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1.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 98: 218-223, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935552

RESUMO

Quantification real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a common method in analysis of gene expression, but the stable reference genes for the normalization analysis have not been appreciated before identifying expression pattern of genes in teleost fishes. In this study, we selected eight candidate reference genes (18S, Actin, EF-1α, 40S, B2M, TUBA, UBCE and GAPDH) basing on transcriptome analysis and the traditional housekeeping genes, and analyzed the stability of the reference genes in spleen, head kidney and head kidney leukocytes (HKL) after pathogen challenge in Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti). Three common programs (geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper) were used to evaluate the stability of the candidate reference genes. Two reference genes, Actin and EF-1α presented higher stability, while 18S and GAPDH were the lower stable genes, both in in vitro and in vivo. An important immune gene, toll-like receptor 22a (TLR22a), was selected to validate the stability of the proposed reference genes (Actin and EF-1α) across different experiment treatments. The results reveal that Actin and EF-1α are quite suitable reference genes for the normalization analysis. Otherwise, using the most stable gene Actin to validate the reliable of transcriptome data showed the high correlation between the fold change of transcriptome data and qRT-PCR data. In conclusion, our study not only acquired the suitable reference gene for the qRT-PCR assay under specific experiment condition, but also provided a comprehensive method to evaluate and validate the reference gene based on transcriptome analysis in teleost fishes.

2.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110125, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941637

RESUMO

Sulfate-radical-based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs) have been widely applied in environmental remediation during the past decade, especially in the degradation of refractory organic contaminants. The electrochemical method, which is considered as one of the most efficient ways to generate sulfate radical, has been extensively investigated for the activation of persulfate recently. This work presented a thorough assessment towards the performance of electrochemically activated persulfate for the removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in aqueous systems. The mechanism and superiority of electrochemically activated persulfates were revealed accordingly. Some major factors (e.g., electrode material, pH, current density, and persulfate concentration) influencing the electrochemical activation of persulfates to remove POPs were also discussed. Considering the increasing quantity of publications on this subject, it is significant to broader guidelines such as the efficiency for practical application, quantization of organic by-products, and cost-effectiveness of the electrochemical method to optimize active persulfate in the water treatment processes.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 171, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932615

RESUMO

Quantum key distribution (QKD) generates symmetric keys between two authenticated parties with the guarantee of information-theoretically security. A vital step in QKD to obtain fully-matched key between two parties is information reconciliation. The blind reconciliation protocol provides a useful tool that corrects the mismatch in a wide range of qubit error rate (QBER) but without a prior error estimation. However, there is a contradiction between the reconciliation efficiency and the processing time in this protocol. In this work, we propose a blind reconciliation protocol with variable step sizes to relieve this contradiction. The analysis and simulation results show that the improved protocol inherits all the advantages of the original blind reconciliation protocol and can obtain better reconciliation efficiency with less operation time. The improved blind reconciliation protocol enhances the final secret key rate and accelerates the processing speed of a QKD system.

4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 97: 235-247, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863902

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a classical pathogen-associated molecular pattern that can trigger strong inflammatory response mainly by TLR4-mediated signaling pathway in mammals, but the molecular mechanism of anti-LPS immunity is unclear in teleost fishes. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression features based on transcriptome analysis in Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti), after stimulation with two sources of LPS from Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli (Ah. LPS and Ecoli. LPS). 921 different expression genes (DEGs) after Ah. LPS stimulation and 975 DEGs after Ecoli.LPS stimulation were acquired, but only 706 and 750 DEGs were successfully annotated into the databases, respectively. Both of two groups of DGEs were significantly enriched into immune-related pathways by KEGG enrichment analysis, such as "Toll-like receptor signaling pathway", "Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction" and "JAK-STAT signaling pathway". The annotated DEGs from Ah. LPS and Ecoli. LPS stimulation shared 470 DEGs, including 88 immune-related DEGs (IRGs) identified mainly by KEGG enrichment to immune-related signaling pathways. Among the shared IRGs, four pattern-recognition genes (TLR5, TLR25, PTX3 and C1q) were induced with high expression foldchange, and IFN-γ and relative genes also showed higher expression levels than control. Meanwhile, inflammatory signals were highlighted by upregulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-10 and IL-8). Moreover, some non-shared IRGs (including TLR2 and TLR4) were identified, suggesting that different sources of LPS own different potentials for the induction of immune gene expression. In conclusion, TLR5, TLR25, PTX3 and C1q may function as the sensing molecules to catch the invasion signal of LPS. The anti-LPS immune response may be involved into TLR25/TLR5-mediated inflammatory signals that regulate subsequently the activation of PTX3/C1q-modulated complement pathway upon the induction of PTX3 expression, and the crosstalk between IFN-γ and TLR signaling pathways in teleost fishes. This study will contribute to further explore the molecular mechanism of LPS-induced immunity in teleost fishes.

5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 92-101, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oyster polypeptides have various biofunctions, such as anti-cancer and anti-oxidative stress, but whether it has the protective effects to primary ovarian failure (POF) remains poorly understand. To address this issue, daily gavage of oyster polypeptides was performed to investigate their protective effect, basing on d-galactose-induced POF model in C57BL/6 female mice. RESULTS: Oyster polypeptides restored the irregular estrous cycles and the abnormal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone (P) levels as well as the decreased mRNA expression level of Amh that were induced by d-galactose. The follicle development of POF mice was improved by increasing the primordial follicle ratio and decreasing the atretic follicle number after oral administration of oyster polypeptides. Moreover, in the oyster polypeptides treated mice, the total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity was significantly increased, while the malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased. The mRNA expression levels of stress-related genes (SOD2, SIRT1 and FOXO3a) were remarkably up-regulated after d-galactose induction, but the up-regulation was weakened or disappeared by the gavage of oyster polypeptides. In addition, oyster polypeptides treatment also reduced the apoptosis of the ovarian granulosa cells and down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (p53 and Bad but not Bcl-2). CONCLUSION: This study reveals that oyster polypeptides may protect ovary against d-galactose-induced POF by their anti-oxidative stress activity to rescue d-galactose-induced ovarian oxidative damage and therefore to prevent ovarian cells apoptosis, thereby tipping the abnormality trigged by POF to get close to the normal levels. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ostreidae/química , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/genética , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801223

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 are well-known gelatinases that disrupt the extracellular matrix, including gelatin. However, the advantages of modulating MMP expression in gelatin-based materials for applications in bone regenerative medicine have not been fully clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol catechin isolated from green tea, on MMP expression in gelatin sponges and its association with bone formation. Four gelatin sponges with or without EGCG were prepared and implanted into bone defects for up to 4 weeks. Histological and immunohistological staining were performed. Micro-computed tomography was used to estimate the bone-forming capacity of each sponge. Our results showed that EGCG integration attenuated MMP-2 (70.6%) and -9 expression (69.1%) in the 1 week group, increased residual gelatin (118.7%), and augmented bone formation (101.8%) in the 4 weeks group in critical-sized bone defects of rat calvaria compared with vacuum-heated gelatin sponges without EGCG. Moreover, vacuum-heated gelatin sponges with EGCG showed superior bone formation compared with other sponges. The results indicated that integration of EGCG in gelatin-based materials modulated the production and activity of MMP-2 and -9 in vivo, thereby enhancing bone-forming capacity.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(19): 190501, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765197

RESUMO

Recent advances on quantum computing hardware have pushed quantum computing to the verge of quantum supremacy. Here, we bring together many-body quantum physics and quantum computing by using a method for strongly interacting two-dimensional systems, the projected entangled-pair states, to realize an effective general-purpose simulator of quantum algorithms. The classical computing complexity of this simulator is directly related to the entanglement generation of the underlying quantum circuit rather than the number of qubits or gate operations. We apply our method to study random quantum circuits, which allows us to quantify precisely the memory usage and the time requirements of random quantum circuits. We demonstrate our method by computing one amplitude for a 7×7 lattice of qubits with depth (1+40+1) on the Tianhe-2 supercomputer.

8.
Opt Express ; 27(22): 32253-32262, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684442

RESUMO

We experimentally demonstrate that a single-photon detector ID210 commercially available from ID Quantique is vulnerable to blinding and can be fully controlled by bright illumination. In quantum key distribution, this vulnerability can be exploited by an eavesdropper to perform a faked-state attack giving her full knowledge of the key without being noticed. We consider the attack on standard BB84 protocol and a subcarrier-wave scheme and outline a possible countermeasure.

9.
Opt Express ; 27(19): 27369-27384, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674599

RESUMO

Here, we investigate the security of the practical one-way CVQKD and CV-MDI-QKD systems under laser seeding attack. In particular, Eve can inject a suitable light into the laser diodes of the light source modules in the two kinds of practical CVQKD systems, which results in the increased intensity of the generated optical signal. The parameter estimation under laser seeding attack shows that the secret key rates of these two schemes may be overestimated, which indicates that this attack can open a security loophole for Eve to successfully obtain information about secret key in these practical CVQKD systems. To close this loophole, we propose a real-time monitoring scheme to precisely evaluate the secret key rates of these schemes. The analysis results indicate the implementation of the proposed monitoring scheme can effectively resist this potential attack.

10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 95: 81-92, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610291

RESUMO

Mammal Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) can directly recognize bacterial flagellin, initiate the inflammatory signaling cascades and trigger body immune system to clear the "non-self" substances. In teleosts, TLR5 has presented more complexes not only in increasing the molecular types, but also in elevating the functional diversity. In this study, we identified two TLR5 family members in Schizothorax prenanti, named as spTLR5-1 and spTLR5-2. The complete coding sequence (CDS) of spTLR5-1 is 2622 bp, encoding 873 amino acids, while the complete CDS of spTLR5-2 is 2640 bp, encoding 879 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that spTLR5-1 and spTLR5-2 were clustered to the TLR5 of schizothorax richardsonii and Cyprinus carpio respectively. The 3D structure analysis exhibited that the α-helix, ß-sheet, and the ligand binding site of spTLR5-1, spTLR5-2 and human TLR5 have large differences. The spTLR5-1 and spTLR5-2 had extensively expressed in various tissues, including the higher expression in liver, spleen and head kidney. Both the expression levels of spTLR5-1 and spTLR5-2 were significantly up-regulated after Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) challenge. And, the downstream genes, such as AP-1, IKK-α, NF-kB, IL-1ß, IL-8 and TNF-α, were also significantly up-regulated after A. hydrophila challenge. Apart from that, the luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the co-transfection of spTLR5-1 or spTLR5-2 into HEK293T cells showed the significantly increased NF-kB luciferase activity after flagellin stimulation. In conclusion, our results reveal that both two molecular types of fish TLR5 may commonly mediate the recognition of flagellin and the activation of the downstream inflammatory signaling molecules.

11.
Org Lett ; 21(18): 7415-7419, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486650

RESUMO

A remote stereocontrolled 1,8-conjugate addition of thiazolones to propargylic aza-p-quinone methides formed from propargylic alcohols has been developed with the aid of a chiral phosphoric acid, and this represents the first report on organocatalytic stereocontrolled 1,8-addition of propargylic aza-p-quinone methides. Notably, the remote stereocontrolled activation protocol enables the construction of vicinal sulfur-containing quaternary carbon stereocenters and axially chiral tetrasubstituted allenes and promotes the chemistry of chiral phosphoric acids.

12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 986-996, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422176

RESUMO

Evolutionary development has increased the diversity of genotypes and the complexity of gene functions in fish. TLR22 has been identified as a teleost-specific gene, but its functions are tremendously different among different fish species. Whether the functional diversity relates to the difference of genotypes remains poorly understand. In this study, we cloned and identified three TLR22 molecules from Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti), named as spTLR22-1, spTLR22-2 and spTLR22-3. The full-length coding regions of spTLR22s are 2841 bp, 2805 bp and 2868 bp and coding 946 aa, 934 aa and 955 aa, respectively. All spTLR22s are composed of multiple leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, a transmembrane structure and a Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) region. The phylogenetic analysis showed that three spTLR22s were close to Cyprinus carpio TLR22-1, TLR22-2 and TLR22-3, respectively. Among the spTLR22s, they presented not close relationship but remained to belong to TLR22 subfamily. All spTLR22s were ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues, but the expression levels of spTLR22s were dominant in immune-related tissues, such as gill and spleen. The expression levels of spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-3 were significantly increased after treatment with bacteria, LPS and Poly(I:C). However, spTLR22-2 seems like no response to these treatments. The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that all spTLR22s could activate NF-κB signaling pathway, but only spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-2 could activate IFN-ß signaling pathway. Interestingly, in the ligand recognition analysis, spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-3 but not spTLR22-2 had the recognized potential to Poly(I:C), and all spTLR22s could not recognize LPS. Both spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-3 significantly up-regulated the expression of anti-viral-related genes (Mx, IFN and ISG15) and down-regulated the expression of anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 after the overexpression in carp EPC cell line, but spTLR22-2 failed to impact the expression of these genes. Moreover, we found that all spTLR22s localized to the intracellular region. Taken together, our results reveal that spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-3 but not spTLR22-2 may be involved into the anti-viral immune response via IFN-ß signaling pathway, and all spTLR22s can activate NF-κB signaling pathway but only spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-3 response to the stimulation of bacteria and LPS.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Linhagem Celular , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Luciferases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Análise de Sequência de Proteína/veterinária , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
13.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367946

RESUMO

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious medical situation at labor which leads to severe brain damage. Hypothermia therapy is the standard treatment for infants with HIE, but the efficacy is limited. Combination treatments are considered to enhance the efficacy of hypothermia. Crocin is an extract from saffron which has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective properties. The present study sought to investigate whether crocin could act as a combined treatment with hypothermia in a mouse model of HIE. C57BL/6J mice at post-natal day 7 were subjected to left common carotid artery ligation, followed by treatment of crocin (10 mg/kg) and hypothermia, either alone or in combination. Brain edema and tissue infarct were measured to evaluate brain damage. Mediators involved in inflammatory response and oxidative stress were measured. Neurological severity score test was performed to evaluate the functional outcome. Results show that crocin treatment alone could reduce inflammation and brain damage after hypoxia-ischemia. Combined treatment of crocin and hypothermia exerted enhanced therapeutic effect compared with single treatment, resulting in significantly less brain damage, reduced inflammatory and oxidative responses, and improved functional outcome. Together, these data suggest that crocin plays a beneficial effect in the mouse model of HIE. It could also enhance the neuroprotective effect of hypothermia and might be considered as a combination therapeutic treatment with hypothermia in HIE.

14.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 516(4): 1053-1059, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277944

RESUMO

Neuronal CD200 plays critical role in neuron-microglia communication and negatively related to pathological development of Alzheimer's disease, but its contribution retroacts to synaptic function is still not clear. Here, we directly injected adeno-associated virus into hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice to induce neuron-specific CD200 overexpression; subsequently, we detected cognition function, synaptic function, and the microglial responses during AD pathological development. Notably, specific upregulation of neuronal CD200 promoted cognitive function by inhibiting microglial activation and secretion, improving synaptic function, and preventing synaptic loss. To further investigate the role of neuronal CD200 on synaptic function, we depressed CD200 expression in neuron by hippocampal AAV injection and also evaluated microglial activation and cognitive and synaptic function. Interestingly, data revealed that neuronal CD200 deficiency significantly impairs synaptic and cognitive function. Taken these results together, we concluded that neuronal CD200 mediated microglial response and synaptic function during AD pathological development, and provided evidence that neuronal CD200 restoration ameliorates synaptic and cognitive deficits.

15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1597: 196-201, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054834

RESUMO

Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) was used as a phase-separation solvent to develop novel alcohol-salt aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) with various salts. Phase diagram and effective excluded volume (EEV) study proved that HFIP has much better phase-separation ability compared to traditional small molecule alcohols (ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol). Then, the HFIP-NaCl ATPS was applied for the extraction and purification of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from ramie leaves. Under the optimum conditions (2 M NaCl solution with pH 3.0, the volume ratio of NaCl solution to HFIP at 6, vortex time 5 s and centrifugation time 7 min), the extraction efficiency of CGA in the salt-rich phase was 99.3%, meanwhile the HFIP-rich phase could extract a large amount of impurities. Furthermore, the CGA product with the purity of 91.0% was obtained from the salt-rich phase by semi-preparative liquid chromatography and salt removal, and its chemical structure was identified. Compared with other ATPSs, the HFIP-NaCl ATPS consumed much less organic solvent and salt, but acquired much higher extraction efficiency and obvious impurity-removal effect. Therefore, the HFIP-based alcohol-salt ATPSs are promising in the extraction and purification of CGA and other polar compounds as well.


Assuntos
Boehmeria/química , Ácido Clorogênico/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Propanóis/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Álcoois/química , Solventes/química , Água/química
16.
Theriogenology ; 131: 32-40, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939354

RESUMO

The accumulation of skatole in fat tissue is one of the predominant factors, causing boar taint. The present study was aimed to understand the mechanism whereby active immunization against GnRH (immunocastration) eliminates skatole in boars. Thirty-six boars were assigned within litter into three groups (n = 12): control, surgically castrated, or immunized against GnRH at 10 wk of age (with a booster 8 wk later). Faecal and blood samples (for skatole and skatole-regulatory hormone profiles) were collected at 4-wk intervals until boars were slaughtered (26 weeks). Immunocastration reduced (P < 0.05) serum levels of androstenone, 17ß-estradiol and IGF1 especially after the booster immunization, and down-regulated (P < 0.05) mRNA expressions of both IGF1 and IGF1receptor (IGF1R) in mucosa of ileum as well as colon at slaughter. Compared to intact controls, immunocastration substantially decreased (P < 0.05) faecal skatole contents subsequent to the decrease of serum IGF1 levels, which persisted in boars after surgical castration. In parallel with the decreased formation of skatole in the intestine, levels of skatole in serum and then in fat tissue were also decreased (P < 0.05). On the other hand, deprivation of testicular steroids, especially androstenone and 17ß-estradiol accelerated skatole degradation metabolism in the liver by increasing (P < 0.05) hepatic CYP2E1, CYP2A, CYP2C49 and CYB5A expressions. Collectively, our results suggested that immunocastration decreased skatole formation in the intestine and meanwhile accelerated skatole degradation metabolism in the liver, resultantly eliminating skatole accumulation in male pigs. Decreased intestinal skatole formation by immunocastration appeared to be associated with the attenuated actions of IGF1 on the turnover of both ileal and colon mucosa.


Assuntos
Escatol/metabolismo , Esterilização Reprodutiva/veterinária , Suínos , Animais , Fezes/química , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Carne , Escatol/sangue , Esterilização Reprodutiva/métodos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 650(Pt 2): 2260-2266, 2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30292119

RESUMO

As a widely used antibiotic, tetracycline has a huge hidden danger to human health. Municipal sludge rich in organic substances has the potential to produce biochar. In this work, the municipal sludge biochar from solid waste was modified by the alkali-acid binding method, and tetracycline was efficiently removed from the aqueous solution, the adsorption removal efficiency reached to 86% at initial concentration of 200 mg/L. The activation energy was determined by analyzing the adsorption kinetics at different temperatures and tetracycline concentrations. The results showed that tetracycline adsorption on modified biochar was endothermic reaction. Presenting the Langmuir-Freundlich model, adsorption site energy distributions was reckoned. The average adsorption site energy and corresponding standard deviation of the adsorption site energy distribution were deduced emphatically to inquiry the strength of tetracycline adsorption on modified biochar and the adsorption site heterogeneity. The method proposed of research further proves that modified biochar from sewage sludge remove tetracycline from contaminated water has great potential, and exploration of tetracycline adsorption mechanisms by quantifying average site energy. The results and methods of this work can be transferred to study water treatment systems.

18.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 84: 816-824, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393178

RESUMO

Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti), an important species of economical fish in Southwest China, is susceptible to Aeromonas hydrophila (Ah). To understand the immune response to Ah, the transcriptome profiling of spleen of S. prenanti was analyzed after Ah infection. A total of 6, 213 different expression genes (DEGs) were obtained, including 3, 066 up-regulated DEGs and 3, 147 down-regulated DEGs. These DEGs were annotated by KEGG and GO databases, so that the immune-related DEGs (IRDs) can be identified and classified. Then, the interesting IRDs were screened to build heat map, and the reliability of the transcriptome data was validated by qPCR. In order to clarify the mechanism of signal transduction in the anti-bacterial immunity, the signaling pathway initiated by TLRs was predicted. In this pathway, TLR25 and TLR5 mediate the NF-κB and AP-1 signals via MyD88-dependent pathway. Meanwhile, the type I IFN (IFNα/ß) induced by IRF1 and IRF3/7 may play an important role in the anti-bacterial immunity. In conclusion, this study preliminarily provides insights into the mechanism of signal transduction after Ah infection in S. prenanti, which contributes to exploring the complex anti-bacterial immunity.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Baço/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/genética
19.
Org Lett ; 21(1): 95-99, 2019 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565462

RESUMO

An organocatalytic enantioselective method for the synthesis of multiple stereoisomers bearing E, Z configurations, stereogenic carbon centers, and axially chiral styrenes is reported. The method enabled the rapid construction of a series of stereochemical complexity products with excellent E, Z selectivity, diastereoselectivity (>20:1 dr), and enantioselectivity (up to 96% ee). This method provides an efficient and concise synthesis route of multiple stereoisomers with a wide range of potential applications in organic synthesis.

20.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 82: 361-370, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30081181

RESUMO

TLR25 is a new member of TLR1 family that is only identified in teleosts, but its function in immune response is still unclear. In current study, the coding sequence (CDS) of TLR25 was cloned from Schizothorax prenanti (named spTLR25), and spTLR25 is 2454 bp in length and coding a protein of 817 aa. The spTLR25 contains a signal peptide, twenty leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, a LRR C-terminal (LRRCT) motif, a transmembrane region and a Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that spTLR25 has the closest relationship with Cyprinus carpio (C. carpio) TLR25-2. The 3D structure of spTLR25 exhibits 5 α-helices and 3 ß-sheets in the TIR domain, and 8 α-helices and 6 ß-sheets in the LRR domains. The spTLR25 is mainly expressed in immune-related tissues and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). Furthermore, the expression levels of spTLR25 were upregulated in spleen, head kidney and liver while S. prenanti was challenged with LPS or Aeromonas hydrophila (Ah), and the upregulation was also detected in head kidney leukocytes (HKL) after LPS and Poly (I:C) stimulation. The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that NF-κB and type I IFNs signaling pathways can be activated by spTLR25, and this process may involve in the cascade amplification of TLR25-MyD88 signaling. In addition, the co-localization analysis showed that spTLR25 localizes to intracellular region. Taken together, our results reveal that teleost-specific TLR25 may be a multifunctional receptor for recognizing both LPS and Poly (I:C) and may activate NF-κB and type I IFNs signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Interferon Tipo I , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B , Filogenia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores Toll-Like/química
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