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1.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 162(4): 530-537, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the relationship among vestibular schwannoma (VS) tumor volume, growth, and hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single tertiary center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Adults with observed VS and serviceable hearing at diagnosis were included. The primary outcome was the development of nonserviceable hearing as estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Associations of tumor volume with baseline hearing were assessed using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Associations of volume and growth with the development of nonserviceable hearing over time were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models and summarized with hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: Of 230 patients with VS and serviceable hearing at diagnosis, 213 had serial volumetric tumor data for analysis. Larger tumor volume at diagnosis was associated with increased pure-tone average (PTA) (P < .001) and decreased word recognition score (WRS) (P = .014). Estimated rates of maintaining serviceable hearing at 6 and 10 years following diagnosis were 67% and 49%, respectively. Larger initial tumor volume was associated with development of nonserviceable hearing in a univariable setting (HR for 1-cm3 increase: 1.36, P = .040) but not after adjusting for PTA and WRS. Tumor growth was not significantly associated with time to nonserviceable hearing (HR, 1.57; P = .14), although estimated rates of maintaining serviceable hearing during observation were poorer in the group that experienced growth. CONCLUSION: Larger initial VS tumor volume was associated with poorer hearing at baseline. Larger initial tumor volume was also associated with the development of nonserviceable hearing during observation in a univariable setting; however, this association was not statistically significant after adjusting for baseline hearing status.

2.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(3): e317-e321, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe the first case of cochlear implantation (CI) for auditory rehabilitation of a patient with craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD) and progressive mixed hearing loss. PATIENTS: A 65-year-old woman with known autosomal dominant CMD presented with progressive mixed hearing loss and declining benefit from conventional hearing aids. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperostosis of the entire craniofacial skeleton. Hearing evaluation demonstrated pure-tone thresholds in the profound range bilaterally by air conduction, and bone conduction thresholds that matched aided thresholds for her left ear, though testing was somewhat limited by inability to mask at high air-conduction thresholds. CI candidacy testing confirmed poor word and sentence scores in the right ear. INTERVENTION: Due to the inability to access the cochlea via a conventional mastoidectomy and facial recess approach, cochlear implantation via a postauricular subtotal petrosectomy approach with ear canal overclosure was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Post-implantation word and sentence testing. RESULTS: Despite extensive internal auditory canal stenosis, the patient demonstrated excellent early speech understanding results 5 weeks after device activation. Postimplantation audiologic evaluation showed thresholds between 20 and 30 dB HL from 250 to 6000 Hz. Word and sentence testing scores were 76% Consonant-nucleus-consonant in quiet (up from 2% preoperatively) and 77% AzBio sentences in quiet (up from 10% preoperatively). CONCLUSION: This report describes the first description of CI for CMD. Despite the extensive radiologic abnormalities, the patient has demonstrated excellent benefit from implantation. Further study of rare temporal bone dysplasias, such as CMD, is critical to better characterize the progression of otologic disease and determine optimal treatment.

3.
World Neurosurg ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate functional outcome from reconstructive surgery in adult traumatic brachial plexus injury (AT-BPI) with associated vascular lesions. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 325 patients with AT-BPI who underwent reconstructive surgery between 2001 and 2012. Patients with (vascular group) and without (control group) vascular injuries were identified by review of medical documentation. Patient presentation, characteristics of nerve and associated lesions, and surgical management were evaluated to identify prognostic variables. Postoperative muscle strength, range of motion, and patient-reported disability scores were analyzed to determine long-term outcome. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients had a concomitant vascular injury. There were no significant differences in age or sex between the control and vascular groups. The vascular group was more likely to have pan-plexus lesions (P < 0.0001), with significantly more associated upper extremity injuries (P < 0.0001). The control group underwent more nerve transfers, whereas the vascular group underwent more nerve grafting (P = 0.003). Complete outcome data were obtained in 139 patients, which included 111 control (43% of all control subjects) and 28 vascular patients (41%). There was no significant difference in patient-reported disability scores between the 2 groups. However, 73% of control subjects had grade 3 or greater postoperative elbow flexion, whereas only 43% of vascular patients achieved this strength (P = 0.003). Control patients demonstrated a greater increase in strength of shoulder abduction as well (P = 0.004). Shoulder external rotation strength was grade 0 in most patients, with no difference between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant vascular injury leads to worse functional outcome after reconstructive surgery of traumatic brachial plexus injury.

4.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(8): 1357-1358, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318707
5.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(3): 464-471, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676364

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of data on the impact of readmission to the same vs a different hospital following an index hospital discharge in cirrhosis patients. METHODS: We sought to describe rates and predictors of different-hospital readmissions (DHRs) among patients with cirrhosis and also determine the impact on cirrhosis outcomes including all-cause inpatient mortality and hospital costs. Using the national readmissions database, we identified cirrhosis hospitalizations in 2013. Regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of DHRs. A time-to-event analysis was performed to assess the impact on subsequent readmissions and all-cause inpatient mortality. RESULTS: In 2013, there were 109,039 cirrhosis readmissions with 67% of these being same-hospital readmissions and 33% being DHRs (P < 0.001). Two percent of readmitted patients were treated at ≥4 different hospitals. The 30-day readmission rate was 29.1%. Predictors of DHR included Medicaid payer (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.01-1.14), age (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.978-0.982), elective admission (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.17), hepatic encephalopathy (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.16-1.25), hepatorenal syndrome (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16), and low socioeconomic status (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.25). No difference was observed in 30-day readmission risk following a DHR (adjusted hazard ratio 1.044, 95% CI 0.975-1.118). In addition, there was no increased risk of inpatient death observed during a DHR within 30 days (adjusted hazard ratio 1.08, 95% CI 0.94-1.23). However, patients with DHR had significantly higher hospital costs and length of stay. CONCLUSIONS: Majority of cirrhosis readmissions are same-hospital readmissions. Different-hospital readmissions do not increase the risk of 30-day readmissions and inpatient mortality but are associated with higher hospital costs.


Assuntos
Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hepatorrenal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
World Neurosurg ; 121: e333-e343, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of marital status and living arrangements on health through modified health behaviors and social networks has been well-established in reported studies, with many experts claiming a "protective" effect from married life for individuals. We sought to study the effect of marital and socioeconomic status (SES) on the outcomes of patients with spinal cord tumors. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program was queried for patients with spinal cord tumors from 2004 to 2014. Patients were separated into 4 groups according to their marital status: single/never married, married/living together, divorced/separated, and widowed. SES was calculated using a validated method. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between marital status and SES and the mortality rate of patients with available follow-up information. RESULTS: Of the 1188 patients identified (683 women [57.5%] and 505 men [42.5%]), 241 (20.3%) were in the single group, 732 (61.6%) in the married/living together, 109 (9.2%) in the divorced/separated, and 106 (8.9%) in the widowed group. Compared with married patients, divorced/separated and widowed patients had a greater mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.9; P = 0.02; HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.3-3.1; P = 0.001, respectively). Male sex compared with female was associated with lower survival (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.03-1.9; P = 0.03). Patients with greater SES had a lower mortality rate (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.55-1.08; P = 0.143). CONCLUSION: Unmarried and widowed status, lower SES, and male sex resulted in a greater risk of mortality. These factors should be considered when tailoring the treatment plan for such patients.


Assuntos
Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Programa de SEER , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Med Phys ; 44(10): e339-e352, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027235

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Using common datasets, to estimate and compare the diagnostic performance of image-based denoising techniques or iterative reconstruction algorithms for the task of detecting hepatic metastases. METHODS: Datasets from contrast-enhanced CT scans of the liver were provided to participants in an NIH-, AAPM- and Mayo Clinic-sponsored Low Dose CT Grand Challenge. Training data included full-dose and quarter-dose scans of the ACR CT accreditation phantom and 10 patient examinations; both images and projections were provided in the training data. Projection data were supplied in a vendor-neutral standardized format (DICOM-CT-PD). Twenty quarter-dose patient datasets were provided to each participant for testing the performance of their technique. Images were provided to sites intending to perform denoising in the image domain. Fully preprocessed projection data and statistical noise maps were provided to sites intending to perform iterative reconstruction. Upon return of the denoised or iteratively reconstructed quarter-dose images, randomized, blinded evaluation of the cases was performed using a Latin Square study design by 11 senior radiology residents or fellows, who marked the locations of identified hepatic metastases. Markings were scored against reference locations of clinically or pathologically demonstrated metastases to determine a per-lesion normalized score and a per-case normalized score (a faculty abdominal radiologist established the reference location using clinical and pathological information). Scores increased for correct detections; scores decreased for missed or incorrect detections. The winner for the competition was the entry that produced the highest total score (mean of the per-lesion and per-case normalized score). Reader confidence was used to compute a Jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) figure of merit, which was used for breaking ties. RESULTS: 103 participants from 90 sites and 26 countries registered to participate. Training data were shared with 77 sites that completed the data sharing agreements. Subsequently, 41 sites downloaded the 20 test cases, which included only the 25% dose data (CTDIvol = 3.0 ± 1.8 mGy, SSDE = 3.5 ± 1.3 mGy). 22 sites submitted results for evaluation. One site provided binary images and one site provided images with severe artifacts; cases from these sites were excluded from review and the participants removed from the challenge. The mean (range) per-lesion and per-case normalized scores were -24.2% (-75.8%, 3%) and 47% (10%, 70%), respectively. Compared to reader results for commercially reconstructed quarter-dose images with no noise reduction, 11 of the 20 sites showed a numeric improvement in the mean JAFROC figure of merit. Notably two sites performed comparably to the reader results for full-dose commercial images. The study was not designed for these comparisons, so wide confidence intervals surrounded these figures of merit and the results should be used only to motivate future testing. CONCLUSION: Infrastructure and methodology were developed to rapidly estimate observer performance for liver metastasis detection in low-dose CT examinations of the liver after either image-based denoising or iterative reconstruction. The results demonstrated large differences in detection and classification performance between noise reduction methods, although the majority of methods provided some improvement in performance relative to the commercial quarter-dose images with no noise reduction applied.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Doses de Radiação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Algoritmos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Metástase Neoplásica , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Controle de Qualidade , Razão Sinal-Ruído
8.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 209(1): 116-121, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28402129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this prospective study is to evaluate the consistency of renal stone volume estimation using dual-energy CT across scanner model and reconstruction algorithm configurations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Patients underwent scanning with routine kidney stone composition protocols on both second- and third-generation dual-source CT scanners. Images were reconstructed using filtered back projection and iterative reconstruction (IR). In addition, a modified IR kernel on the third-generation CT scanner was evaluated. Individual kidney stone volumes were determined and compared. RESULTS: No significant difference was noted in measured volumes between filtered back-projection data, IR data from the second-generation scanner, and the modified IR kernel data (p > 0.05). The third-generation commercially available IR kernel yielded lower volumes than did the other configurations (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: With the use of a modified kernel for the third-generation scanner, patients being monitored for changes in kidney stone volume can undergo scanning performed with second- or third-generation dual-energy CT scanners, and the images obtained can be reconstructed with either filtered back projection or IR without the introduction of bias into kidney stone volume measurements.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tomógrafos Computadorizados , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Doses de Radiação
9.
Acad Radiol ; 23(12): 1545-1552, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27717761

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated a qualitative relationship between stone fragility and internal stone morphology. The goal of this study was to quantify morphologic features from dual-energy computed tomography (CT) images and assess their relationship to stone fragility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three calcified urinary stones were scanned with micro-CT. Next, they were placed within torso-shaped water phantoms and scanned with the dual-energy CT stone composition protocol in routine use at our institution. Mixed low- and high-energy images were used to measure volume, surface roughness, and 12 metrics describing internal morphology for each stone. The ratios of low- to high-energy CT numbers were also measured. Subsequent to imaging, stone fragility was measured by disintegrating each stone in a controlled ex vivo experiment using an ultrasonic lithotripter and recording the time to comminution. A multivariable linear regression model was developed to predict time to comminution. RESULTS: The average stone volume was 300 mm3 (range: 134-674 mm3). The average comminution time measured ex vivo was 32 seconds (range: 7-115 seconds). Stone volume, dual-energy CT number ratio, and surface roughness were found to have the best combined predictive ability to estimate comminution time (adjusted R2 = 0.58). The predictive ability of mixed dual-energy CT images, without use of the dual-energy CT number ratio, to estimate comminution time was slightly inferior, with an adjusted R2 of 0.54. CONCLUSIONS: Dual-energy CT number ratios, volume, and morphologic metrics may provide a method for predicting stone fragility, as measured by time to comminution from ultrasonic lithotripsy.


Assuntos
Cálculos Urinários/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenho de Equipamento , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Litotripsia/instrumentação , Litotripsia/métodos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/instrumentação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Cálculos Urinários/patologia , Cálculos Urinários/terapia
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