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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217308

RESUMO

The myosin-directed chaperone UNC-45B is essential for sarcomeric organization and muscle function from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. The pathological impact of UNC-45B in muscle disease remained elusive. We report ten individuals with bi-allelic variants in UNC45B who exhibit childhood-onset progressive muscle weakness. We identified a common UNC45B variant that acts as a complex hypomorph splice variant. Purified UNC-45B mutants showed changes in folding and solubility. In situ localization studies further demonstrated reduced expression of mutant UNC-45B in muscle combined with abnormal localization away from the A-band towards the Z-disk of the sarcomere. The physiological relevance of these observations was investigated in C. elegans by transgenic expression of conserved UNC-45 missense variants, which showed impaired myosin binding for one and defective muscle function for three. Together, our results demonstrate that UNC-45B impairment manifests as a chaperonopathy with progressive muscle pathology, which discovers the previously unknown conserved role of UNC-45B in myofibrillar organization.

2.
Cancer Lett ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217445

RESUMO

Hypoxia is a feature of the solid tumor microenvironment that is associated with poor clinical outcomes in multiple tumor types. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is a master regulator of hypoxic adaption, has been demonstrated to modulate hypoxic gene expression profiling and signaling transduction networks, and is thus a potential therapeutic target. Despite hypoxic response signaling having being extensively studied, the involvement of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the hypoxic response has become a new focus of attention. Emerging evidence has documented complex interactions between HIF-1α and lncRNAs, which contribute to the acquisition of multiple hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the study of hypoxia and HIF-1α-regulated lncRNAs, and summarize the molecular mechanisms and functional outcomes of the interplay between lncRNAs and HIF-1α, which may provide important insights into cancer diagnosis and prognosis, enabling better control of cancer.

3.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174897

RESUMO

Imidazolium based receptors selectively recognize anions, and have received more and more attention. In 2006 and 2010, we reviewed the mechanism and progress of imidazolium salt recognition of anions, respectively. In the past ten years, new developments have emerged in this area, including some new imidazolium motifs and the identification of a wider variety of biological anions. In this review, we discuss the progress of imidazolium receptors for the recognition of anions in the period of 2010-2019 and highlight the trends in this area. We first classify receptors based on motifs, including some newly emerging receptors, as well as new advances in existing receptor types at this stage. Then we discuss separately according to the types of anions, including ATP, GTP, DNA and RNA.

4.
Bioinformatics ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244599

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: High-quality imaging analyses have been proposed to drive innovation in biomedical and biological research. However, the application of images remains underexploited because of the limited capacity of human vision and the challenges in extracting quantitative information from images. Computationally extracting quantitative information from images is critical to overcoming this limitation. Here, we present a novel R package, i2d, to simulate data from an image based on digital convolution. RESULTS: The R package i2d allows users to transform an image into a simulated dataset that can be used to extract and analyze complex information in biomedical and biological research. The package also includes three novel and efficient methods for graph clustering based on simulated data, which can be used to dissect complex gene networks into sub-clusters that have similar biological functions. AVAILABILITY: The code, the documentation, a tutorial and example data are available on an open source at: github.com/XiaoyuLiang/i2d.

5.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230810

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment significantly affects tumor progression, and tumor cells can also remodel the tumor microenvironment through complex interaction. Inflammasomes are innate immune system receptors/sensors that regulate an inflammatory response mainly mediated by the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors in macrophages, which can also influence the formation, progression and therapeutic response of cancer. However, the effects of tumor-derived factors in the microenvironment on inflammasomes have rarely been reported. In this study, we found that lactate, as the main metabolite of tumor cells could specifically activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 inflammasome through increasing the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in THP-1-derived macrophages. Furthermore, we showed that transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), a cytokine accumulated in the tumor microenvironment, could be induced by lactate treatment in tumor cells, and in turn inhibit inflammasome activation induced by lactate and other canonical ligands in macrophages. In addition, TGF-ß might induce autophagy of macrophages in a SMAD-dependent manner, leading to ROS clearance and eventually inhibiting the activation of inflammasomes. Collectively, these results indicated that in the tumor microenvironment, tumor-derived lactate could act as a danger signal alerting innate immunity, but nevertheless tumor cells produced more TGF-ß to avoid immune surveillance.

7.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; : 1535370220975206, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243007

RESUMO

Identification of molecular subtypes of clinically resectable triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is of great importance to achieve better clinical outcomes. Inter- and intratumor metabolic heterogeneity improves cancer survival, and the interaction of various metabolic pathways may affect treatment outcome of TNBC. We speculated that TNBC can be categorized into prognostic metabolic subtype according to the expression changes of glycolysis and cholesterol synthesis. The genome, transcriptome, and clinical data were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium and subsequently analyzed by integrated bioinformatics methods. Four subtypes, namely, glycolytic, cholesterogenic, quiescent, and mixed, were classified according to the normalized median expressions of the genes involved in glycolysis and cholesterol synthesis. In the four subtypes, the cholesterogenic type was correlated with the shortest median survival (log rank P = 0.044), while patients with high-expressed glycolytic genes tended to have a longer survival. Tumors with PIK3CA amplification and dynein axonemal heavy chain 2 deletion exhibited higher expressions of cholesterogenic genes than other mutant oncogenes. The expressions of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier MPC1 and MPC2 were the lowest in quiescent tumor, and MPC2 expression was higher in cholesterogenic tumor compared with glycolytic or quiescent tumor (t-test P < 0.001). Glycolytic and cholesterogenic gene expressions were related to the expressions of prognostic genes in some other types of cancers. Classification of glycolytic and cholesterogenic pathways according to metabolic characteristics provides a new understanding to previously identified subtypes of TNBC and could improve personalized treatments based on tumor metabolic profiles.

8.
J Int Med Res ; 48(11): 300060520966878, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration and the risks of developing metabolic syndrome and its components. METHODS: A total of 10,140 residents of the Yunyan district of Guiyang (Guizhou, China) who were ≥40 years old were selected by cluster random sampling between May and August 2011, of whom 5692 were eligible. TSH concentration and indices of metabolic syndrome were documented at baseline and 3 years later. Participants were allocated to a euthyroid (TSH 0.55-4.78 mIU/L) or high TSH concentration (TSH >4.78 mIU/L) group. Patients with overt hypothyroidism or were undergoing treatment for hypothyroidism were excluded. RESULTS: The crude and adjusted prevalences of metabolic syndrome were 39.9% and 33.9% in the euthyroid group and 44.3% and 37.5% in the high TSH group, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed a positive correlation between a high TSH concentration at baseline and the cumulative incidence of metabolic syndrome during follow up. CONCLUSIONS: High TSH is associated with a higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome or one of its components; therefore, people with a high TSH concentration should be screened regularly to permit the early identification of metabolic syndrome and followed up thoroughly.

9.
Toxicology ; 447: 152627, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161053

RESUMO

PM2.5 exposure elevates the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lungs and leads to lung injury or other pulmonary conditions. Nrf2 is a key antioxidative regulator that suppresses ROS production. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have been identified as therapeutic as well as potential drug/gene/protein carriers. In this study, we established rat (PM2.5, 100 µL, 5 mg/mL) or cell (PM2.5, 50 µg/mL) models to conduct in vivo and in vitro studies on the adverse pulmonary effects of PM2.5. Our findings indicated that the initial responses to PM2.5 exposure were robust oxidative stress and inflammation. EVs and antioxidative EVs (Antioxi-EVs, derived from ADSCs that overexpress Nrf2) had been tested as interventions in PM2.5-treated rat or cell models through tracheal instillation or co-incubation. Treatment with EVs or Antioxi-EVs (3 × 1010 particles in vivo and 1 × 109in vitro) was found to have a suppressive effect on the levels of ROS and inflammatory cytokines, with Antioxi-EVs having a superior effect on anti-oxidative stress. In particular, the occurrence of lung injury or cell apoptosis correlated positively with the ROS level, and inhibition of ROS by upregulating Nrf2 alleviated lung injury and cell apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment with EVs or Antioxi-EVs increased the level of M2-like macrophages as compared to treatment with PBS and further reduced IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Our results suggest that Antioxi-EVs can reduce the severity of oxidative stress, inflammation, and lung injury induced by PM2.5via anti-oxidative stress and immunomodulation pathways.

10.
Complement Ther Med ; 56: 102620, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that numerous clinical studies have evaluated the positive effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation on testosterone concentrations and on the body mass index (BMI), more evidence is needed to certify that DHEA is a BMI-reducing agent in the elderly. This meta-analysis aims to clarify the various incompatible results and investigate the impact of DHEA supplementation on serum testosterone levels and lean body mass in elderly women. METHODS: Four scientific databases (EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched from inception until 20 August 2020 for trials comparing DHEA with placebo. Results were presented as weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) based on the random effects model (DerSimonian-Laird approach). RESULTS: Nine arms with 793 subjects reported testosterone as an outcome measure. The overall results demonstrated that testosterone levels increased significantly after DHEA administration in elderly women (WMD: 17.52 ng/dL, 95 % CI: 6.61, 28.43, P = 0.002). In addition, DHEA administration significantly decreased the BMI (WMD:-0.39 kg/m2, I2 = 0.0 %). CONCLUSION: The results of the current meta-analysis support the use of DHEA supplementation for increasing testosterone concentrations in elderly women.

11.
J Psychiatr Res ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153759

RESUMO

The major Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused tens of thousands of diagnosed patients quarantined and treated in designated hospitals in Wuhan, the epicenter of the disease in China. Evidence for the psychological problems of COVID-19 patients was limited. Here we report a cross-sectional study of the mental distress and sleep quality of patients in a single center in Wuhan. The study was based on a combined questionnaire of basic questions designed by the study group, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). On Feb 17th and Mar 14th, two groups of patients were recruited respectively in a designated hospital for COVID-19. Univariate analysis and regression models were used to identify predictors for patients' psychological distress and sleep quality. In total, there were 202 participants in our combined sample. The average SAS, SDS, and PSQI score of participants were 44.2, 51.7, and 9.3 respectively. Factors associated with SAS score include gender, subjective evaluation of disease symptoms, and evaluation of medical staffs' attitude. Gender, age, education level, frequency of contacting with family, subjective knowledge level of COVID 19, and evaluation of medical staffs' attitude are associated with participants SDS score. Factors associated with PSQI score are age and subjective evaluation of disease symptoms.

12.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(18): 2947-2953, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173415

RESUMO

Background: Ultrasound is emerging as an effective method for measuring muscle mass in elderly people. It has been applied in numerous studies to obtain measurement of lower limbs. The study aims to explore the relationship between sarcopenia and ultrasound measurements of biceps brachii. Methods: Participants (n=179) aged over 60 years were enrolled from the first affiliated hospital of Zhejiang University. The muscle thickness (MT), cross-sectional area (CSA) and fat thickness (FT) of these participants were recorded. Spearman test and partial correlation test was used to determine the correlation between indicators. Mann-Whitney U test was performed to compare ultrasonic parameters between sarcopenia group and non-sarcopenia group. The binary logistic regression analysis was employed to detect the potential indicators and prediction equation of sarcopenia. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed for the accuracy of equation. Results: The prevalence of sarcopenia were 16.3% and 10.8% respectively in men and women. CSA was significantly lower in sarcopenia group than non-sarcopenia group in women (P<0.05). CSA was positively correlated with skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and grip strength (men: r=0.460, 0.433; women: r=0.267, 0.392). After controlling of age and BMI, these correlations disappeared. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR=1.149, 95%CI: 1.060-1.246; P=0.001) and CSA (OR=0.465, 95%CI: 0.225-0.963; P=0.039) was significant indicators associated with sarcopenia. Area Under Curve was 0.822 (95%CI: 0.725-0.919, P<0.001) for the prediction equation composed of age, gender and CSA for sarcopenia. Conclusion: CSA of the biceps brachii measured with ultrasound is an important indicator associated with sarcopenia.

13.
Biomater Sci ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211787

RESUMO

Drug-induced tissue injury has become a growing public health problem. Gastrointestinal injury and liver dysfunction are the most common side effects related to drug therapies, resulting in high morbidity and mortality in recent years. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critically involved in the pathogenesis of drug-induced tissue injury. Consequently, antioxidant therapy represents a very promising strategy for the treatment of drug-induced tissue injury. Herein, a multifunctional antioxidant nanotherapy (TON) is engineered from a cyclodextrin-derived ROS-responsive material and a radical scavenger tempol, and is capable of eliminating a broad spectrum of ROS. After oral administration, TON can passively accumulate in the inflamed gastrointestinal tissues in mice with indomethacin-induced gastrointestinal injury. Correspondingly, TON shows superior efficacy in two representative murine models of indomethacin-induced gastrointestinal injury and acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury via attenuating oxidative stress and mitigating inflammatory responses. Additionally, preliminary in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate the good safety profile of TON. Consequently, the ROS-responsive antioxidant nanotherapy TON is promising for the treatment of drug-induced tissue and organ injury.

15.
Mol Pharm ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084332

RESUMO

Tumor growth and metastasis are the major causes of high mortality in breast cancer. We previously constructed pH-sensitive nanoparticles (D/D NPs) for the codelivery of docetaxel (DTX) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and demonstrated that D/D NPs showed anticancer activity in breast cancer cells in vitro. The present study further investigated the therapeutic effect of D/D NPs on orthotopic breast cancer in vivo and examined the antitumor mechanism of D/D NPs. D/D NPs significantly increased the apoptosis of 4T1 cells with a synergistic effect of DTX and DHA. D/D NPs increased reactive oxygen species, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, increased the expression of p53, and induced cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm to activate caspase-3. In an orthotopic metastatic breast cancer mouse model derived from 4T1 cells, D/D NPs inhibited tumor growth and prevented lung metastasis due to the synergistic effect of DTX and DHA. No distinct changes were observed in the histology of major organs. These results indicate that pH-sensitive D/D NP-based combination therapy may be a promising strategy for the treatment of metastatic breast cancers via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

16.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000530

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To explore the potential role of irisin in the outcomes of newly diagnosed prediabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the Guiyang subcenter of the Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals: a lONgitudinal (REACTION) study. A total of 2,530 participants had newly diagnosed prediabetes at baseline and completed follow up. The nested 1:1 case-control study included 161 participants who developed diabetes mellitus at follow up, and 161 age- and sex-matched controls. The follow-up study included 86 matched case-control pairs. Fasting serum irisin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Baseline serum irisin levels were higher in the cases than in the controls (P = 0.002); high baseline serum irisin levels were an independent risk factor for the development of diabetes (odds ratio 1.235, 95% confidence interval 1.025-1.488). After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), smoking, exercise, and family history of diabetes, subjects in the highest quartile of irisin levels had a higher risk of diabetes than those in the lowest quartile (odds ratio 3.065, 95% confidence interval 1.511-6.218). The extent of decrease in irisin levels during follow-up was greater in the cases than in the controls (P < 0.001). Baseline serum irisin levels were positively correlated with the extent of decrease in irisin during follow-up (r = 0.773, P < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding factors, subjects with a decrease of irisin above the median had much higher risk for diabetes (odds ratio 5.077, 95% confidence interval 2.112-12.206). CONCLUSIONS: Irisin might play an important role in the outcomes of newly diagnosed prediabetes in adults in Guiyang, and can predict the risk for developing diabetes in these individuals.

17.
Drug Deliv ; 27(1): 1369-1377, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998576

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to apply Solutol® HS15 and TPGS to prepare self-assembled micelles loading with ginsenoside Rh2 to increase the solubility of ginsenoside Rh2, hence, improving the antitumor efficacy. Ginsenoside Rh2-mixed micelles (Rh2-M) were prepared by thin film dispersion method. The optimal Rh2-M was characterized by particle size, morphology, and drug encapsulation efficiency. The enhancement of in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of Rh2-M was evaluated by nude mice bearing tumor model. The solubility of Rh2 in self-assembled micelles was increased approximately 150-folds compared to free Rh2. In vitro results demonstrated that the particle size of Rh2-M is 74.72 ± 2.63 nm(PDI = 0.147 ± 0.15), and the morphology of Rh2-M is spherical or spheroid, and the EE% and LE% are 95.27 ± 1.26% and 7.68 ± 1.34%, respectively. The results of in vitro cell uptake and in vivo imaging showed that Rh2-M could not only increase the cell uptake of drugs, but also transport drug to tumor sites, prolonging the retention time. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor results showed that the anti-tumor effect of Rh2 can be effectively improved by Rh2-M. Therefore, Solutol® HS15 and TPGS could be used to entrapping Rh2 into micelles, enhancing solubility and antitumor efficacy.

18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093652

RESUMO

Enhancing endocannabinoid signaling produces anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects, but the neural circuits involved remain poorly understood. The medial habenula (MHb) is a phylogenetically-conserved epithalamic structure that is a powerful modulator of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior. Here, we show that a robust endocannabinoid signaling system modulates synaptic transmission between the MHb and its sole identified GABA input, the medial septum and nucleus of the diagonal band (MSDB). With RNAscope in situ hybridization, we demonstrate that key enzymes that synthesize or degrade the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) or anandamide are expressed in the MHb and MSDB, and that cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is expressed in the MSDB. Electrophysiological recordings in MHb neurons revealed that endogenously-released 2-AG retrogradely depresses GABA input from the MSDB. This endocannabinoid-mediated depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) was limited by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) but not by fatty acid amide hydrolase. Anatomic and optogenetic circuit mapping indicated that MSDB GABA neurons monosynaptically project to cholinergic neurons of the ventral MHb. To test the behavioral significance of this MSDB-MHb endocannabinoid signaling, we induced MSDB-specific knockout of CB1 or MAGL via injection of virally-delivered Cre recombinase into the MSDB of Cnr1loxP/loxP or MgllloxP/loxP mice. Relative to control mice, MSDB-specific knockout of CB1 or MAGL bidirectionally modulated 2-AG signaling in the ventral MHb and led to opposing effects on anxiety- and depressive-like behavior. Thus, depression of synaptic GABA release in the MSDB-ventral MHb pathway may represent a potential mechanism whereby endocannabinoids exert anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects.

20.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 23: 303-310, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vancomycin combined with ß-lactams (Combo therapy) has been encouraged in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections (BSIs) in recent years, but its efficacy and safety have not been systematically evaluated. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the efficacy and safety of Combo therapy in patients with MRSA BSIs. METHODS: Relevant articles reporting on the clinical or microbiology outcomes of Combo treatment in adult patients with MRSA bacteraemia throughout November 2019 were searched in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases. Summary odds ratios (ORs) or mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were evaluated using a fixed- or random-effects model. RESULTS: Six articles (806 patients) consisting of one RCT and five retrospective cohort studies were included in this study. The pooled data showed that Combo therapy could significantly reduce the risk of microbiological failure (OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.35-0.83, I2 40%, P = 0.005) and persistent bacteraemia (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.30-0.77, I2 13%, P = 0.002), as well as shorten the duration of bacteraemia (MD = -1.06, 95% CI -1.53 to -0.60, I2 0%, P < 0.00001). In addition, it did not significantly increase the incidence of nephrotoxicity (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.64-2.13, I2 0%, P = 0.61). However, no significant difference was detected between the groups regarding 28/30-day mortality, MRSA-related mortality, bacteraemia relapse or length of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Combo therapy clears the pathogenic bacteria of MRSA bacteraemia but does not improve the clinical prognosis. As the sample size was small and most of the studies were retrospective cohort studies with substantial heterogeneity, there is a need for further studies encompassing large-scale multicentre RCTs to validate our results.

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