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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053991, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027421

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stroke survivors can have a high disability rate with low quality of daily life, resulting in a heavy burden on family and society. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been widely applied to brain injury repair, neurological disease treatment, cognition and emotion regulation and so on. However, there is still much to be desired in the theories of using these neuromodulation techniques to treat stroke-caused hemiplegia. It is generally recognised that synaptic plasticity is an important basis for functional repair after brain injury. This study protocol aims to examine the corticocortical paired associative stimulation (ccPAS) for inducing synaptic plasticity to rescue the paralysed after stroke. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The current study is designed as a 14-week double-blind randomised sham-controlled clinical trial, composed of 2-week intervention and 12-week follow-up. For the study, 42 patients who had a stroke aged 40-70 will be recruited, who are randomly assigned either to the ccPAS intervention group, or to the control group at a 1:1 ratio, hence an equal number each. In the intervention group, ccPAS is practised in conjunction with the conventional rehabilitation treatment, and in the control group, the conventional rehabilitation treatment is administered with sham stimulation. A total of 10 interventions will be made, 5 times a week for 2 weeks. The same assessors are supposed to evaluate the participants' motor function at four time points of the baseline (before 10 interventions), treatment ending (after 10 interventions), and two intervals of follow-up (1 and 3 months later, respectively). The Fugl-Meyer Assessment Upper Extremity is used for the primary outcomes. The secondary outcomes include changes in the assessment of Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Modified Barthel Index (MBI), electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional MRI data. The adverse events are to be recorded throughout the study. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Yueyang Hospital. All ethical work was performed in accordance with the Helsinki declaration. Written informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. Study findings will be disseminated in the printed media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000036685.

2.
Pain Physician ; 25(1): E147-E156, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain following brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) induces plastic changes in multiple brain regions associated with somatosensory function, pain, or cognition at the group level. The alternation of the whole pattern of resting-state brain activity and the feasibility of a brain imaging, information-based diagnosis of pain following BPAI is poorly investigated. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether brain pattern alternation can  identify neuropathic pain from healthy controls at an individual level and the specific regions that can be used as diagnostic neuroimaging biomarkers. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled animal study. SETTING: The research took place in the school of rehabilitation science of a university and affiliated hospitals. METHODS: A total of 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180 g-200 g were randomly assigned to either the BPAI group (n = 24) or normal control group (n = 24). A neuropathic pain rat model following BPAI was established in the BPAI group and a mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) test was performed to verify the presence of neuropathic pain. Micro-positron emission tomography with [Fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG-PET) was used to obtain the whole brain metabolic activity scans. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) was performed with a linear support vector machine (SVM) analysis both in PRoNTo toolbox (based on regions of interests) and SearchlightSearchlight approach (based on voxels within the region). RESULTS: Compared with baseline status, MWT of the left (intact) forepaw was significantly reduced in the BPAI group (P < 0.001). The accuracy of a whole brain image that correctly discriminated BPAI from normal controls rats was 87.5% with both the PRoNTo toolbox and SearchlightSearchlight method. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed significant positive correlations (P < 0.05) between MWT and the standard taken values of brain regions including the left olfactory nucleus, right entorhinal cortex in the PRoNTo toolbox, and bilateral amygdala, right piriform cortex and right ventral hippocampus in Searchlight method. LIMITATIONS: The alternation of metabolic connectivity among regions and functional connectivity among different networks were not investigated in the present study. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that MVPA based on the PET scans of rats' brains  could successfully identify neuropathic pain from health condition at the individual level and predictive regions could potentially be provided as neuroimaging biomarkers for the neuropathic pain following BPAI.

3.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(4): 806-811, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472479

RESUMO

Pain is one of the manifestations of hip disorder and has been proven to lead to the remodeling of somatotopic map plasticity in the cortex. However, most studies are volume-based which may lead to inaccurate anatomical positioning of functional data. The methods that work on the cortical surface may be more sensitive than those using the full brain volume and thus be more suitable for map plasticity study. In this prospective cross-sectional study performed in Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China, 20 patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (12 males and 8 females, aged 56.80 ± 13.60 years) and 20 healthy controls (9 males and 11 females, aged 54.56 ± 10.23 years) were included in this study. Data of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were collected. The results revealed that compared with healthy controls, compared with the healthy controls, patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) showed significantly increased surface-based regional homogeneity (ReHo) in areas distributed mainly in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, frontal eye field, right frontal eye field, and the premotor cortex and decreased surface-based ReHo in the right primary motor cortex and primary sensory cortex. Regions showing significant differences in surface-based ReHo values between the healthy controls and patients with ONFH were defined as the regions of interests. Seed-based functional connectivity was performed to investigate interregional functional synchronization. When the areas with decreased surface-based ReHo in the frontal eye field and right premotor cortex were used as the regions of interest, compared with the healthy controls, the patients with ONFH displayed increased functional connectivity in the right middle frontal cortex and right inferior parietal cortex and decreased functional connectivity in the right precentral cortex and right middle occipital cortex. Compared with healthy controls, patients with ONFH showed significantly decreased cortical thickness in the para-insular area, posterior insular area, anterior superior temporal area, frontal eye field and supplementary motor cortex and reduced volume of subcortical gray matter nuclei in the right nucleus accumbens. These findings suggest that hip disorder patients showed cortical plasticity changes, mainly in sensorimotor- and pain-related regions. This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (approval No. 2018-041) on August 1, 2018.

4.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(7): 1545-1555, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916440

RESUMO

Electroacupuncture (EA) has been widely used for functional restoration after stroke. However, its role in post-stroke rehabilitation and the associated regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we applied EA to the Zusanli (ST36) and Quchi (LI11) acupoints in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. We found that EA effectively increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor tyrosine kinase B, synapsin-1, postsynaptic dense protein 95, and microtubule-associated protein 2 in the ischemic penumbra of rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. Moreover, EA greatly reduced the expression of myelin-related inhibitors Nogo-A and NgR in the ischemic penumbra. Tyrosine kinase B inhibitor ANA-12 weakened the therapeutic effects of EA. These findings suggest that EA can improve neurological function after middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion, possibly through regulating the activity of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase B signal pathway. All procedures and experiments were approved by the Animal Research Committee of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China (approval No. PZSHUTCM200110002) on January 10, 2020.

5.
Neurosurgery ; 89(6): 978-986, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common peripheral entrapment neuropathy. However, CTS-related changes of brain structural covariance and structural covariance networks (SCNs) patterns have not been clearly studied. OBJECTIVE: To explore CTS-related brain changes from perspectives of structural connectivity and SCNs. METHODS: Brain structural magnetic resonance images were acquired from 27 CTS patients and 19 healthy controls (HCs). Structural covariance and SCNs were constructed based on gray matter volume. The global network properties including clustering coefficient (Cp), characteristic path length (Lp), small-worldness index, global efficiency (Eglob), and local efficiency (Eloc) and regional network properties including degree, betweenness centrality (BC), and Eloc of a given node were calculated with graph theoretical analysis. RESULTS: Compared with HCs, the strength of structural connectivity between the dorsal anterior insula and medial prefrontal thalamus decreased (P < .001) in CTS patients. There was no intergroup difference of area under the curve for Cp, Lp¸ Eglob, and Eloc (all P > .05). The real-world SCN of CTS patients showed a small-world topology ranging from 2% to 32%. CTS patients showed lower nodal degrees of the dorsal anterior insula and medial prefrontal thalamus, and higher Eloc of a given node and BC in the lateral occipital cortex (P < .001) and the dorsolateral middle temporal gyrus (P < .001) than HCs, respectively. CONCLUSION: CTS had a profound impact on brain structures from perspectives of structural connectivity and SCNs.

6.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550534

RESUMO

Currently, the treatments for postparalysis facial synkinesis are still inadequate. However, neuroimaging mechanistic studies are very limited and blurred. Instead of mapping activation regions, we were devoted to characterizing the organizational features of brain regions to develop new targets for therapeutic intervention. Eighteen patients with unilateral facial synkinesis and 19 healthy controls were enrolled. They were instructed to perform task functional magnetic resonance imaging (eye blinking and lip pursing) examinations and resting-state scans. Then, we characterized group differences in task-state fMRI to identify three foci, including the contralateral precentral gyrus (PreCG), supramarginal gyrus (SMG), and superior parietal gyrus (SPG). Next, we employed a novel approach (using dynamic causal modeling) to identify directed connectivity differences between groups in different modes. Significant patterns in multiple regions in terms of regionally specific actions following synkinetic movements were demonstrated, although the resting state was not significant. The couplings from the SMG to the PreCG (p = 0.03) was significant in the task of left blinking, whereas the coupling from the SMG to the SPG (p = 0.04) was significant in the task of left smiling. We speculated that facial synkinesis affects disruption among the brain networks, and specific couplings that are modulated simultaneously can compensate for motor deficits. Therefore, behavioral or brain stimulation technique treatment could be applied to alter reorganization within specific couplings in the rehabilitation of facial function.

7.
PeerJ ; 9: e11759, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484979

RESUMO

Background: Pain, a major symptom of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), is a complex sensory and emotional experience that presents therapeutic challenges. Pain can cause neuroplastic changes at the cortical level, leading to central sensitization and difficulties with curative treatments; however, whether changes in structural and functional plasticity occur in patients with ONFH remains unclear. Methods: A total of 23 ONFH inpatients who did not undergo surgery (14 males, nine females; aged 55.61 ± 13.79 years) and 20 controls (12 males, eight females; aged 47.25 ± 19.35 years) were enrolled. Functional indices of the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), and a structural index of tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were calculated for each participant. The probability distribution of fiber direction was determined according to the ALFF results. Results: ONFH patients demonstrated increased ALFF in the bilateral dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus, right medial superior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and right supplementary motor area. In contrast, ONFH patients showed decreased ReHo in the left superior parietal gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus. There were no significant differences in TBSS or probabilistic tractography. Conclusion: These results indicate cerebral pain processing in ONFH patients. It is advantageous to use functional magnetic resonance imaging to better understand pain pathogenesis and identify new therapeutic targets in ONFH patients.

8.
Front Neurol ; 12: 566119, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276529

RESUMO

Neuropathic pain has been found to be related to profound reorganization in the function and structure of the brain. We previously demonstrated changes in local brain activity and functional/metabolic connectivity among selected brain regions by using neuroimaging methods. The present study further investigated large-scale metabolic brain network changes in 32 Sprague-Dawley rats with right brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI). Graph theory was applied in the analysis of 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) PET images. Inter-subject metabolic networks were constructed by calculating correlation coefficients. Global and nodal network properties were calculated and comparisons between pre- and post-BPAI (7 days) status were conducted. The global network properties (including global efficiency, local efficiency and small-world index) and nodal betweenness centrality did not significantly change for all selected sparsity thresholds following BPAI (p > 0.05). As for nodal network properties, both nodal degree and nodal efficiency measures significantly increased in the left caudate putamen, left medial prefrontal cortex, and right caudate putamen (p < 0.001). The right entorhinal cortex showed a different nodal degree (p < 0.05) but not nodal efficiency. These four regions were selected for seed-based metabolic connectivity analysis. Strengthened connectivity was found among these seeds and distributed brain regions including sensorimotor area, cognitive area, and limbic system, etc. (p < 0.05). Our results indicated that the brain had the resilience to compensate for BPAI-induced neuropathic pain. However, the importance of bilateral caudate putamen, left medial prefrontal cortex, and right entorhinal cortex in the network was strengthened, as well as most of their connections with distributed brain regions.

9.
Brain Res ; 1767: 147558, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116054

RESUMO

Functional and structural brain alterations have been noted in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), the most common entrapment peripheral neuropathy. Previous studies were mainly focused on somatosensory cortices. However, the changes of white matter diffusion properties in nonsensorimotor cortices remain uninvestigated. We utilized a modified tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) pipeline to explore CTS-related white matter plasticity, omitting the skeletonization step and registering diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data to a study-specific, high resolution T1 template by an optimized registration method. The modified TBSS was demonstrated to be more sensitive to detect changes in white matter integrity than the standard TBSS approach. In this study, 25 moderate/severe CTS patients and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were evaluated with DTI. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) were calculated for group comparison. And the relationship between diffusion parameters and clinical assessments was also analyzed. Comparing with the healthy controls, CTS patients showed significantly increased FA and decreased RD in areas of multisensory integration and motor control involving the central opercular cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) of the dominant hemisphere. Moreover, altered diffusion parameters in the central opercular cortex of the dominant hemisphere were significantly correlated with Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) scores. It is considered to be a form of maladaptive neuroplastic response to CTS-associated afference and motor control deficits. Such insight may be helpful in developing new strategies for the treatment of CTS.

10.
Brain Res Bull ; 173: 108-115, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely applied to explore abnormal functional connectivity (FC) in patients with post-facial paralysis synkinesis (PFPS). However, most studies considered steady spatial-temporal signal interactions between distinct brain regions during the period of scanning. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to investigate abnormal dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) in PFPS patients. METHODS: We enrolled 31 PFPS patients and 19 healthy controls. All participants underwent rs-fMRI. Sliding windows approach was applied to construct dFC matrices. Next, these matrices were clustered into distinct states using the k-means clustering algorithm. RESULTS: We found that it was not the dFC patterns, but rather the temporal properties including the mean dwell time (MDT) and occurrence frequencies, that showed a significant difference between PFPS patients and healthy controls. Two randomly clustered dFC states were recognized for both groups. Among them, State 1 showed significantly lower connectivity compared to State 2 in patients group. Compared to healthy controls, the duration spent by the PFPS patients in the state with lower connectivity significantly increased and is positively correlated with the better facial function. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, aberrant dFC is a fundamental feature of brain dysfunction in PFPS patients, which is associated with the facial nerve function. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the abnormal brain reorganization mechanisms in PFPS patients.

11.
Neural Regen Res ; 16(12): 2528-2533, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907044

RESUMO

Facial synkinesis is a troublesome sequelae of facial nerve malfunction. It is difficult to recover from synkinesis, despite improved surgical techniques for isolating the peripheral facial nerve branches. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether long-term dysfunction of motor control can lead to irreversible plasticity-induced structural brain changes. This case-control study thus investigated the structural brain alterations associated with facial synkinesis. The study was conducted at Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, China. Twenty patients with facial synkinesis (2 male and 18 female, aged 33.35 ± 6.97 years) and 19 healthy volunteers (2 male and 17 female, aged 33.21 ± 6.75 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging, and voxel-based and surface-based morphometry techniques were used to analyze data. There was no significant difference in brain volume between patients with facial synkinesis and healthy volunteers. Patients with facial synkinesis exhibited a significantly reduced cortical thickness in the contralateral superior and inferior temporal gyri and a reduced sulcal depth of the ipsilateral precuneus compared with healthy volunteers. In addition, sulcal depth of the ipsilateral precuneus was negatively correlated with the severity of depression. These findings suggest that there is a structural remodeling of gray matter in patients with facial synkinesis after facial nerve malfunction. This study was approved by the Ethics Review Committee of the Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, China (approval No. 2017-365-T267) on September 13, 2017, and was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR1800014630) on January 25, 2018.

12.
J Pain Res ; 14: 693-701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732015

RESUMO

Introduction: Numerous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) researches have indicated that large-scale functional and structural remodeling occurs in the whole brain despite an intact sensorimotor network after carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Investigators aimed to explore alterations of the global and nodal properties that occur in the whole brain network of patients with CTS based on topographic theory. Methods: Standard-compliant fMRI data were collected from 27 patients with CTS in bilateral hands and 19 healthy control subjects in this cross-sectional study. The statistics based on brain networks were calculated the differences between the patients and the healthy. Several topological properties were computed, such as the small-worldness, nodal clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, and degree centrality. Results: Compared to those of the healthy controls, the global properties of the CTS group exhibited a decreased characteristic path length. Changes in the local-level properties included a decreased nodal clustering coefficient in 6 separate brain regions and significantly different degree centrality in several brain regions that were related to sensorimotor function and pain. Discussion: The study suggested that CTS reinforces global connections and makes their networks more random. The changed nodal properties were affiliated with basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits and the pain matrix. These results provided new insights for improving our understanding of abnormal topological theory in relation to the functional brain networks of CTS patients. Perspective: This article presents that the CTS patients' brain with a higher global efficiency. And the significant alterations in several brain regions which are more related to pain and motor processes. The results provided effective complements to the neural mechanisms underlying CTS.

13.
Neural Plast ; 2021: 8815144, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603780

RESUMO

Purpose: This study is aimed at investigating brain structural changes and structural network properties in complete spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, as well as their relationship with clinical variables. Materials and Methods: Structural MRI of brain was acquired in 24 complete thoracic SCI patients (38.50 ± 11.19 years, 22 males) within the first postinjury year, while 26 age- and gender-matched healthy participants (38.38 ± 10.63 years, 24 males) were enrolled as control. The voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach and graph theoretical network analysis based on cross-subject grey matter volume- (GMV-) based structural covariance networks (SCNs) were conducted to investigate the impact of SCI on brain structure. Partial correlation analysis was performed to explore the relationship between the GMV of structurally changed brain regions and SCI patients' clinical variables, including injury duration, injury level, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS), International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) scale, Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), after removing the effects of age and gender. Results: Compared with healthy controls, SCI patients showed higher SDS score (t = 4.392 and p < 0.001). In the VBM analysis, significant GMV reduction was found in the left middle frontal cortex, right superior orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and left inferior OFC. No significant difference was found in global network properties between SCI patients and healthy controls. In the regional network properties, significantly higher betweenness centrality (BC) was noted in the right anterior cingulum cortex (ACC) and left inferior OFC and higher nodal degree and efficiency in bilateral middle OFCs, while decreased BC was noted in the right putamen in SCI patients. Only negative correlation was found between GMV of right middle OFC and SDS score in SCI patients (r = -0.503 and p = 0.017), while no significant correlation between other abnormal brain regions and any of the clinical variables (all p > 0.05). Conclusions: SCI patients would experience depressive and/or anxious feelings at the early stage. Their GMV reduction mainly involved psychology-cognition related rather than sensorimotor brain regions. The efficiency of regional information transmission in psychology-cognition regions increased. Greater GMV reduction in psychology region was related with more severe depressive feelings. Therefore, early neuropsychological intervention is suggested to prevent psychological and cognitive dysfunction as well as irreversible brain structure damage.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medula Espinal , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Neural Regen Res ; 16(2): 388-393, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859803

RESUMO

Massage therapy is an alternative treatment for chronic pain that is potentially related to brain plasticity. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We established a peripheral nerve injury model in rats by unilateral sciatic nerve transection and direct anastomosis. The experimental rats were treated over the gastrocnemius muscle of the affected hindlimb with a customized massage instrument (0.45 N, 120 times/min, 10 minutes daily, for 4 successive weeks). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that compared with control rats, the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the affected limb was significantly lower after sciatic nerve transection. However, amplitudes were significantly higher in the massage group than in a sham-massage group. These findings suggest that massage therapy facilitated adaptive change in the somatosensory cortex that led to the recovery of peripheral nerve injury and repair. This study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine of China (approval No. 201701001) on January 12, 2017.

15.
Brain Behav ; 10(9): e01747, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657022

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Numerous treatments suggest that brain plasticity changes after peripheral nerve injury (PNI), and most studies examining functional magnetic resonance imaging focused on abnormal changes in specific brain regions. However, it is the large-scale interaction of neuronal networks instead of isolated brain regions contributed to the functional recovery after PNI. In the present study, we examined the intra- and internetworks alterations between the related functional resting-state networks (RSNs) in a sciatic nerve injury rat model. METHODS: Ninety-six female rats were divided into a control and model group. Unilateral sciatic nerve transection and direct anastomosis were performed in the latter group. We used an independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm to observe the changes in RSNs and assessed functional connectivity between different networks using the functional networks connectivity (FNC) toolbox. RESULTS: Six RSNs related to PNI were identified, including the basal ganglia network (BGN), sensorimotor network (SMN), salience network (SN), interoceptive network (IN), cerebellar network (CN), and default mode network (DMN). The model group showed significant changes in whole-brain FC changes within these resting-state networks (RSNs), but four of these RSNs exhibited a conspicuous decrease. The interalterations performed that significantly decreased FNC existed between the BGN and SMN, BGN and IN, and BGN and DMN (p < .05, corrected). A significant increase in FNC existed between DMN and CN and between CN and SN (p < .05, corrected). CONCLUSION: The results showed the large-scale functional reorganization at the network level after PNI. This evidence reveals new implications to the pathophysiological mechanisms in brain plasticity of PNI.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Plasticidade Neuronal , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ratos
16.
Front Neural Circuits ; 14: 35, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32625066

RESUMO

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) in neuropathic pain due to brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) and related changes in the metabolic brain connectivity. Methods: Neuropathic pain model due to BPAI was established in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. EA stimulations (2/15 Hz, 30 min/day, 5-day intervention followed by 2-day rest in each session) were applied to the fifth-seventh cervical "Jiaji" acupoints on the noninjured side from 1st to 12th weeks following BPAI (EA group, n = 8). Three control groups included sham EA (nonelectrical acupuncture applied to 3 mm lateral to the real "Jiaji" acupoints), BPAI-only, and normal rats (no particular intervention; eight rats in each group). Thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) of the noninjured forepaw was regularly tested to evaluate the threshold of thermalgesia. Small animal [fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT scans of brain were conducted at the end of 4th, 12th, and 16th weeks to explore metabolic alterations of brain. Results: In the EA group, the TWL of the noninjured forepaw significantly decreased following BPAI and then increased following EA stimulation, compared with sham EA (P < 0.001). The metabolic brain connectivity among somatosensory cortex (SC), motor cortex (MC), caudate putamen (Cpu), and dorsolateral thalamus (DLT) in bilateral hemispheres decreased throughout the 16 weeks' observation in the BPAI-only group, compared with the normal rats (P < 0.05). In the EA group, the strength of connectivity among the above regions were found to be increased at the end of 4th week following BPAI modeling, decreased at 12th week, and then increased again at 16th week (P < 0.05). The changes in metabolic connectivity were uncharacteristic and dispersed in the sham EA group. Conclusion: The study revealed long-term and extensive changes of metabolic brain connectivity in EA-treated BPAI-induced neuropathic pain rats. Bilateral sensorimotor and pain-related brain regions were mainly involved in this process. It indicated that modulation of brain metabolic connectivity might be an important mechanism of analgesic effect in EA stimulation for the treatment of neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Plexo Braquial/lesões , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Eletroacupuntura/métodos , Rede Nervosa/metabolismo , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Neuralgia/terapia , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuralgia/diagnóstico por imagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Neuroscience ; 442: 216-227, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629154

RESUMO

Acupuncture is a mild therapy in rehabilitation practice of peripheral nerve injury. Previous studies confirmed the deep participation of brain plasticity in the process of functional restoration. The therapeutic effect of acupuncture is also believed to be closely associated with brain plasticity, especially in the hypothalamus and limbic system. But the fuzzy neural mechanism somehow limits the application or improvement of this therapy. There is little information about the effect of acupuncture on topological properties of brain networks. Instead of functional segregation approach, we utilized graph theory method to analyze the large-scale and distributed properties of information processing. We first established rat model of sciatic nerve injury and performed rehabilitation therapy of electroacupuncture for 120 days. Meanwhile, we used independent component analysis to extract seven sub-networks from the whole brain. Then measurements of graph theory were calculated in each sub-network as well as the whole brain network. We found no significant difference of any measurement in whole brain network among intervention group, model group and normal group. But the assortativity, hierarchy, small-world properties of sub-network displayed significant differences among three groups. It induces changes of neural plasticity in several sub-networks instead of whole brain network. We attributed the changes to the enhancement of the short-term compensatory adaptation and the reduction of the long-term overacting regional information transmission. The present study may shed light on the vague distinction of large-scale property of brain networks after electroacupuncture, which leads to a better understanding of this ancient traditional Chinese therapy.


Assuntos
Conectoma , Eletroacupuntura , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Animais , Encéfalo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Plasticidade Neuronal , Ratos
18.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-6, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500814

RESUMO

Objectives: As one of the most objectionable sequelae of facial paralysis, patients with facial synkinesis are more likely to be depressed and have lower quality of life than other facial paralysis patients. However, there is no research on the spatial patterns of intrinsic brain activity and functional connectivity in these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial patterns and cerebral plasticity of facial synkinesis patients.Methods: A total of 20 facial synkinesis patients (18 men and 2 women; mean age: 33.35 ± 6.97 years old) and 19 healthy controls (17 men and 2 women; mean age: 33.21 ± 6.75 years old) were enrolled in this study. resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data were collected, and the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), and degree centrality (DC) were calculated for each participant. Two-sample t-tests were performed to compare the ALFF, ReHo, and DC maps between the two groups.Results: Compared with the healthy controls, facial synkinesis patients exhibited decreased ALFF in the fusiform gyrus, lingual gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, triangular inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, cingulate gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, precuneus, caudate nucleus and thalamus; decreased ReHo in the cingulate gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, insula, superior temporal gyrus, orbital middle frontal gyrus, caudate nucleus and thalamus; and decreased DC in the frontal lobe, insula, cingulate gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, lenticular putamen, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. We found significant overlap in the superior frontal gyrus across the ALFF, ReHo and DC analyses.Conclusions: In facial synkinesis patients, the neurological activity in brain areas is reduced and the local synchronization in motion-related brain regions is decreased. The superior frontal gyrus could be a crucial region in the unique spatial patterns of intrinsic brain activity and functional connectivity in these patients.

19.
J Pain Res ; 13: 585-595, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273747

RESUMO

Purpose: Brain organisation is involved in the mechanism of neuropathic pain. Acupuncture is a common clinical practise in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of chronic pain. This study explored electroacupuncture's effects on brain metabolism following brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI)-induced pain. Methods: A total of 32 female rats were randomised into a normal group, model group, sham electroacupuncture group, and electroacupuncture group. A pain model was included via right BPAI. The electroacupuncture intervention at cervical "Jiaji" points (C5-7) was performed for 11 weeks. The mechanical withdrawal threshold of the non-injured (left) forepaw was measured at the baseline and on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 56, 84, and 112 subsequent to BPAI. Positron emission tomography (PET) was applied to explore metabolic changes on days 28, 84, and 112. Results: After electroacupuncture, the mechanical withdrawal threshold of the left forepaws was significantly elevated and the effect persisted until 4 weeks after the intervention ceased (p<0.05 or p<0.001). In the sensorimotor-related brain regions, standardised uptake values in the bilateral somatosensory and motor cortices were observed in the electroacupuncture group. Metabolism particularly increased in the right somatosensory cortex. Metabolism changes also occurred in the pain-related brain regions and emotion- and cognition-related brain regions. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the beneficial effects of electroacupuncture for relieving BPAI-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Electroacupuncture intervention might inhibit maladaptive plasticity in brain areas governing multidimensional functions, especially in sensorimotor- and cognition-related cortices.

20.
Neurol Sci ; 41(9): 2453-2460, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Structural remodeling is a classic manifestation of disease decompensation. Facial synkinesis is the most troubling sequela of peripheral facial neuritis, and its structural remodeling, especially in white matter (WM), is still poorly understood. Therefore, understanding WM microstructure is important for predicting WM pathology and for early intervention in facial synkinesis patients. METHODS: A total of 20 facial synkinesis patients (18 men and 2 women; mean age, 33.35 ± 6.97 years old) and 19 healthy controls (17 men and 2 women; mean age, 33.21 ± 6.75 years old) were enrolled in this study. rs-fMRI data, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data, and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) data were collected, and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) values were used to analyze changes in WM microstructure and interhemispheric coordination. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy controls, facial synkinesis patients exhibited significantly lower regional fractional anisotropy (FA) in the genu of the corpus callosum and the body of the corpus callosum, significantly higher regional FA in the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, and significantly decreased VMHC values bilaterally in the orbital inferior frontal gyri, the fusiform gyri, the superior temporal gyri, the superior frontal gyri, and the supplementary motor areas. Furthermore, a lower regional FA in the genu of the corpus callosum was correlated with higher BDI scores in facial synkinesis patients. CONCLUSION: Structural remodeling, especially changes in white matter microstructure, may be the central mechanism for severe sequelae of peripheral facial neuritis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Nervo Facial , Substância Branca , Adulto , Anisotropia , Encéfalo , Corpo Caloso , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
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