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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many cohort studies have explored the relation between tea consumption and stroke risk; however, the conclusions have been inconsistent. In addition, evidence is lacking in China, where the patterns of tea consumption and main types of tea consumed differ substantially from those in high-income countries. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically assess the association of tea consumption with the risk of stroke based on a Chinese large-scale cohort study. METHODS: A total of 487,377 participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank were included in the present study. Detailed information about tea consumption (including frequency, duration, amount, and tea type) was self-reported at baseline. After ∼4.3 million person-years of follow-up, 38,727 incident cases of stroke were recorded, mainly through linkage with mortality and morbidity registries and based on the national health insurance system. RESULTS: Overall, 128,280 adults (26.3%) reported drinking tea almost daily (41.4% men, 15.9% women), predominantly green tea (86.7%). Tea consumption had an inverse and dose-response relation with the risk of stroke (Ptrend < 0.001). Compared with nonconsumers, those who consumed tea occasionally, weekly, and daily had adjusted HRs and 95% CIs of 0.96 (0.94, 0.99), 0.94 (0.90, 0.98), and 0.92 (0.89, 0.95) respectively, with little difference by stroke type. Among those who consumed tea daily, the HRs for stroke decreased with the increasing duration and amount of tea consumed (all P < 0.001). These inverse associations were significant for green tea but not for other types of tea. Among men, but not women, the inverse relations could be detected, and similar inverse associations could be found for male noncurrent alcohol-consumers and noncurrent smokers as well. CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese adults, higher consumption of tea, especially green tea, was associated with a lower risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.

2.
Cancer Med ; 8(17): 7469-7476, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605466

RESUMO

Associations between telomere length and cancer risk have been investigated in many epidemiological studies, but the results are controversial. These associations may be biased by reverse causation or confounded by environmental exposures. To avoid potential biases, we used Mendelian randomization method to evaluate whether TL is the causal risk factor for lung cancer. We conducted Mendelian randomization analysis in two published East Asian GWAS studies (7127 cases and 6818 controls). We used both weighted genetic risk score and inverse-variance weighting method to estimate the relationship between TL and lung cancer risk. Nonlinear test also used to detect potential association trends. We observed that increased weight GRS was associated with increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.25, 95%CI: 1.81-2.78, P = 1.18 × 10-13 ). In different subtypes, weight GRS was significantly associated with lung adenocarcinoma risk (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 2.11-3.42, P = 7.20 × 10-16 ); while lung squamous cell carcinoma showed a marginal association (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.01-2.10, P = .047). Nonlinear analysis suggested a log-linear dose-response relationship between increased weight GRS and lung cancer risk. Our results indicated that longer TL increases lung cancer risk. Those biological mechanisms changes caused by long TL may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis.

3.
Mol Cell ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629659

RESUMO

Hypoxia, which occurs during tumor growth, triggers complex adaptive responses in which peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) plays a critical role in mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. However, how PGC-1α is regulated in response to oxygen availability remains unclear. We demonstrated that lysine demethylase 3A (KDM3A) binds to PGC-1α and demethylates monomethylated lysine (K) 224 of PGC-1α under normoxic conditions. Hypoxic stimulation inhibits KDM3A, which has a high KM of oxygen for its activity, and enhances PGC-1α K224 monomethylation. This modification decreases PGC-1α's activity required for NRF1- and NRF2-dependent transcriptional regulation of TFAM, TFB1M, and TFB2M, resulting in reduced mitochondrial biogenesis. Expression of PGC-1α K224R mutant significantly increases mitochondrial biogenesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and tumor cell apoptosis under hypoxia and inhibits brain tumor growth in mice. This study revealed that PGC-1α monomethylation, which is dependent on oxygen availability-regulated KDM3A, plays a critical role in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577861

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 45 susceptibility loci associated with lung cancer. Only less than SNPs, small insertions and deletions (INDELs) are the second most abundant genetic polymorphisms in the human genome. INDELs are highly associated with multiple human diseases, including lung cancer. However, limited studies with large-scale samples have been available to systematically evaluate the effects of INDELs on lung cancer risk. Here, we performed a large-scale meta-analysis to evaluate INDELs and their risk for lung cancer in 23,202 cases and 19,048 controls. Functional annotations were performed to further explore the potential function of lung cancer risk INDELs. Conditional analysis was used to clarify the relationship between INDELs and SNPs. Four new risk loci were identified in genome-wide INDEL analysis (1p13.2: rs5777156, Insertion, OR = 0.92, p = 9.10 × 10-8 ; 4q28.2: rs58404727, Deletion, OR = 1.19, p = 5.25 × 10-7 ; 12p13.31: rs71450133, Deletion, OR = 1.09, p = 8.83 × 10-7 ; and 14q22.3: rs34057993, Deletion, OR = 0.90, p = 7.64 × 10-8 ). The eQTL analysis and functional annotation suggested that INDELs might affect lung cancer susceptibility by regulating the expression of target genes. After conducting conditional analysis on potential causal SNPs, the INDELs in the new loci were still nominally significant. Our findings indicate that INDELs could be potentially functional genetic variants for lung cancer risk. Further functional experiments are needed to better understand INDEL mechanisms in carcinogenesis.

5.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(11): 7261-7267, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483565

RESUMO

Many studies have shown that there were similarity between tumorigenesis and gametogenesis. Our previous work found that cancer-testis (CT) genes could serve as a novel source of candidate of cancer. Here, by analysing The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, we characterized a CT gene, SPANXC, which is expressed only in testis. The SPANXC was reactivated in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) tissues. And the expression of SPANXC was associated with prognosis of LUAD. We also found that the activation of SPANXC was due to the promoter hypomethylation of SPANXC. Moreover, SPANXC could modulate cell metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that SPANXC could bind to ROCK1, a metastasis-related gene, and thus SPANXC may regulate cell metastasis partly through interaction with ROCK1 in LUAD. Together, our results demonstrated that the CT expression pattern of SPANXC served as a crucial role in metastasis of LUAD. And these data further corroborated the resemblance between processes of germ cell development and tumorigenesis, including migration and invasion.

6.
Cancer Med ; 8(14): 6476-6484, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489978

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The overexpression and knockdown of PLK4 were both reported to generate aneuploidy. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether genetic variants in PLK4 contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We evaluated associations of common variants in PLK4 and its promoter for the risk of HCC in our association study (1300 cases and 1344 controls). The genotype-tissue expression (GTEx) and The cancer genome atlas (TCGA) databases were used to quantify the expression of PLK4. Cell proliferation and migration affected by PLK4 in HCC were assessed in vitro. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) model was used to assess the sensibility of PLK4-activated HCC to CFI-400945, a small molecule inhibitor of PLK4. RESULTS: Herein, we found a significant association between rs3811741, located in the PLK4 intron, and liver cancer risk (OR = 1.26, P = 9.81 × 10-5 ). Although PLK4 expressed at lower levels in somatic tissues compared to the testis, the risk allele A of rs3811741 was associated with increased PLK4 expression in liver cancer tissues. Additionally, PLK4 high expression was remarkably associated with shortened survival of HCC (HR = 1.97, P = .001). Furthermore, overexpression of PLK4 promoted, while knockdown of PLK4 suppressed cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. DST model demonstrated that CFI-400945 can effectively suppress rampant proliferation of HCC with highly expressed PLK4. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our study demonstrated that PLK4 is a susceptibility gene and plays an oncogenic role in HCC. Furthermore, we identified that PLK4 sensitives HCC to CFI-400945, which may be an ideal therapy target for HCC.

7.
Proteomics Clin Appl ; 13(6): e1900007, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424156

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the differences in protein expression between Dpy19l2-deficient human globozoospermia and normozoospermia. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Human sperm samples from three globozoospermic donors with Dpy19l2 deletion and three normal controls are subjected to TMT quantitative technology. SPESP1, HIST1H4A, and LYZL1 are randomly selected for western blotting analysis. GO annotations are performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery. RESULTS: A total of 2567 proteins are identified, of which 2510 proteins are quantified, and 491 are differentially expressed (fold-change > 2), with 370 upregulated and 121 downregulated in globozoospermic patients. The levels of several important proteins, including SPACA 1, IZUMO1, ZPBP1, and PLCZ1, are decreased in globozoospermic sperm. Bioinformatics analysis indicates the Dpy19l2-deficient sperm presented molecular defects in acrosome, chromatin, sperm-egg interaction, and fertilization. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The present study is the first to analyze total globozoospermia with Dpy19l2 deletion using high-throughput proteomics. This study may provide insights into the mechanism of globozoospermia.

8.
Gut ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although a subset of genetic loci have been associated with gastric cancer (GC) risk, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We aimed to identify new susceptibility genes and elucidate their mechanisms in GC development. DESIGN: We conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies (GWASs) encompassing 3771 cases and 5426 controls. After targeted sequencing and functional annotation, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to confirm the functions of genetic variants and candidate genes. Moreover, we selected 33 promising variants for two-stage replication in 7035 cases and 8323 controls from other five studies. RESULTS: The meta-analysis of GWASs identified three loci at 1q22, 5p13.1 and 10q23.33 associated with GC risk at p<5×10- 8 and replicated seven known loci at p<0.05. At 5p13.1, the risk rs59133000[C] allele enhanced the binding affinity of NF-κB1 (nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1) to the promoter of PRKAA1, resulting in a reduced promoter activity and lower expression. The knockout of PRKAA1 promoted both GC cell proliferation and xenograft tumour growth in nude mice. At 10q23.33, the rs3781266[C] and rs3740365[T] risk alleles in complete linkage disequilibrium disrupted and created, respectively, the binding motifs of POU2F1 and PAX3, resulting in an increased enhancer activity and expression of NOC3L, while the NOC3L knockdown suppressed GC cell growth. Moreover, two new loci at 3q11.2 (OR=1.21, p=4.56×10- 9) and 4q28.1 (OR=1.14, p=3.33×10- 11) were associated with GC risk. CONCLUSION: We identified 12 loci to be associated with GC risk in Chinese populations and deciphered the mechanisms of PRKAA1 at 5p13.1 and NOC3L at 10q23.33 in gastric tumourigenesis.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284496

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the influence of role stress (role ambiguity and role conflict) on job burnout and job performance in construction project managers in the Chinese construction industry. Based on the JD-R (Job Demands Resources) model, this study introduces career calling as the moderating variable, in order to develop a theoretical model. The theoretical model is then tested with structural equation modeling. This work uses data from 191 owners, contractors, subcontractors, and supervisors in the Chinese construction industry. The results indicate that: (i) role ambiguity has a negative and significant effect on job burnout and job performance; (ii) role conflict has a negative effect on job burnout, but has a non-significant influence on job performance; (iii) job burnout has a negative impact on job performance; (iv) career calling negatively moderates the relationship between role ambiguity and job burnout, and positively moderates the relationship between role conflict and job performance. Furthermore, the results also show that career calling can positively moderate the effect of role conflict on job burnout. This study expands the existing body of knowledge by reasonably controlling role stress and appropriately introducing career calling. In addition, the study provides some suggestions relevant to construction project management.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3190, 2019 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320627

RESUMO

Brain metastases (BM) of colorectal cancer (CRC) are rare but lethal, and an understanding of their genomic landscape is lacking. We conduct an analysis of whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data on 19 trios of patient-matched BMs, primary CRC tumors, and adjacent normal tissue. Compared with primary CRC, BM exhibits elevated mutational signatures of homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) and mismatch repair deficiency (MMRD). Further analysis reveals two DNA damage response (DDR) signatures could emerge early and are enhanced in BM tissues but are eliminated eventually in matched primary CRC tissues. BM-specific mutations in DDR genes and elevated microsatellite instability (MSI) levels support the importance of DDR in the brain metastasis of CRC. We also identify BM-related genes (e.g., SCN7A, SCN5A, SCN2A, IKZF1, and PDZRN4) that carry frequent BM-specific mutations. These results provide a better understanding of the BM mutational landscape and insights into treatment.

11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(10): 881-891, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variation has an important role in the development of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, genetic factors for lung cancer have not been fully identified, especially in Chinese populations, which limits the use of existing polygenic risk scores (PRS) to identify subpopulations at high risk of lung cancer for prevention. We therefore aimed to identify novel loci associated with NSCLC risk, and generate a PRS and evaluate its utility and effectiveness in the prediction of lung cancer risk in Chinese populations. METHODS: To systematically identify genetic variants for NSCLC risk, we newly genotyped 19 546 samples from Chinese NSCLC cases and controls from the Nanjing Medical University Global Screening Array Project and did a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of 27 120 individuals with NSCLC and 27 355 without NSCLC (13 327 cases and 13 328 controls of Chinese descent as well as 13 793 cases and 14 027 controls of European descent). We then built a PRS for Chinese populations from all reported single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been reported to be associated with lung cancer risk at genome-wide significance level. We evaluated the utility and effectiveness of the generated PRS in predicting subpopulations at high-risk of lung cancer in an independent prospective cohort of 95 408 individuals from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) with more than 10 years' follow-up. FINDINGS: We identified 19 susceptibility loci to be significantly associated with NSCLC risk at p≤5·0 × 10-8, including six novel loci. When applied to the CKB cohort, the PRS of the risk loci successfully predicted lung cancer incident cases in a dose-response manner in participants at a high genetic risk (top 10%) than those at a low genetic risk (bottom 10%; adjusted hazard ratio 1·96, 95% CI 1·53-2·51; ptrend=2·02 × 10-9). Specially, we observed consistently separated curves of lung cancer events in individuals at low, intermediate, and high genetic risk, respectively, and PRS was an independent effective risk stratification indicator beyond age and smoking pack-years. INTERPRETATION: We have shown for the first time that GWAS-derived PRS can be effectively used in discriminating subpopulations at high risk of lung cancer, who might benefit from a practically feasible PRS-based lung cancer screening programme for precision prevention in Chinese populations. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Priority Academic Program for the Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, National Key R&D Program of China, Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of Jiangsu, and China's Thousand Talents Program.

12.
Cancer Med ; 8(10): 4845-4851, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is recognized as the main cause of cervical cancer, only a minority of HPV-infected women develop this malignancy. Increasing evidence suggests that alterations of telomere length might be implicated in carcinogenesis. However, the association between cervical cancer and telomere length remains unknown. METHODS: This case-control study included 591 cervical cancer patients and 373 cancer-free controls, all of whom were infected with HR-HPV. Relative telomere length (RTL) in cervical cancer exfoliated cells was measured by quantitative PCR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: HPV16, 18, 52, and 58 were common in both case and control groups. The proportion of HPV16 infection tended to increase across the quartiles of RTL (Ptrend  < 0.001). There was no statistically significant association of RTL with tumor differentiation, histological type, and FIGO stage. After adjustment for age and HPV types, the lowest quartile of RTL presented a 49% lower risk (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.76; P < 0.001) than those with the highest quartile of RTL. There was also a dose-response relationship of shorter RTL on lower risk of cervical cancer (Ptrend  < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Shortened telomere length in cervical exfoliated cells was related to the lower risk of cervical cancer among HR-HPV-positive women, which might help to improve cervical cancer screening and surveillance. Further prospective studies with large sample should be designed to validate our preliminary findings, and evaluate the potential efficacy of telomere length for cervical cancer screening.

13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(6): e195718, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199446

RESUMO

Importance: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been identified as a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the associations between HBV infection and other cancer types are not well understood. Objective: To assess the associations between chronic HBV infection and risk of all cancer types. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based study involved 3 cohorts in China. The China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) prospective cohort study, conducted between June 2004 and July 2008, used a dipstick assay for detection of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among 496 732 participants to determine the association between HBV infection and risk of all cancer types. Two cohort studies were used to validate the associations by applying more precise serum HBsAg detection assays: the Qidong cohort (37 336 participants enrolled from November 2007 to April 2011) and the Changzhou nested case-control study (17 723 participants enrolled from June 2004 to September 2005). A total of 97 samples of stomach cancer tissues, 10 samples of pancreatic cancer tissues, and 9 samples of lung cancer tissues were included to assess the presence of HBV replication and expression. Statistical analysis was performed from December 2016 to October 2018. Exposures: Serum HBsAg status in the population-based stage and HBV DNA status, the expression of hepatitis B X protein, and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) in the tissue-based stage. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of all cancer types during follow-up. Results: In the CKB cohort, the mean (SD) age of the 496 732 participants was 51.5 (10.7) years; 59.0% of the participants were women. After 4.4 million person-years of follow-up, participants who were HBsAg seropositive (n = 15 355) had a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (hazard ratio [HR], 15.77; 95% CI, 14.15-17.57), stomach cancer (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.11-1.80), colorectal cancer (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.12-1.81), oral cancer (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.01-2.49), pancreatic cancer (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.03-2.65), and lymphoma (HR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.34-3.31) when compared with participants who were HBsAg seronegative (n = 481 377). Because of the limitation of sample size, only associations of HBV infection with hepatocellular carcinoma and stomach cancer were validated in the Qidong cohort (hepatocellular carcinoma: HR, 17.51; 95% CI, 13.86-22.11; stomach cancer: HR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.24-3.29); the Changzhou nested case-control study validated only an association between HBV infection and stomach cancer (odds ratio, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.04-2.98). Moreover, among 22 participants with stomach cancer from the Qidong cohort who were anti-HBc seropositive, 12 samples (54.5%) of cancer tissues were HBV DNA positive, while among 25 participants with stomach cancer who were anti-HBc seronegative, no HBV DNA was detected. The same negative and positive rate was observed in the validation set from Zhejiang Tumor Hospital (19 of 35 samples [54.3%] were HBV DNA positive). Moreover, among the 8 patients with stomach cancer from the Qidong cohort who were anti-HBc seropositive, anti-HBc and hepatitis B X protein were expressed in all of their stomach cancer tissue samples. The same phenomenon was observed in the patients with pancreatic cancer but not in the patients with lung cancer, which was consistent with the population-based results of the CKB cohort. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that HBV infection was also associated with the risk of nonliver cancer, especially digestive system cancers among adults in China.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8483, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186510

RESUMO

Telomere length (TL) is linked to various age-related diseases, but little is known about telomeres in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We surveyed 509 subjects (113 GDM patients and 396 frequency matched controls) in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Jiangsu province of eastern China. Relative telomere length (RTL) of genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of GDM risk were calculated across tertiles of RTL using logistic regression model. Lipid parameters during the third trimesters of gestation (after 32 weeks) were collected from medical records. The general linear correlation test was used to explore the associations of lipid parameters with RTL. Our results showed that the RTL in GDM patients were significantly shorter than controls (0.302 ± 0.112 vs. 0.336 ± 0.164, P = 0.046). However, the GDM risk was significantly increased in subjects with median RTL (adjusted OR [aOR]: 1.936, 95% CI: 1.086, 3.453, P = 0.025) and the shortest RTL (aOR: 1.795, 95% CI: 1.004, 3.207, P = 0.048), compared to subjects with longest RTL. We also demonstrated that the lipid ratios (TC/TG, LDL/TG, HDL/TG, LDL/TC, TC/LDL) were significantly associated with RTL among controls. Overall, the present study indicated that attrition of telomeres would increase GDM risk among pregnant women, and the altered lipid levels may play an important role in RTL related GDM risk and pathogenesis.

15.
Diabetes Care ; 42(8): 1414-1421, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a highly heritable disease with much lower incidence but more adult-onset cases in the Chinese population. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >60 T1D loci in Caucasians, less is known in Asians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed the first two-stage GWAS of T1D using 2,596 autoantibody-positive T1D case subjects and 5,082 control subjects in a Chinese Han population and evaluated the associations between the identified T1D risk loci and age and fasting C-peptide levels at T1D diagnosis. RESULTS: We observed a high genetic correlation between children/adolescents and adult T1D case subjects (r g = 0.87), as well as subgroups of autoantibody status (r g ≥ 0.90). We identified four T1D risk loci reaching genome-wide significance in the Chinese Han population, including two novel loci, rs4320356 near BTN3A1 (odds ratio [OR] 1.26, P = 2.70 × 10-8) and rs3802604 in GATA3 (OR 1.24, P = 2.06 × 10-8), and two previously reported loci, rs1770 in MHC (OR 4.28, P = 2.25 × 10-232) and rs705699 in SUOX (OR 1.46, P = 7.48 × 10-20). Further fine mapping in the MHC region revealed five independent variants, including another novel locus, HLA-C position 275 (omnibus P = 9.78 × 10-12), specific to the Chinese population. Based on the identified eight variants, we achieved an area under the curve value of 0.86 (95% CI 0.85-0.88). By building a genetic risk score (GRS) with these variants, we observed that the higher GRS were associated with an earlier age of T1D diagnosis (P = 9.08 × 10-11) and lower fasting C-peptide levels (P = 7.19 × 10-3) in individuals newly diagnosed with T1D. CONCLUSIONS: Our results extend current knowledge on genetic contributions to T1D risk. Further investigations in different populations are needed for genetic heterogeneity and subsequent precision medicine.

16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that conventional adenomas (CAs) and serrated polyps (SPs) represent two distinct groups of precursor lesions for colorectal cancer (CRC). The influence of common genetic variants on risk of CAs and SPs remain largely unknown. METHODS: Among 27 426 participants within three prospective cohort studies, we created a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) based on 40 CRC-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in previous genome-wide association studies; and we examined the association of GRS (per one standard deviation increment) with risk of CAs, SPs and synchronous CAs and SPs, by multivariable logistic regression. We also analysed individual variants in the secondary analysis. RESULTS: During 18-20 years of follow-up, we documented 2952 CAs, 1585 SPs and 794 synchronous CAs and SPs. Higher GRS was associated with increased risk of CAs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-1.21] and SPs (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03-1.14), with a stronger association for CAs than SPs (Pheterogeneity=0.01). An even stronger association was found for patients with synchronous CAs and SPs (OR = 1.32), advanced CAs (OR = 1.22) and multiple CAs (OR = 1.25). Different sets of variants were associated with CAs and SPs, with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.02 between the ORs associating the 40 SNPs with the two lesions. After correcting for multiple testing, three variants were associated with CAs (rs3802842, rs6983267 and rs7136702) and two with SPs (rs16892766 and rs4779584). CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variants play a potential role in the conventional and serrated pathways of CRC. Different sets of variants are identified for the two pathways, further supporting the aetiological heterogeneity of CRC.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115907

RESUMO

High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with an increased risk of several cancers. Evidence relating body fatness, especially based on different anthropometric measures, to risk of major cancers in China from prospective cohort studies is lacking. The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank study recruited 0.5 million adults aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse areas across China during 2004-2008, recording 21,474 incident cancers during 8.95 years of follow-up. BMI, body fat percentage (BFP), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured at baseline. We assessed the associations of body fatness with 15 major cancers by calculating Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). Each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was associated with an increased risk of endometrial (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.72-2.35), postmenopausal breast (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.18-1.40), colorectal (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.10-1.25) and cervical (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.29) cancer, whereas it was associated with a reduced risk of esophageal (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.67-0.79), lung (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.74-0.82), liver (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.79-0.92) and gastric (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82-0.94) cancer. Significant linear trends of BMI-cancer associations were observed, excluding for lung, gastric and cervical cancer (both overall and nonlinear p < 0.05). The relation between BFP, WC and WHR and the above cancers was similar to that of BMI. Our study indicates that either high or low body fatness contributes to the incidence of different types of cancer in China.

18.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 103, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inherited factors contribute to lung cancer risk, but the mechanism is not well understood. Defining the biological consequence of GWAS hits in cancers is a promising strategy to elucidate the inherited mechanisms of cancers. The tag-SNP rs753955 (A>G) in 13q12.12 is highly associated with lung cancer risk in the Chinese population. Here, we systematically investigate the biological significance and the underlying mechanism behind 13q12.12 risk locus in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: We characterize a novel p53-responsive enhancer with lung tissue cell specificity in a 49-kb high linkage disequilibrium block of rs753955. This enhancer harbors 3 highly linked common inherited variations (rs17336602, rs4770489, and rs34354770) and six p53 binding sequences either close to or located between the variations. The enhancer effectively protects normal lung cell lines against pulmonary carcinogen NNK-induced DNA damages and malignant transformation by upregulating TNFRSF19 through chromatin looping. These variations significantly weaken the enhancer activity by affecting its p53 response, especially when cells are exposed to NNK. The effect of the mutant enhancer alleles on TNFRSF19 target gene in vivo is supported by expression quantitative trait loci analysis of 117 Chinese NSCLC samples and GTEx data. Differentiated expression of TNFRSF19 and its statistical significant correlation with tumor TNM staging and patient survival indicate a suppressor role of TNFRSF19 in lung cancer. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of how the inherited variations in 13q12.12 contribute to lung cancer risk, highlighting the protective roles of the p53-responsive enhancer-mediated TNFRSF19 activation in lung cells under carcinogen stress.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 13 , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Reparo do DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Cancer Med ; 8(7): 3511-3519, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070303

RESUMO

Cancer-testis (CT) genes are a group of genes restrictedly expressed in testis and multiple cancers and can serve as candidate driver genes participating in the development of cancers. Our previous study identified a number of CT genes in nongerm cell tumors, but their expression pattern in testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT), a cancer type characterized by less genomic alterations, remained largely unknown. In this study, we systematically investigated the expression pattern of CT genes in TGCT samples and evaluated the transcriptome difference between TGCT and normal testis tissues, using datasets from the UCSC Xena platform, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. Pathway enrichment analysis and survival analysis were conducted to evaluate the biological function and prognostic effect of expressed CT genes. We identified that 1036 testis-specific expressed protein-coding genes and 863 testis-specific expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were expressed in TGCT samples, including 883 CT protein-coding genes and 710 CT lncRNAs defined previously. The number of expressed CT genes was significantly higher in seminomas (P = 3.48 × 10-13 ) which were characterized by frequent mutations in driver genes (KIT, KRAS and NRAS). In contrast, the number of expressed CT genes showed a moderate negative correlation with the fraction of copy number altered genomes (cor = -0.28, P = 1.20 × 10-3 ). Unlike other cancers, our analysis revealed that 96.16% of the CT genes were down-regulated in TGCT samples, while CT genes in stem cell maintenance related pathways were up-regulated. Further survival analysis provided evidence that CT genes could also predict the prognosis of TGCT patients with both disease-free interval and progression-free interval as clinical endpoints. Taken together, our study provided a global view of CT genes in TGCT and provided evidence that CT genes played important roles in the progression and maintenance of TGCT.

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