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1.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645940

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an ongoing pandemic that poses a great threat to human health worldwide. As the humoral immune response plays essential roles in disease occurrence and development, understanding the dynamics and characteristics of virus-specific humoral immunity in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients is of great importance for controlling this disease. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the humoral immune response after SARS-CoV-2 infection and further emphasize the potential applications and therapeutic prospects of SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immunity and the critical role of this immunity in vaccine development. Notably, serological antibody testing based on the humoral immune response can guide public health measures and control strategies; however, it is not recommended for population surveys in areas with very low prevalence. Existing evidence suggests that asymptomatic individuals have a weaker immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas SARS-CoV-2-infected children have a more effective humoral immune response than adults. The correlations between antibody (especially neutralizing antibody) titers and protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection should be further examined. In addition, the emergence of cross-reactions among different coronavirus antigens in the development of screening technology and the risk of antibody-dependent enhancement related to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination should be given further attention.

2.
Hepatology ; 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The mechanism underlying hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis remains unclear, many oncogenes are known to regulate this process. However, the role of alternative splicing (AS) in pro-metastatic HCC is poorly understood. APPROACH & RESULTS: By performing RNA-seq of 9 pairs of primary HCC tissues with extrahepatic metastasis (EHMH) and 9 pairs of metastasis-free HCC tissues (MFH), we depicted the AS landscape in HCC and found that a higher frequency of AS events in EHMH compared with MFH. Moreover, 28 differentially expressed splicing regulators were identified in EHMH compared with MFH. Among these, DEAD-box RNA helicase 17 (DDX17) was significantly upregulated in EHMH and was also strongly associated with patient outcome. Functional studies indicated that DDX17 knockout inhibited the degradation of the extracellular matrix, and diminished the invasive ability of HCC cells. A significant reduction in lung metastasis induced by DDX17 deficiency was also demonstrated in a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced DDX17HKO mouse model. Mechanistically, high DDX17 induced intron 3 retention of PXN-AS1 and produced a novel transcript (termed PXN-AS1-IR3). The novel transcript PXN-AS1-IR3 acted as an important promoter of HCC metastasis by inducing MYC transcription activation via recruitment the complex of Tex10 and p300 to MYC enhancer region, which leading to transcriptional activation of several metastasis-associated downstream genes. Finally, the PXN-AS1-IR3 level was significantly higher in serum and HCC tissues with extrahepatic metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: DDX17 and PXN-AS1-IR3 act as important metastatic promoters by modulating MYC signaling, suggesting that DDX17 and PXN-AS1-IR3 may be potential prognostic markers for metastatic HCC.

3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 747135, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616693

RESUMO

Caused by schistosomes, the human schistosomiasis is a tropical zoonotic parasitic disease. Pathologically, it occurs most often in the intestines and the liver, the sites of Schistosoma japonicum egg accumulation. The parasites' produced eggs cause the main pathology in patients. Deposited parasite eggs in the liver induce the production of multiple cytokines that mediate the immune response, which in turn leads to granulomatous responses and liver fibrosis. These impact the hosts' quality of life and health status, resulting in severe morbidity and even mortality. In this study, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ordinary samples and three 6- week infected mice were mined from microarray analysis based on the limma package. In total, we excavated the differential expression LCN2 was exhibited high expressions profile in GSE59276, GSE61376 demonstrated the result. Furthermore, CIBERSORT suggested detailed analysis of the immune subtype distribution pattern. In vivo experiments like real-time quantitative PCR, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, and immunofluorescence (IF) demonstrated the expressions of LCN2 was significantly upregulated in S. japonicum-infected mice liver tissues and located in macrophages. Previous studies have shown that macrophages act as the first line of defense during schistosome infection and are an important part of liver granuloma. We used S. japonicum soluble worm antigens (SWA) to induce RAW264.7 cells to construct an in vitro inflammatory model. The current study aimed to investigate whether the NF-κB signaling network is involved in LCN2 upregulation induced by SWA and whether LCN2 can promote M1 polarization of macrophages under SWA treatment. Our research work suggests that LCN2 is significant in the development of early infection caused by S. japonicum and is of great value for further exploration. Collectively, the findings indicated that SWA promoted the expression of LCN2 and promoted M1 polarization of macrophages via the upregulation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Our findings demonstrate that NF-κB/LCN2 is necessary for migration and phagocytosis of M1 macrophages in response to SWA infection. Our study highlights the essential role of NF-κB/LCN2 in early innate immune response to infection.


Assuntos
Schistosoma japonicum , Esquistossomose Japônica , Animais , Humanos , Lipocalina-2/genética , Macrófagos , Camundongos , Qualidade de Vida
4.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have explored the clinical features in children infected with SARS-CoV-2 and other common respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Influenza virus (IV), and adenovirus (ADV). Herein, we reported the clinical characteristics and cytokine profiling in children with COVID-19 or other acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI). METHODS: We enrolled 20 hospitalized children confirmed as COVID-19 positive, 58 patients with ARTI, and 20 age and sex-matched healthy children. The clinical information and blood test results were collected. A total of 27 cytokines and chemokines were measured and analyzed. RESULTS: The median age in the COVID-19 positive group was 14.5 years, which was higher than that of the ARTI groups. Around one-third of patients in the COVID-19 group experienced moderate fever, with a peak temperature of 38.27°C. None of the patients displayed wheezing or dyspnea. In addition, patients in the COVID-19 group had lower white blood cells, platelet counts as well as a neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio. Lower serum concentrations of 14 out of 27 cytokines were observed in the COVID-19 group than in healthy individuals. Seven cytokines (IL-1Ra, IL-1ß, IL-9, IL-10, TNF-α, MIP-1α, and VEGF) changed serum concentration in COVID-19 compared with other ARTI groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 were older and showed milder symptoms and a favorable prognosis than ARTI caused by RSV, IV, and ADV. There was a low grade or constrained innate immune reaction in children with mild COVID-19.

5.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(9): 2525, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490410

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.ekir.2020.07.010.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.ekir.2021.07.022.].

6.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(9): 2526-2531, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490411

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.ekir.2021.07.021.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.ekir.2020.07.010.].

7.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(9): 1169-1173, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate has been recommended for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV infection. Several studies have shown short but potent intermittent PrEP could provide comparable protection to daily PrEP in men, suggesting such dosing strategy might be useful in Chinese as well. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of different dosing strategies on plasma concentrations of tenofovir. METHODS: An open label study in 40 Chinese healthy volunteers, randomized to receive the WHO-recommended dose of tenofovir (300mg) at four different dosing intervals: twice weekly for 4 weeks; once daily for 4 weeks with one missing dose in weeks 2-4; once daily for 4 weeks with two missing doses in weeks 2-4; and once every other day for 12 days. Plasma samples were collected at pre-dose, weekly trough and 24h post last dose and assayed using HPLC-UV. RESULTS: The tenofovir trough concentrations were below the lower limit of quantification with the twice weekly regimen. The trough concentrations (24h dosing interval) at the steady state were 51.7±12.1ng/ml and 53.5±13.8ng/ml (mean±SD) in the once daily groups. Missing doses, once or twice weekly, had no significant impact on trough concentrations. Prolongation of dosing interval to 48h resulted with concentrations at 24h and 48h (trough) of ∼40 and 20ng/ml, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent tenofovir regimens resulted with remarkably low plasma concentrations in Chinese participants. Missing doses did not affect trough concentrations significantly.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , China , Emtricitabina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(33): e26964, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414965

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the tumors with a higher mortality rate globally, which significantly threatens people's health. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major driving factor of HCC. This study aims to determine the key microRNA (miRNA), hub genes, and related pathways, construct potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks, and clarify the new molecular mechanism of HCV-related HCC. In this study, 16 differentially expressed miRNAs (DE miRNAs) were identified. The prediction of potential transcription factors and target genes not only found that SP1 and ERG1 may potentially regulate most of the screened DE miRNAs, but it also obtained 2923 and 1782 predicted target genes for the up-regulation and down-regulation of DE miRNAs, respectively. Subsequently, the introduction of differentially expressed genes dataset GSE62232 for target gene verification yielded 98 and 147 potential up-regulation and down-regulation target genes. The gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway enrichment analysis showed that they were mainly enriched in the cell cycle process, that is, subsequently, 20 hub genes were screened out through the protein-protein interaction network, and related genes were further evaluated using the GEPIA database. Based on the above analysis, the miRNA-hub gene regulatory network was constructed. In short, this research's hub genes and miRNAs closely related to HCV-related HCC were screened and identified through bioinformatics analysis and then built their connection. These results are expected to find potential therapeutic targets for HCV-related HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Hepatite C/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
10.
Oncogene ; 40(35): 5416-5426, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282274

RESUMO

The inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes contributes heavily to oncogenesis. The mutation of TP53 has been well-studied and recognized as a major factor in the development of tumors. Yet other means of p53 inactivation has not been well-elucidated. We previously identified a hypermethylated gene ZDHHC1 that suppresses tumor growth when the expression was restored, but the specific mechanism was yet to be found. The protein product of ZDHHC1 is an S-palmitoyltransferase and we have identified p53 as a substrate for ZDHHC1-mediated palmitoylation, specifically at the C135, C176, and C275 residues. The novel form of post-translational modification of p53 is required for the nuclear translocation of the tumor suppressor. p53 recruited DNMT3A to ZDHHC1 promoter and is responsible for the hypermethylation of ZDHHC1. The epigenetic feedback loop formed by ZDHHC1 and p53 sheds light on the inactivation of p53 without the presence of genetic mutations.

11.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(12): 1505-1522, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128977

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a significant public health burden worldwide. HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) organized as a minichromosome in nucleus is responsible for viral persistence and is the key obstacle for a cure of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Recent studies suggest cccDNA transcription is epigenetically regulated by histone modifications, especially histone acetylation and methylation. In the present study, we identified transcriptionally active histone succinylation (H3K122succ) as a new histone modification on cccDNA minichromosome by using cccDNA ChIP-Seq approach. Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 7 (SIRT7), as an NAD+-dependent histone desuccinylase, could bind to cccDNA through interaction with HBV core protein where it catalyzed histone 3 lysine 122 (H3K122) desuccinylation. Moreover, SIRT7 acts cooperatively with histone methyltransferase, suppressor of variegation 3-9 homolog 1 (SUV39H1) and SET domain containing 2 (SETD2) to induce silencing of HBV transcription through modulation of chromatin structure. Our data improved the understanding of histone modifications of the cccDNA minichromosome, thus transcriptional silencing of cccDNA may represent a novel antiviral strategy for the prevention or treatment of HBV infection.

12.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(5): 426, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931597

RESUMO

Increasing evidence supports that ferroptosis plays an important role in tumor growth inhibition. Sorafenib, originally identified as an inhibitor of multiple oncogenic kinases, has been shown to induce ferroptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, some hepatoma cell lines are less sensitive to sorafenib-induced ferroptotic cell death. Glutathione S-transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1), an enzyme in the catabolism of phenylalanine, suppresses the expression of the master regulator of cellular redox homeostasis nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). This study aimed to investigate the role and underlying molecular mechanisms of GSTZ1 in sorafenib-induced ferroptosis in HCC. GSTZ1 was significantly downregulated in sorafenib-resistant hepatoma cells. Mechanistically, GSTZ1 depletion enhanced the activation of the NRF2 pathway and increased the glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) level, thereby suppressing sorafenib-induced ferroptosis. The combination of sorafenib and RSL3, a GPX4 inhibitor, significantly inhibited GSTZ1-deficient cell viability and promoted ferroptosis and increased ectopic iron and lipid peroxides. In vivo, the combination of sorafenib and RSL3 had a synergic therapeutic effect on HCC progression in Gstz1-/- mice. In conclusion, this finding demonstrates that GSTZ1 enhanced sorafenib-induced ferroptosis by inhibiting the NRF2/GPX4 axis in HCC cells. Combination therapy of sorafenib and GPX4 inhibitor RSL3 may be a promising strategy in HCC treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Ferroptose , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo
13.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 1749-1761, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953624

RESUMO

Background: Men who have sex with multiple men (MSMM) belong to a high-risk group for HIV infection, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective measure to prevent the infection. However, few studies on PrEP adherence by MSMM in China exist. We aimed to explore the protective motivation-related factors for PrEP adherence in an HIV-negative MSMM population in Western China and to provide a reference for future risk management and effective prevention strategies. Methods: Data were collected from a 2-year follow-up cohort study of PrEP in MSM in China. Rogers' protective motivation theory (PMT) was used to study the PrEP adherence of MSMM, and logistic regression was performed to analyze the influencing factors of PrEP adherence. Results: A total of 496 MSMM were included in the study: 299 (60.28%) of them in the good adherence group and 197 (39.72%) in the poor adherence group. The threat assessment scores of the good and poor adherence groups were 2.15 ± 0.59 and 2.06 ± 0.47, respectively, and the response assessment scores were 2.81 ± 0.62 and 2.74 ±0.62, respectively. Poor PrEP adherence was associated with on-demand PrEP medication (OR=0.670), students at school (OR=1.837), occasional condom use (OR=1.621), and good HIV knowledge (OR= 0.659). The higher the threat assessment score, the higher the susceptibility; and the lower the response cost, the stronger the protection motivation and the less likely MSMM were to have poor adherence. Conclusion: On-demand PrEP medication is more conducive to adherence. Preventive management should focus on MSMMs who are students at school, those who occasionally use condoms, and those with poor HIV knowledge. Improving threat perception and susceptibility, and controlling and reducing the response cost can effectively improve PrEP adherence, and the subsequent application of PMT during intervention research can provide a reference for HIV prevention in MSMM.

14.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 197, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006847

RESUMO

Our understanding of the protective immunity, particularly the long-term dynamics of neutralizing antibody (NAbs) response to SARS-CoV-2, is currently limited. We enrolled a cohort of 545 COVID-19 patients from Hubei, China, who were followed up up to 7 months, and determined the dynamics of NAbs to SARS-CoV-2 by using a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT). In our validation study, sVNT IC50 titers and the neutralization rate measured at a single dilution (1:20) were well correlated with FRNT titers (r = 0.85 and 0.84, respectively). The median time to seroconversion of NAbs was 5.5 days post onset of symptoms. The rate of positive sVNT was 52% in the first week, reached 100% in the third week, and remained above 97% till 6 months post onset. Quantitatively, NAbs peaked in the fourth week and only a quarter of patients had an estimated peak titer of >1000. NAbs declined with a half-time of 61 days (95% CI: 49-80 days) within the first two months, and the decay deaccelerated to a half-time of 104 days (95% CI: 86-130 days) afterward. The peak levels of NAbs were positively associated with severity of COVID-19 and age, while negatively associated with serum albumin levels. The observation that the low-moderate peak neutralizing activity and fast decay of NAbs in most naturally infected individuals called for caution in evaluating the feasibility of antibody-based therapy and vaccine durability. NAbs response positively correlated with disease severity, warning for the possibility of repeat infection in patients with mild COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 653189, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828563

RESUMO

After the pandemic of COVID-19, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 have been developed for the prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. However, few methodologies are described in detail on how to rapidly and efficiently generate effective NAbs to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we integrated and optimized a strategically screening method for NAbs, which has enabled us to obtain SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) specific NAbs within 6 days, followed by additional 9 days for antibody production and function analysis. Using this method, we obtained 198 specific Abs against SARS-CoV-2 RBD from the blood samples of COVID-19 convalescent patients, and 96 of them showed neutralizing activity. At least 20% of these NAbs exhibited advanced neutralizing potency and high affinity, with the top two NAbs showing half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) to block authentic SARS-CoV-2 at 9.88 and 11.13 ng/ml, respectively. Altogether, our study provides an effective methodology with high applicable value for discovering potential preventative and therapeutic NAbs for the emerging infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
16.
J Clin Invest ; 131(8)2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690219

RESUMO

Although cancer cells are frequently faced with a nutrient- and oxygen-poor microenvironment, elevated hexosamine-biosynthesis pathway (HBP) activity and protein O-GlcNAcylation (a nutrient sensor) contribute to rapid growth of tumor and are emerging hallmarks of cancer. Inhibiting O-GlcNAcylation could be a promising anticancer strategy. The gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1) is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, little is known about the potential role of PCK1 in enhanced HBP activity and HCC carcinogenesis under glucose-limited conditions. In this study, PCK1 knockout markedly enhanced the global O-GlcNAcylation levels under low-glucose conditions. Mechanistically, metabolic reprogramming in PCK1-loss hepatoma cells led to oxaloacetate accumulation and increased de novo uridine triphosphate synthesis contributing to uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) biosynthesis. Meanwhile, deletion of PCK1 also resulted in AMPK-GFAT1 axis inactivation, promoting UDP-GlcNAc synthesis for elevated O-GlcNAcylation. Notably, lower expression of PCK1 promoted CHK2 threonine 378 O-GlcNAcylation, counteracting its stability and dimer formation, increasing CHK2-dependent Rb phosphorylation and HCC cell proliferation. Moreover, aminooxyacetic acid hemihydrochloride and 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine blocked HBP-mediated O-GlcNAcylation and suppressed tumor progression in liver-specific Pck1-knockout mice. We reveal a link between PCK1 depletion and hyper-O-GlcNAcylation that underlies HCC oncogenesis and suggest therapeutic targets for HCC that act by inhibiting O-GlcNAcylation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/farmacologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/deficiência , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (GTP)/deficiência , Acilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Acilação/genética , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/enzimologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Nus , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (GTP)/metabolismo
17.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 18, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767156

RESUMO

It is important to evaluate the durability of the protective immune response elicited by primary infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we systematically evaluated the SARS-CoV-2-specific memory B cell and T cell responses in healthy controls and individuals recovered from asymptomatic or symptomatic infection approximately 6 months prior. Comparatively low frequencies of memory B cells specific for the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike glycoprotein (S) persisted in the peripheral blood of individuals who recovered from infection (median 0.62%, interquartile range 0.48-0.69). The SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific memory B cell response was detected in 2 of 13 individuals who recovered from asymptomatic infection and 10 of 20 individuals who recovered from symptomatic infection. T cell responses induced by S, membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) peptide libraries from SARS-CoV-2 were observed in individuals recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and cross-reactive T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 were also detected in healthy controls.

18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1618, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712622

RESUMO

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a major cause of the multi-organ injury and fatal outcome induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in severe COVID-19 patients. Metabolism can modulate the immune responses against infectious diseases, yet our understanding remains limited on how host metabolism correlates with inflammatory responses and affects cytokine release in COVID-19 patients. Here we perform both metabolomics and cytokine/chemokine profiling on serum samples from healthy controls, mild and severe COVID-19 patients, and delineate their global metabolic and immune response landscape. Correlation analyses show tight associations between metabolites and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, such as IL-6, M-CSF, IL-1α, IL-1ß, and imply a potential regulatory crosstalk between arginine, tryptophan, purine metabolism and hyperinflammation. Importantly, we also demonstrate that targeting metabolism markedly modulates the proinflammatory cytokines release by peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from SARS-CoV-2-infected rhesus macaques ex vivo, hinting that exploiting metabolic alterations may be a potential strategy for treating fatal CRS in COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Metaboloma , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Pandemias
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