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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984722

RESUMO

The operation mechanism of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors relies on the linear response of the magnetization direction to an external magnetic field. Since the magnetic anisotropy of ferromagnetic layers can be manipulated by a strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling effect, we propose a tunable GMR magnetic field sensor design that allows for voltage tuning of the linear range and sensitivity. A spin valve structure Ru/CoFe/Cu/CoFe/IrMn/Ru is grown on a PMN-PT (011) substrate, and the magnetization directions of ferromagnetic layers can be controlled by an electric field. An adjustable linear magnetoresistance is therefore induced. Based on the magnetoelectric coupling effect and spin valve, we prepared tunable GMR magnetic field sensors with bridge structures. The linear sensing range of a DC magnetic field is enhanced 6 times by applying an electric field of 14 kV/cm. The electrically tunable GMR sensor fulfills the requirements to work at different magnetic field ranges in the same configuration, therefore exhibiting great potential for applications in the Internet of things.

2.
Science ; 366(6464): 475-479, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649196

RESUMO

Ferroelectrics are usually inflexible oxides that undergo brittle deformation. We synthesized freestanding single-crystalline ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) membranes with a damage-free lifting-off process. Our BaTiO3 membranes can undergo a ~180° folding during an in situ bending test, demonstrating a super-elasticity and ultraflexibility. We found that the origin of the super-elasticity was from the dynamic evolution of ferroelectric nanodomains. High stresses modulate the energy landscape markedly and allow the dipoles to rotate continuously between the a and c nanodomains. A continuous transition zone is formed to accommodate the variant strain and avoid high mismatch stress that usually causes fracture. The phenomenon should be possible in other ferroelectrics systems through domain engineering. The ultraflexible epitaxial ferroelectric membranes could enable many applications such as flexible sensors, memories, and electronic skins.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(24): 21727-21733, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119933

RESUMO

Mechanical flexible electronic/spintronic devices have shown enormous application potential to impact our daily life. Here, an in situ low-voltage-controlled flexible field-effect transistor structure was exploited, which consists of a support layer (mica), functional layer (Fe3O4), and control layer (ionic gel). By applying a low voltage (1.5 V) on the ionic gel, the spin-dynamic properties of the function layer were manipulated and a reversible, nonvolatile 345 Oe ferromagnetic resonance field ( Hr) shift was achieved, which corresponds to a large magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of 230 Oe/V. In addition, a reversible 126 Oe Hr shift (84 Oe/V) was obtained when the layers were bent at curvature radius r = 15 mm. The ME tunability could be attributed to the E-field induced ionic transformation between Fe2+ and Fe3+ at the interface via electrostatic induction. This sandwich structure shows an excellent and effective ionic gel gating system and paves the way for low-voltage-tunable, nonvolatile, and flexible spintronic devices such as memory devices, sensors, and logical devices.


Assuntos
Eletrônica/métodos , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química , Membranas Artificiais , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Imãs
4.
Adv Mater ; 31(18): e1900246, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907479

RESUMO

Magnetoresistance, the dependence of resistivity on the applied magnetic field, provides the opportunity to manipulate and utilize the electronic spin degree of freedom, which is not only a long-term frontier field of solid-state physics but also the cornerstone of information storage technology. However, the negative magnetoresistance (nMR) is a relatively rare case of magnetoresistance in which the microscopic origin is still elusive and for which it is difficult to define a general interpretation. Herein, an experimental case of an intrinsic unsaturated nMR is demonstrated in van der Waals FeNbTe2 single crystal. The clear-cut evidence in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), the electronic transport measurement, and DC/AC magnetic susceptibility confirms that the intrinsic unsaturated nMR is derived from the comprehensive effect of Anderson localization and a spin glass state. Taking into consideration that intrinsic unsaturated nMR has so far been rarely reported, especially in van der Waals structures, it is anticipated that this work will not only lead to a deep understanding of the inherent microcosmic mechanism but will also serve as a guide to broaden the research of spintronics and information storage based on magnetoresistance.

5.
Adv Mater ; : e1802902, 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109765

RESUMO

The voltage modulation of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is of practical and theoretical significance; due to its advantages of compactness, high-speed response, and energy efficiency, it can be used for various spintronic applications, including spin-Hall, spin-pumping, and spin-Seebeck effects. In this study, a significant ferromagnetic resonance change is achieved within the YIG/Pt bilayer heterostructures uisng ionic modulation, which is accomplished by modifying the interfacial magnetism in the deposited "capping" platinum layer. With a small voltage bias of 4.5 V, a large ferromagnetic field shift of 690 Oe is achieved in heterostructures of YIG (13 nm)/Pt (3 nm)/(ionic liquid, IL)/(Au capacitor). The remarkable magnetoelectric (ME) tunability comes from the additional and voltage-induced ferromagnetic ordering, caused by uncompensated d-orbital electrons in the Pt metal layer. Confirmed by first-principle calculations, this finding paves the way for novel voltage-tunable YIG-based spintronics.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(35): 29750-29756, 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094986

RESUMO

In spite of recent rapid development of flexible electronics, voltage-tunable spintronic structures and devices on flexible substrates have been rarely studied. Here, voltage control of magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) is demonstrated via ionic gel (IG) gating on flexible polyimide substrates with a circuit operating voltage of 1.8 V. A reversible, nonvolatile VCMA switching of 114 Oe is achieved in Pt/Fe/Pt multilayer, where the spatial magnetic anisotropy distribution is determined quantitatively by electron spin resonance technique. This IG gating process is repeatable as the substrates are under different bending conditions. The voltage modulation of magnetic anisotropy through IG gating with excellent flexibility proposes potential applications in low-power wearable spintronic devices.

7.
ACS Nano ; 12(7): 7167-7173, 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870657

RESUMO

The trend of mobile Internet requires portable and wearable devices as bio-device interfaces. Electric field control of magnetism is a promising approach to achieve compact, light-weight, and energy-efficient wearable devices. Within a flexible sandwich heterostructure, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy switching was achieved via low-voltage gating control of an ionic gel in mica/Ta/(Pt/Co) x/Pt/ionic gel/Pt, where (Pt/Co) x acted as a functional layer. By conducting in situ VSM, EPR, and MOKE measurements, a 1098 Oe magnetic anisotropy field change was determined at the bending state with tensile strain, corresponding to a magnetic anisotropy energy change of 3.16 × 105 J/m3 and a giant voltage tunability coefficient of 0.79 × 105 J/m3·V. The low voltage and strain dual control of magnetism on mica substrates enables tunable flexible spintronic devices with an increased degree of manipulation.

8.
Adv Mater ; 30(30): e1801639, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29809283

RESUMO

Electric field (E-field) modulation of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) switching, in an energy-efficient manner, is of great potential to realize magnetoelectric (ME) memories and other ME devices. Voltage control of the spin-reorientation transition (SRT) that allows the magnetic moment rotating between the out-of-plane and the in-plane direction is thereby crucial. In this work, a remarkable magnetic anisotropy field change up to 1572 Oe is achieved under a small operation voltage of 4 V through ionic liquid (IL) gating control of SRT in Au/[DEME]+ [TFSI]- /Pt/(Co/Pt)2 /Ta capacitor heterostructures at room temperature, corresponding to a large ME coefficient of 378 Oe V-1 . As revealed by both ferromagnetic resonance measurements and magnetic domain evolution observation, the magnetization can be switched stably and reversibly between the out-of-plane and in-plane directions via IL gating. The key mechanism, revealed by the first-principles calculation, is that the IL gating process influences the interfacial spin-orbital coupling as well as net Rashba magnetic field between the Co and Pt layers, resulting in the modulation of the SRT and in-plane/out-of-plane magnetization switching. This work demonstrates a unique IL-gated PMA with large ME tunability and paves a way toward IL gating spintronic/electronic devices such as voltage tunable PMA memories.

9.
Adv Mater ; 30(22): e1800449, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663532

RESUMO

To meet the demand of developing compatible and energy-efficient flexible spintronics, voltage manipulation of magnetism on soft substrates is in demand. Here, a voltage tunable flexible field-effect transistor structure by ionic gel (IG) gating in perpendicular synthetic anti-ferromagnetic nanostructure is demonstrated. As a result, the interlayer Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction can be tuned electrically at room temperature. With a circuit gating voltage, anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) ordering is enhanced or converted into an AFM-ferromagnetic (FM) intermediate state, accompanying with the dynamic domain switching. This IG gating process can be repeated stably at different curvatures, confirming an excellent mechanical property. The IG-induced modification of interlayer exchange coupling is related to the change of Fermi level aroused by the disturbance of itinerant electrons. The voltage modulation of RKKY interaction with excellent flexibility proposes an application potential for wearable spintronic devices with energy efficiency and ultralow operation voltage.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 991, 2018 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29515180

RESUMO

To overcome the fundamental challenge of the weak natural response of antiferromagnetic materials under a magnetic field, voltage manipulation of antiferromagnetic interaction is developed to realize ultrafast, high-density, and power efficient antiferromagnetic spintronics. Here, we report a low voltage modulation of Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction via ionic liquid gating in synthetic antiferromagnetic multilayers of FeCoB/Ru/FeCoB and (Pt/Co)2/Ru/(Co/Pt)2. At room temperature, the distinct voltage control of transition between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic ordering is realized and up to 80% of perpendicular magnetic moments manage to switch with a small-applied voltage bias of 2.5 V. We related this ionic liquid gating-induced RKKY interaction modification to the disturbance of itinerant electrons inside synthetic antiferromagnetic heterostructure and the corresponding change of its Fermi level. Voltage tuning of RKKY interaction may enable the next generation of switchable spintronics between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic modes with both fundamental and practical perspectives.

11.
ACS Nano ; 12(4): 3751-3758, 2018 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498510

RESUMO

Traditional magnetostrictive/piezoelectric laminated composites rely on the two-dimensional interface that transfers stress/strain to achieve the large magnetoelectric (ME) coupling, nevertheless, they suffer from the theoretical limitation of the strain effect and of the substrate clamping effect in real ME applications. In this work, 3D NZFO/BTO-pillar nanocomposite films were grown on SrTiO3 by template-assisted pulsed laser deposition, where BaTiO3 (BTO) nanopillars appeared in an array with distinct phase transitions as the cores were covered by NiZn ferrite (NZFO) layer. The perfect 3D heteroepitaxial interface between BTO and NZFO phases can be identified without any edge dislocations, which allows effective strain transfer at the 3D interface. The 3D structure nanocomposites enable the strong two magnon scattering (TMS) effect that enhances ME coupling at the interface and reduces the clamping effect by strain relaxation. Thereby, a large FMR field shift of 1866 Oe in NZFO/BTO-pillar nanocomposite was obtained at the TMS critical angle near the BTO nanopillars phase transition of 255 K.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(49): 43188-43196, 2017 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171255

RESUMO

Controlling spin dynamics through modulation of spin interactions in a fast, compact, and energy-efficient way is compelling for its abundant physical phenomena and great application potential in next-generation voltage controllable spintronic devices. In this work, we report electric field manipulation of spin dynamics-the two-magnon scattering (TMS) effect in Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 (NZFO)/Pb(Mg2/3Nb1/3)-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) multiferroic heterostructures, which breaks the bottleneck of magnetostatic interaction-based magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in multiferroics. An alternative approach allowing spin-wave damping to be controlled by external electric field accompanied by a significant enhancement of the ME effect has been demonstrated. A two-way modulation of the TMS effect with a large magnetic anisotropy change up to 688 Oe has been obtained, referring to a 24 times ME effect enhancement at the TMS critical angle at room temperature. Furthermore, the anisotropic spin-freezing behaviors of NZFO were first determined via identifying the spatial magnetic anisotropy fluctuations. A large spin-freezing temperature change of 160 K induced by the external electric field was precisely determined by electron spin resonance.

13.
ACS Nano ; 11(9): 9286-9293, 2017 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813600

RESUMO

Electric field control of dynamic spin interactions is promising to break through the limitation of the magnetostatic interaction based magnetoelectric (ME) effect. In this work, electric field control of the two-magnon scattering (TMS) effect excited by in-plane lattice rotation has been demonstrated in a La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO)/Pb(Mn2/3Nb1/3)-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) (011) multiferroic heterostructure. Compared with the conventional strain-mediated ME effect, a giant enhancement of ME effect up to 950% at the TMS critical angle is precisely determined by angular resolution of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurement. Particularly, a large electric field modulation of magnetic anisotropy (464 Oe) and FMR line width (401 Oe) is achieved at 173 K. The electric-field-controllable TMS effect and its correlated ME effect have been explained by electric field modulation of the planar spin interactions triggered by spin-lattice coupling. The enhancement of the ME effect at various temperatures and spin dynamics control are promising paradigms for next-generation voltage-tunable spintronic devices.

14.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 296, 2017 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831042

RESUMO

State-of-the-art compact antennas rely on electromagnetic wave resonance, which leads to antenna sizes that are comparable to the electromagnetic wavelength. As a result, antennas typically have a size greater than one-tenth of the wavelength, and further miniaturization of antennas has been an open challenge for decades. Here we report on acoustically actuated nanomechanical magnetoelectric (ME) antennas with a suspended ferromagnetic/piezoelectric thin-film heterostructure. These ME antennas receive and transmit electromagnetic waves through the ME effect at their acoustic resonance frequencies. The bulk acoustic waves in ME antennas stimulate magnetization oscillations of the ferromagnetic thin film, which results in the radiation of electromagnetic waves. Vice versa, these antennas sense the magnetic fields of electromagnetic waves, giving a piezoelectric voltage output. The ME antennas (with sizes as small as one-thousandth of a wavelength) demonstrates 1-2 orders of magnitude miniaturization over state-of-the-art compact antennas without performance degradation. These ME antennas have potential implications for portable wireless communication systems.The miniaturization of antennas beyond a wavelength is limited by designs which rely on electromagnetic resonances. Here, Nan et al. have developed acoustically actuated antennas that couple the acoustic resonance of the antenna with the electromagnetic wave, reducing the antenna footprint by up to 100.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(36): 30733-30740, 2017 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28810124

RESUMO

Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is of great importance in RF/microwave devices for its low loss, low intrinsic damping, and high permeability. Nevertheless, tuning of YIG-based multiferroics is still a challenge due to its near-zero magnetostriction and the difficulty of building epitaxial interface between ferromagnetic garnet and ferroelectric perovskite phases. In this work, the vertically aligned heterostructure of YIG:BTO/STO(001) with local epitaxial interface between BTO and YIG is well-constructed, where the single crystal BTO pillars are embedded in YIG matrix. A large magnetoelectric coupling effect that drives YIG's FMR shift up to 512 and 333 Oe (1-2 order greater than those of all state-of-the-art progresses) is obtained through BTO ferroelectric phase changes induced by temperature variation at 295 and 193 K, correspondingly. This record high magnetoelectric tunability of YIG paves a way toward thermal/electrical tunable YIG devices.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(38): 26487-26494, 2016 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27711495

RESUMO

Crown ethers, as a kind of heterocycle, have been the subject of great interest over recent decades due to their selective capability to bind to metal cations. The use of a constant crown ether, such as naphtho-15-crown-5 (N15C5), and varied metal cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Be2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+) makes it possible to determine the contributions of the metal cations to nonlinear optical (NLO) responses and to design an appropriate NLO-based cation detector. N15C5 and its metal cation derivatives have been systematically investigated by density functional theory. It is found that the dependency of the first hyperpolarizability relies on the metal cation, especially for transition metals. The decrease of the first hyperpolarizabilities for alkali metal cation derivatives is due to their relatively low oscillator strengths, whereas the significant increase of the first hyperpolarizabilities for transition metal cation derivatives can be further illustrated by their low transition energies, large amplitudes and separate distributions of first hyperpolarizability density. Thus, the alkali metal and transition metal cations are distinguishable and the transition metal cations are easier to detect by utilizing the variations in NLO responses.

17.
Sci Rep ; 6: 32408, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27581071

RESUMO

Magnetoelectric effect, arising from the interfacial coupling between magnetic and electrical order parameters, has recently emerged as a robust means to electrically manipulate the magnetic properties in multiferroic heterostructures. Challenge remains as finding an energy efficient way to modify the distinct magnetic states in a reliable, reversible, and non-volatile manner. Here we report ferroelectric switching of ferromagnetic resonance in multiferroic bilayers consisting of ultrathin ferromagnetic NiFe and ferroelectric Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PLZT) films, where the magnetic anisotropy of NiFe can be electrically modified by low voltages. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements confirm that the interfacial charge-mediated magnetoelectric effect is dominant in NiFe/PLZT heterostructures. Non-volatile modification of ferromagnetic resonance field is demonstrated by applying voltage pulses. The ferroelectric switching of magnetic anisotropy exhibits extensive applications in energy-efficient electronic devices such as magnetoelectric random access memories, magnetic field sensors, and tunable radio frequency (RF)/microwave devices.

18.
Adv Mater ; 28(42): 9370-9377, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27593972

RESUMO

A highly sensitive flexible magnetic sensor based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect is fabricated. A limit of detection of 150 nT is observed and excellent deformation stability is achieved after wrapping of the flexible sensor, with bending radii down to 5 mm. The flexible AMR sensor is used to read a magnetic pattern with a thickness of 10 µm that is formed by ferrite magnetic inks.

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