 0.35 ± 0.28 mm; both P < .001). At the end of 1 year, aniso-AL decreased by 0.10 ± 0.15 mm (P < .001) in the OK-BMA group but remained unchanged in the SP-BMA group.Conclusion: Orthokeratology is effective in reducing the interocular difference in AL of children anisomyopes through greater retardation of axial elongation of the more myopic eyes.

12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(21): 4661-4669, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872662

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to clarify the main components of the green leaves of Callicarpa nudiflora,and to compare the difference of main components between the green leaves,yellow leaves,branches and seeds. In this study,ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) coupled with the UNIFI scientific information system was adopted. And the identification of the main chemical components of C. nudiflora was combined with reference materials,literatures and online database. In addition,the difference of main components was analyzed by Progenesis QI,principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant(OPLS-DA). A total of 57 compounds were identified in green leaves,including phenylpropanoids,flavonoids and iridoids. Among them,the relative content of phenylethanoid glycosides was highest. Furthermore,the PCA analysis showed that there are significant differences in main components of the branches and other parts of C. nudiflora. Combined with OPLS-DA analysis,nudifloside,parvifloroside B and ß-hydroxysamioside were selected as the characteristic components for distinguish the leaves and branches of C. nudiflora. Our study provided a scientific basis for the collection and identification of C. nudiflora.


Assuntos
Callicarpa , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavonoides
13.
J Vis ; 19(14): 17, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845977

RESUMO

Visual span, which is the number of recognizable letters seen without moving the eyes, has been proven to impose a sensory limitation for alphabetic reading speed (Chung, 2011; Chung, Legge, & Cheung, 2004; Lee, Kwon, Legge, & Gefroh, 2010; Legge, Ahn, Klitz, & Luebker, 1997; Legge, Hooven, Klitz, Stephen Mansfield, & Tjan, 2002; D. Yu, Cheung, Legge, & Chung, 2010). However, little is known about the effects of visual span on Chinese reading performance. Of note, Chinese text differs greatly from that of the alphabetic writing system. There are no spaces between words, and readers are forced to utilize their lexical knowledge to segment Chinese characters into meaningful words, thus increasing the relative importance of cognitive/linguistic factors in reading performance. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to explore whether visual span and cognitive/linguistic factors have independent effects on Chinese reading speed. Visual span profiles, cognitive/linguistic factors indicated by word frequency, and Chinese sentence-reading performance were collected from 28 native Chinese-speaking subjects. We found that the visual-span size and cognitive/linguistic factors independently contributed to Chinese sentence-reading speed (all ps < 0.05). We concluded that both the visual-span size and cognitive/linguistic factors represented bottlenecks for Chinese sentence-reading speed.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4973, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672990

RESUMO

The growing demand for lithium batteries with higher energy densities requires new electrode chemistries. Lithium metal is a promising candidate as the anode material due to its high theoretical specific capacity, negative electrochemical potential and favorable density. However, during cycling, low and uneven lithium ion concentration on the surface of anode usually results in uncontrolled dendrite growth, especially at high current densities. Here we tackle this issue by using lithiophilic montmorillonite as an additive in the ether-based electrolyte to regulate the lithium ion concentration on the anode surface and thus facilitate the uniform lithium deposition. The lithiophilic montmorillonite demonstrates a pumping feature that improves the self-concentrating kinetics of the lithium ion and thus accelerates the lithium ion transfer at the deposition/electrolyte interface. The signal intensity of TFSI- shows negligible changes via in situ Raman tracking of the ion flux at the electrochemical interface, indicating homogeneous ion distribution, which can lead to a stable and uniform lithium deposition on the anode surface. Our study indicates that the interfacial engineering induced by the lithiophilic montmorillonite could be a promising strategy to optimize the lithium deposition for next-generation lithium metal batteries.

15.
Food Sci Nutr ; 7(10): 3216-3223, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660135

RESUMO

The efficacy of oily components is often difficult to evaluate due to their incompatibility with most models. Here, we emulsified adlay bran oil (ABO), processed it to a nanoscale, and investigated its anti-hyperpigmentation efficacy, assessed for its inhibitory effects against tyrosinase activity and melanin production, in an in vitro system (mouse melanoma B16F10 cells) and an in vivo system (zebrafish embryos). ABO induced dose-dependent reductions in tyrosinase activity and melanin production in both the melanoma cells and zebrafish, without affecting viability. The efficacy of ABO was strongly influenced by emulsion particle size in the zebrafish but not in the cells. These results indicate that ABO has potential as a tyrosinase inhibitor and anti-hyperpigmentation agent and that the emulsion system is an effective method for delivering the bioactive components of ABO to living systems that could be utilized for other oily components.

16.
Nanoscale ; 11(43): 20884-20892, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660556

RESUMO

In elderly people particularly in postmenopausal women, inadequate bone formation by osteoblasts originating from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for compensation of bone resorption by osteoclasts is a major reason for osteoporosis. Enhancing osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs is a feasible therapeutic strategy for osteoporosis. Here, bone marrow stromal cell (ST)-derived exosomes (STExos) are found to remarkably enhance osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro. However, intravenous injection of STExos is inefficient in ameliorating osteoporotic phenotypes in an ovariectomy (OVX)-induced postmenopausal osteoporosis mouse model, which may be because STExos are predominantly accumulated in the liver and lungs, but not in bone. Hereby, the STExo surface is conjugated with a BMSC-specific aptamer, which delivers STExos into BMSCs within bone marrow. Intravenous injection of the STExo-Aptamer complex enhances bone mass in OVX mice and accelerates bone healing in a femur fracture mouse model. These results demonstrate the efficiency of BMSC-specific aptamer-functionalized STExos in targeting bone to promote bone regeneration, providing a novel promising approach for the treatment of osteoporosis and fracture.

17.
Physiol Mol Biol Plants ; 25(5): 1163-1174, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564779

RESUMO

Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) has been recognized as a valuable phenotyping tool in wheat breeding. However, technical expertise and analysis cost restrict its large-scale use. We examined the associations of ash content (AC), minerals content (Ca, K, Mg, Fe and Mn) and leaf chlorophyll content (Chl) with grain Δ and grain yield (GY) to assess their potential as substitute to grain Δ. We evaluated 49 wheat genotypes under two water deficit regimes (W120 and W200) in a rain-out shelter. Leaf chlorophyll content (Chl) was strongly correlated with grain Δ and GY under moderate water deficit regime (W200). Significant and negative correlations (P < 0.01) of AC and potassium concentration (K) with grain Δ, and between AC and GY was observed under both water regimes, while manganese concentration (Mn) was negatively correlated with grain Δ under W120 regime only and magnesium concentration (Mg) correlated negatively under the W200 regime only. Grain Δ was correlated (P < 0.01) positively with photosynthesis rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and GY, while correlated negatively (P < 0.01) with intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) under both water regimes. Results confirm the role of grain Δ as an indirect selection criterion for drought tolerance under a wide range of drought conditions. Additionally, Chl is the most suitable trait to predict yield under moderate water deficit conditions. AC and K concentration in grain proved potentially useful and economical alternative criterion to grain Δ in the evaluation of differences in yield potential and drought tolerance in wheat under drought.

18.
Insect Sci ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529680

RESUMO

Termites are eusocial arthropod decomposers, and improve soil fertility, crop yield, and also are used by humans for their benefits across the world. However, some species of termites are becoming a threat to the farming community as they are directly and indirectly causing major losses to the agricultural system. It is estimated that termites cost the global economy more than 40 billion USD annually, and considerable research has been done on their management. In this review, we present the available information related to sustainable and integrated termite management practices (ITM). Furthermore, we insist that the better management of this menace can be possible through: (i) improving traditional methods to keep termites away from crops; (ii) improving agricultural practices to maintain plants with more vigor and less susceptible to termite attack; and (iii) integration of available techniques to reduce termite infestation in crops and surroundings. The application of an effective combination of traditional practices with recently developed approaches is the best option for agricultural growers. Moreover, keeping in mind the beneficial nature of this pest, more innovative efforts for its management, particularly using rapidly emerging technology (e.g., RNA interference), are needed.

19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(48): 17458-17464, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550415

RESUMO

The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) has been explored extensively for reliable hydrogen supply to boost the energy conversion efficiency. The superior OER performance of newly developed non-noble metal electrocatalysts has concealed the identification of the real active species of the catalysts. Now, the critical active phase in nickel-based materials (represented by NiNPS) was directly identified by observing the dynamic surface reconstruction during the harsh OER process via combining in situ Raman tracking and ex situ microscopy and spectroscopy analyses. The irreversible phase transformation from NiNPS to α-Ni(OH)2 and reversible phase transition between α-Ni(OH)2 and γ-NiOOH prior to OER demonstrate γ-NiOOH as the key active species for OER. The hybrid catalyst exhibits 48-fold enhanced catalytic current at 300 mV and remarkably reduced Tafel slope to 46 mV dec-1 , indicating the greatly accelerated catalytic kinetics after surface evolution.

20.
Life Sci ; 236: 116737, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505194

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathophysiology and discover novel predictors of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) from a peptidomics perspective. MAIN METHODS: Comparative profiling of umbilical cord blood from NRDS and control patients was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry technology. The underlying biological functions of the differentially expressed peptides (DEPs) were predicted by Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analyses. The interactions of DEPs and their precursor proteins were explored by ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). The sources and stability of DEPs were determined by online databases, including UniProt, SMART and ProtParam tool. KEY FINDINGS: A total of 251 DEPs were identified, of which 139 peptides were upregulated, and 112 peptides were downregulated (fold change ≥2.0, P < 0.05). These DEPs were predicted to be associated with respiratory failure, atelectasis, and morphogenesis of endothelial cells. These processes indicated that DEPs may play a role in NRDS. Among them, eleven stable DEPs might be used as preclinical biomarkers. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings improve our understanding of NRDS and facilitate the discovery of candidate diagnostic biomarkers for NRDS from the perspective of peptidomics.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Prognóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/sangue
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