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2.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(1): 1059-1066, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747721

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma ranks the most common seen solid tumour in childhood. Overexpression of LIN28A gene has been linked to the development of multiple human malignancies, but the relationship between LIN28A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and neuroblastoma susceptibility is still under debate. Herein, we evaluated the correlation of four potentially functional LIN28A SNPs (rs3811464 G>A, rs3811463 T>C, rs34787247 G>A, and rs11247957 G>A) and neuroblastoma susceptibility in 505 neuroblastoma patients and 1070 controls from four independent hospitals in China. The correlation strengths were determined by using odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among these SNPs, rs34787247 G>A exhibited a significant association with increased susceptibility in neuroblastoma (GA vs GG: adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.03-1.64; AA vs GG: adjusted OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.36-4.64, AA/GA vs GG: adjusted OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.12-1.80, AA vs GG/GA: adjusted OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.29-4.42). Furthermore, the combined analysis of risk genotypes revealed that subjects carrying three risk genotypes (adjusted OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.02-2.63) are more inclined to develop neuroblastoma than those without risk genotype, and so do carriers of 1-4 risk genotypes (adjusted OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.01-1.56). Stratification analysis further revealed risk effect of rs3811464 G>A, rs34787247 G>A and 1-4 risk genotypes in some subgroups. Haplotype analysis of these four SNPs yields two haplotypes significantly correlated with increased neuroblastoma susceptibility. Overall, our finding indicated that LIN28A SNPs, especially rs34787247 G>A, may increase neuroblastoma risk.

3.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823521

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is highly expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and correlates with poor prognosis. EGFR has been demonstrated to be associated with cancer stem cell traits in HNSCC. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is far from elucidated. Here, SOX2, one of the most important stem cell markers, was identified as a binding partner and substrate of EGFR. EGFR signaling inhibition decreases SOX2 expression by promoting its autophagic degradation. Mechanistically, EGFR activation induces SOX2 phosphorylation at the Y277 site and reduces its ubiquitination, which inhibits its association with p62 and subsequent autophagic degradation. Gefitinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, shows in vitro and in vivo protective effects against oral cancer cells that can be reversed through autophagy inhibition. Our study suggests that EGFR plays an important role in the development of cancer stem cells by stabilizing SOX2. Targeting EGFR in combination with conventional chemotherapy might be a promising strategy for the treatment of HNSCC through elimination of cancer stem cells.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800355

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of topical low-concentration (0.01%) atropine for controlling near work-induced transient myopia (NITM) in a young Chinese population. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. The participants were randomly divided into the 0.5% hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose-treated group (control group) or 0.01% atropine-treated group (study group). Participants' pulse rate, respiration rate, intraocular pressure, pupil diameter, and magnitude of initial NITM were evaluated at baseline and on day 7 and 14 during treatment. In addition, ocular discomfort and adverse effects were recorded. Results: Of the initial 176 participants, 145 (82.4%) completed the 14-day treatment and all evaluations. At baseline, no difference in the magnitude of initial NITM was observed between the control and study groups (P = 0.826). However, the magnitude of initial NITM of the study group was significantly lower at both day 7 (-0.11 ± 0.227 D) and day 14 (0.076 ± 0.183 D) after treatment initiation, compared with the magnitude of initial NITM in the control group (P < 0.001). No serious complications were observed. However, significantly larger pupil diameters were noted on day 7 and 14 in the study group than in the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: We speculate that daily topical 0.01% atropine application effectively reduced the magnitude of initial NITM, without any serious complications. The minimal pupil dilation induced by the treatment was acceptable. Low-concentration atropine may be useful in clinical settings as treatment for young patients with NITM.

6.
Reproduction ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786538

RESUMO

Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are important mediators of cell-to-cell communication involved in successful establishment of a pregnancy. Human decidual stromal cells play a key role in regulating trophoblast invasion. Nevertheless, the regulatory functions of decidual stromal cells-derived sEVs in human trophoblast cells are still unclear. In this study, primary human decidual stromal cells were isolated and immortalized human endometrial stromal cell line (HESCs) were decidualised into human decidual stromal cells (HDSC) using hormonal cocktail containing Medroxy progesterone 17-acetate (MPA), estrogen and cAMP analog. HDSC-sEVs were isolated from both primary human decidual stromal cells and immortal HDSCs respectively, and identified by transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. EVs up-taken assay indicated that HDSC-sEVs could be up-taken by trophoblast cells. HDSC-sEVs could increase the invasiveness and the expression level of N-cadherin of trophoblast cells with elevated phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3 in the cells. Silencing of N-cadherin could block cell invasion induced by HDSC-sEVs, while knockdown of SMAD2 and SMAD3 could inhibit the up-regulation of N-cadherin in trophoblast cells. Taken together, our results suggested a regulatory effect of HDSC-sEVs in the invasion of trophoblast cells, and HDSC-sEVs may be important mediators of trophoblasts during embryo implantation and placentation.

7.
Phys Rev E ; 100(4-1): 043204, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771018

RESUMO

Warm dense carbon is generated at 0.3-2.0 g/cc and 1-7 eV by proton heating. The release equation of state (EOS) after heating and thermal conductivity of warm dense carbon are studied experimentally in this regime using a Au/C dual-layer target to initiate a temperature gradient and two picosecond time-resolved diagnostics to probe the surface expansion and heat flow. Comparison between the data and simulations using various EOSs and thermal conductivity models is quantified with a statistical χ^{2} analysis. Out of seven EOS tables and five thermal conductivity models, only L9061 with the Lee-More model provides a probability above 50% to match all data.

8.
Ann Transl Med ; 7(18): 475, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700911

RESUMO

Background: Wilms tumor (WT) is a common embryonal malignancy in the kidney, ranking fourth in childhood cancer worldwide. MYC, a critical proto-oncogene, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MYC gene may lead to the deregulation of MYC proto-oncogene protein and thereby promote the initiation and development of tumors. Methods: Here, we assessed the association between MYC gene associated polymorphisms and WT susceptibility by performing a case-control study with 355 cases and 1070 controls. Two MYC gene associated polymorphisms (rs4645943 C > T, rs2070583 A > G) were genotyped by TaqMan technique. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for evaluating the association between these two polymorphisms and WT susceptibility. Results: No significant association was detected between the selected polymorphisms and WT risk in the overall analysis as well as stratification analysis. Conclusions: These results indicate that neither of two selected MYC gene associated polymorphisms might affect WT susceptibility in the Chinese population. Large well-designed studies with diverse ethnicities are warranted to verify these results.

9.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 7(3): 213-220, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608212

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Ravidasvir (RDV) is a new generation pangenotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor, with high barrier to baseline resistance-associated species. This is the first phase 2/3 study conducted in Mainland China confirming the efficacy and safety of RDV + ritonavir-boosted danoprevir + ribavirin for 12 weeks in treatment-naïve noncirrhotic patients with genotype 1 infection in a large population. Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase 2/3 trial (NCT03362814), we enrolled 424 treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic adult HCV genotype 1 patients. All patients were randomized at 3:1 ratio to receive a combination of RDV 200mg once daily plus ritonavir-boosted danoprevir 100mg/100mg twice daily and oral ribavirin 1000/1200mg/day (body weight <75/≥75 kg) (n = 318) or placebo (n = 106) for 12 weeks. The primary end-point was the rate of sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of treatment, and the safety was evaluated and compared between treatment and placebo groups. Results: The overall rate of sustained virological response at 12 weeks after treatment is 99% (306/309, 95%, CI: 97%-100%) under per protocol set analysis. All patients harboring baseline NS5A resistance-associated species in the treatment group (76/76, per protocol set) achieved sustained virological response at 12 weeks after treatment. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. Laboratory abnormalities showed mild or moderate severity (grade 1 and grade 2) in liver function tests. Conclusions: In treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic HCV Chinese patients infected with HCV genotype 1, all-oral regimen of RDV + ritonavir-boosted danoprevir + ribavirin for 12 weeks was highly efficacious, safe, and well tolerated.

10.
Onco Targets Ther ; 12: 7289-7295, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564912

RESUMO

Background: Neuroblastoma is one of the most common extracranial solid pediatric tumors. KRAS plays an important role in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KRAS have been shown to modify susceptibility to multiple tumors, but no specific molecular epidemiology study was reported regarding neuroblastoma. Methods: We conducted a four-center case-control study to explore the association between KRAS gene polymorphisms (rs12587 G>T, rs7973450 A>G, rs7312175 G>A) and neuroblastoma susceptibility with 505 Chinese children and 1070 matched controls. Results: We found that rs7973450 A>G was associated with significantly increased neuroblastoma risk [GG vs. AA: adjusted odds ratio (OR)=4.26, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.28-14.19, P=0.018; GG vs. AA/AG: adjusted OR=4.27, 95% CI=1.28-14.24, P=0.018]. The stratified analysis further demonstrated that rs7973450 GG genotype carriers had a higher risk to develop neuroblastoma in the subgroups of males, tumor originated from the adrenal gland and clinical stages III+IV. Conclusions: Overall, our results suggested that rs7973450 A>G was associated with increased neuroblastoma risk.

11.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(10): 3514-3519, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412110

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate diabetic optic neuropathy (DON) prevalence and risk factors in Chinese diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients. Methods: This retrospective study included 1067 eyes (550 patients) that underwent ocular imaging. The diabetes duration, systolic blood pressure (SBP), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were also recorded simultaneously. Results: A total of 410 eyes with DON and 657 eyes without DON were included (38.4% DON prevalence). DON eyes were classified as having diabetic papillopathy (DP), optic disc neovascularization (NVD), anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION), or optic atrophy (OA). Proliferative DR eyes had a higher DON prevalence than nonproliferative DR eyes (P < 0.001). Diabetes duration, SBP, and HbA1c were higher in DON patients than in non-DON patients (all P < 0.001). Additionally, HDL was lower in patients with DON (0.74 ± 0.13 mM) than in those without DON (1.00 ± 0.24 mM, P < 0.001). HbA1c levels were greater in AION patients (10.00 ± 1.53% [85.76 ± 16.71 mmol/mol]) than in DP patients (8.78 ± 1.97% [72.45 ± 21.55 mmol/mol], P = 0.017); central foveal thickness (CFT) significantly varied among groups (P < 0.001). Increased age, diabetes duration, SBP, CFT, and DR severity were risk factors for DON; and increased HbA1c was a risk factor for NVD, AION, and OA (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our study results strengthen the argument that increased age, diabetes duration, SBP, CFT, DR severity, and HbA1c are all risk factors for DON in patients with DR.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , China/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Neuropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Retinopatia Diabética/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/sangue , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 28: 105-109, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470121

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate whether optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) could be used to guide the treatment of pathological myopic patients with submacular hemorrhage. Two pathological myopia patients with submacular hemorrhage were examined. Initially, choroidal neovascularization (CNV) was not observed during fundus angiography in both patients. However, based on OCTA, the first patient was diagnosed with myopic lacquer crack-related macular hemorrhage, and the second with CNV secondary to punctate inner choroidopathy. The first patient was treated with traditional Chinese medicine administered orally, and the second with intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Lesions in both patients were resolved. Submacular hemorrhage in pathological myopia patients could be caused by numerous mechanisms. OCTA is useful in differentiating inflammatory CNV from inflammatory lesions, particularly if CNV is not detected using other multimodal imaging techniques.

13.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 5736175, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341530

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma is a life-threatening extracranial solid tumor, preferentially occurring in children. However, its etiology remains unclear. APEX1 is a critical gene in the base excision repair (BER) system responsible for maintaining genome stability. Given the potential effects of APEX1 polymorphisms on the ability of the DNA damage repair, many studies have investigated the association between these variants and susceptibility to several types of cancer but not neuroblastoma. Here, we conducted a three-center case-control study to evaluate the association between APEX1 polymorphisms (rs1130409 T>G, rs1760944 T>G, and rs3136817 T>C) and neuroblastoma risk in Chinese children, consisting of 469 cases and 998 controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the associations. No significant association with neuroblastoma risk was found for the studied APEX1 polymorphisms in the single locus or combination analysis. Interestingly, stratified analysis showed that rs1130409 GG genotype significantly reduced the risk of tumor in males. Furthermore, we found that carriers with 1-3 protective genotypes had a lower neuroblastoma risk in the children older than18 months and male, when compared to those without protective genotypes. In summary, our data indicate that APEX1 gene polymorphisms may have a weak effect on neuroblastoma susceptibility. These findings should be further validated by well-designed studies with larger sample size.

14.
J Reprod Dev ; 65(5): 413-421, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308307

RESUMO

The Hainan black goat is a high-quality local goat breed in Hainan Province of China. It is resistant to high temperatures, humidity, and disease. Although the meat of this breed is tender and delicious, its reproductive performance and milk yield are low. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology was used to analyze the differentially expressed proteins in the serum of female Hainan black goats during the reproductive cycle (empty pregnant, estrus, gestation, and lactation). The pathway enrichment analysis results showed that most of the differentially expressed proteins between each period belonged to the complement and coagulation cascades. Analysis of the differential protein expression and function revealed seven proteins that were directly associated with reproduction, namely pre-SAA21, ANTXR2, vWF, SFRP3, ß4GalT1, pre-IGFBP2 and Ran. This study revealed the changing patterns of differentially expressed proteins in the reproductive cycle of the Hainan black goat. pre-SAA21, ANTXR2, vWF, SFRP3, ß4GalT1, pre-IGFBP2, and Ran were identified as candidate proteins for mediating the physiological state of Hainan black goats and regulating their fertility. This study elucidated the changes in expression levels of differentially expressed proteins during the reproductive cycle of Hainan black goats and also provides details about its breeding pattern.

15.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(7): 2142-2146, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120828

RESUMO

An aerobic, non-motile, Gram-stain-negative, red-to-pinkish and rod-shaped bacterium, designated 9PBR-2T, was isolated from an abandoned lead-zinc ore sample collected from Meizhou, Guangdong Province, PR China. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 9PBR-2T belongs to the genus Hymenobacter and was most closely related to Hymenobacter rigui KCTC 12533T (98.0 %), Hymenobacter swuensis KCTC 32018T (97.8 %) and Hymenobacter perfusus LMG 26000T (97.6 %). The calculated average nucleotide identity values based on whole genome sequences between strain 9PBR-2T and closely related type strains ranged from 81.3 to 84.1 %. Correspondingly, the digital DNA-DNA hybridization values ranged from 25.5 to 28.1 %. The major fatty acids of strain 9PBR-2T were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, C16:1ω5c, summed feature 3 (C16:1ω6c and/or C16:1ω7c) and summed feature 4 (iso-C17:1 I and/or anteiso-C17:1 B). It contained menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the major isoprenoid quinone and phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar lipid. The genomic DNA G+C content based on whole genome sequence was 59.8 mol%. Characterization based on phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses clearly indicated that strain 9PBR-2T represents a novel species of the genus Hymenobacter, for which the name Hymenobactermetallilatus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 9PBR-2T (=GDMCC 1.1492T=JCM 32699T).


Assuntos
Cytophagaceae/classificação , Mineração , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , Cytophagaceae/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Chumbo , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química , Zinco
16.
JBMR Plus ; 3(4): e10077, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044179

RESUMO

Autophagy confers protective or detrimental effects on cells depending on the cellular context. We showed here that oxidative stress-induced cell death in osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells coincided with decreased autophagy. Decreased autophagy was also observed in osteocytes of superoxide dismutase 1- (SOD1-) deficient mice. Oxidative stress-induced osteocyte death was exacerbated by an autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine, suggesting a protective function of basal autophagy levels against oxidative stress-induced cell death. Pretreatment with dexamethasone reduced the susceptibility of osteocytes to oxidative stress-induced cell death and conferred protection against TNFα/cycloheximide-induced cell death. Inhibition of MAPK/ERK attenuated the formation of autophagosome, leading to increased osteocyte cell death. Taken together, our results suggest that autophagy, induced by moderate levels of glucocorticoids, leads to the preconditioning of osteocytes and conveys a novel cell-protective function against cell death induced by oxidative stress and other insults. © 2018 The Authors. JBMR Plus is published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

17.
3 Biotech ; 9(5): 203, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065503

RESUMO

Coat color genetics successfully adapted and applied to different animal species, which provides a good demonstration of the concept of comparative genetics. In this study, we sequenced 945 bp fragments of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, 421 bp fragments of exon 1 of tyrosinase (TYR) gene and 266 bp fragments of exon 3 of agouti signaling protein (ASIP) gene for 250 individuals with five plumage color patterns. We detected a total of three SNPs (T398A, T637C, and G920C) in MC1R and built six haplotypes (H1-H6) based on the three SNPs. H5 and H6 haplotypes were mainly concentrated in white and grey chicken. And diplotypes H2H3 occurred in white feather and black-speckle feather with the same frequency. Moreover, a total of three SNPs (C47G, T120C, and T172C) in TYR were found and built six haplotypes (P1-P6) based on the three SNPs. Among them, haplotype P2, P3 and P6 were not occurred in black chicken, the diplotypes P1P6 and P4P6 were only distributed in white, gray and black-speckled feather. We only detected one SNP (T168C) in ASIP gene and found that genotype TT was advantage genotype in the different plumage color groups of chickens. Collectively, our study suggested an association between plumage color and genetic variation of MC1R, TYR and ASIP in chicken.

18.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 1323-1334, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118569

RESUMO

Introduction: To investigate the angiographic characteristics of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) and to evaluate the efficacy of subconjunctival/perilesional 5-fluorouracil injections in OSSN cases. Materials and methods: Six eyes of six patients with primary OSSN, received perilesional, subconjunctival, 25-mg/mL 5-fluorouracil injections at certain intervals. Anterior segment digital photography images, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), and conjunctival indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) were obtained simultaneously with fluorescein angiography. Results: The mean best-corrected vision acuity significantly improved after treatment. At baseline, the median of the largest thickness of OSSN was 905.0 (interquartile range: 492.0-1592.5) µm based on AS-OCT data. There was an abrupt transition between normal and abnormal epithelium, a thickened hyper-reflective epithelium, and a sharp plane of cleavage between the lesion and underlying tissue, all indicative of OSSN. The angiographic characteristics of OSSN included focal or seafan-shaped intratumoral and conjunctival feeding vessels visible via ICGA, and abnormal vascular leakage visible with fluorescein angiography. The median time to tumor regression after treatment was 35.0 (interquartile range: 32.0-45.5) days in five eyes without recurrence, and OSSN in one eye regressed partially 40 days after treatment. Conclusion: This is the first report of the angiographic characteristics of OSSN and its response to subconjunctival/perilesional 5-fluorouracil injections by simultaneous conjunctival angiography and AS-OCT. The improved subconjunctival/perilesional 5-fluorouracil injection was an effective therapy for OSSN in both best-corrected vision acuity gain and anatomic outcomes.

20.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 289: 18-25, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125938

RESUMO

The contribution of hypoperfusion to abnormal functional connectivity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the potential association between brain perfusion and functional connectivity (FC), and its effects on the cognitive impairment among AD, MCI, and normal controls (NC). One-time acquisition of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study brain perfusion and FC. Compared to the NC, the perfusion in the left temporal lobe showed significantly lower in AD, and bilateral hypoperfusion in the frontal lobe showed in MCI. Using these hypoperfusion areas as seed regions, we found that FC between the left inferior temporal gyrus and medial frontal-cingulate regions in AD patients was significantly lower than that in NCs. The FC between the right medial superior frontal gyrus and left parietal lobe in MCI patients was significantly higher than that in NCs. Additionally, the FC between the right medial superior frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal gyrus were found to be correlated significantly and negatively with mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores in MCI patients. In conclusion, hypoperfusion may affect cognitive states via abnormal FC as an additional factor contributing to cognitive impairment.

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