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1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(35): 5314-5327, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether immune escape-associated mutations in the major hydrophilic region of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) are associated with nucleoside/nucleotide analog resistance. AIM: To evaluate the association between immune escape-associated mutations and nucleoside/nucleotide analog resistance mutations. METHODS: In total, 19440 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, who underwent resistance testing at the Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital between July 2007 and December 2017, were enrolled. As determined by sequence analysis, 6982 patients harbored a virus with resistance mutations and 12458 harbored a virus lacking resistance mutations. Phenotypic analyses were performed to evaluate HBsAg production, replication capacity, and drug-induced viral inhibition of patient-derived drug-resistant mutants with or without the coexistence of sA159V. RESULTS: The rate of immune escape-associated mutation was significantly higher in 9 of the 39 analyzed mutation sites in patients with resistance mutations than in patients without resistance mutations. In particular, these mutations were sQ101H/K/R, sS114A/L/T, sT118A/K/M/R/S/V, sP120A/L/Q/S/T, sT/I126A/N/P/S, sM133I/L/T, sC137W/Y, sG145A/R, and sA159G/V. Among these, sA159V was detected in 1.95% (136/6982) of patients with resistance mutations and 1.08% (134/12,458) of patients lacking resistance mutations (P < 0.05). The coexistence of sA159V with lamivudine (LAM) and entecavir (ETV)-resistance mutations in the same viral genome was identified during follow-up in some patients with drug resistance. HBsAg production was significantly lower and the replication capacity was significantly higher, without a significant difference in LAM/ETV susceptibility, in sA159V-containing LAM/ETV-resistant mutants than in their sA159V-lacking counterparts. CONCLUSION: In summary, we observed a close link between the increase in certain immune escape-associated mutations and the development of resistance mutations. sA159V might increase the fitness of LAM/ETV-resistant mutants under environmental pressure in some cases.

2.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979077

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plays an essential role in brain, and its status is dependent on dietary intakes. School-aged children in rural China, who consume diets low in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, may benefit from DHA supplementation. Therefore, this trial was performed to examine the effect of 6-month DHA supplementation on executive functions (EFs) among healthy school-aged children in rural China. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 106 primary school children aged 7-12 years in rural China. Participants were randomized to receive either 300 mg/d DHA or placebo for 6 months. EFs including working memory and cognitive flexibility were evaluated at baseline, at 3 months and at 6 months, using Digit Span Backwards and Wisconsin card sorting test, respectively. Socio-demographic data were collected at baseline, and erythrocyte membrane fatty acids and serum neurotransmitters were measured at baseline and after 6-month intervention. RESULTS: Ninety-four children (88.7%) completed the study according to the protocol. Changes in erythrocyte membrane fatty acids indicated good compliance of the participants. There was no significant intervention effect on serum neurotransmitters. In two-factor ANCOVA, both groups showed a significant improvement in the Digit Span Backwards and the Wisconsin card sorting test from baseline to endpoint. However, no significant intervention effect was found on any EF scores. Linear regression analysis suggested no significant association between changes in erythrocyte DHA level with changes in any EF scores. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with 300 mg/d DHA for 6 months had no benefit on EFs including working memory and cognitive flexibility among healthy school-aged children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02308930 on December 5, 2014.

3.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 39: 101170, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer pain affects the quality of life of cancer patients; therefore, various methods exist for alleviating the adverse effects caused by cancer pain. Nonpharmacological intervention is regarded as an important means of auxiliary therapy for drug treatment, with acupuncture receiving the most attention; However, there are numerous types of acupuncture therapies, including acupuncture, wrist-ankle acupuncture (WAA) and auricular acupuncture (AA). Previous studies have demonstrated that all types of acupuncture therapy can alleviate cancer pain. However, the effects and pathways of different acupuncture treatments are not similar, and it is unknown whether single therapy or combination therapy has better analgesic effects. This study aimed to examine the effect of WAA therapy combined with AA on cancer pain. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial. METHOD: A total of 160 patients were selected and randomly divided into groups A, B, C and D, with 40 patients in each group. Group A received conventional analgesia alone, with opioids administered based on the World Health Organization (WHO) 3-tiered "cancer pain ladder". Group B received WAA, in addition to the treatment received by group A. Group C received AA, in addition to the treatment received by group A. Group D received WAA combined with AA, in addition to the treatment received by group A. Analgesic effects and analgesic drug use before and 3, 5 and 7 days after treatment were observed in each group. RESULT: A total of 159 patients were included in the analysis. The verbal rating scale (VRS) and numeric rating scale (NRS) scores for patients who received mono-acupuncture therapy and combination therapy for 1 week were significantly different from those of the control group. Combination therapy had a stronger effect on the VRS score and a faster onset time, based on the NRS score, and the patients who received combination therapy had reduced analgesic drug use. CONCLUSION: WAA combined with AA can more quickly reduce pain symptoms with more lasting analgesic effects and can effectively reduce analgesic drug use.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Acupuntura Auricular/métodos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Dor do Câncer/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 75(3): 187-194, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to compare the predictive value of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) for hyperuricemia with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 9,206 South China residents (male/female: 4,433/4,773) aged 18-89 years recruited during years 2009-2010 and 2014-2015. Anthropometric measurements, serum uric acid, blood pressure, and plasma glucose, lipid, lipoprotein, and transferase levels were measured. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the predictive values of anthropometric indices for hyperuricemia. RESULTS: The prevalence of hyperuricemia increased significantly with higher quartiles of WHtR in both genders. The best cutoff points of WHtR to predict hyperuricemia are 0.52 for men and 0.49 for women and differed between different BMI and WC stratums. Although there was no significant difference between the area under the ROC curves, subjects in the top quartile of WHtR were at a highest risk of hyperuricemia (p for linear trend <0.001) and the adjusted ORs of WHtR (2.24-2.77 in men and 2.66-4.95 in women) were higher than those of BMI or WC in the multivariable regression model. CONCLUSIONS: WHtR was an independent and better predictor of hyperuricemia compared with BMI and WC.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia/diagnóstico , Razão Cintura-Estatura , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Glicemia , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Análise de Regressão , Transferases/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Nutr Biochem ; 32: 163-70, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27142732

RESUMO

Prenatal intake of choline has been reported to lead to enhanced cognitive function in offspring, but little is known about the effects on spatial learning deficits. The present study examined the effects of prenatal choline supplementation on developmental low-protein exposure and its potential mechanisms. Pregnant female rats were fed either a normal or low-protein diet containing sufficient choline (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or supplemented choline (5.0g/kg choline chloride) until delivery. The Barnes maze test was performed at postnatal days 31-37. Choline and its metabolites, the synaptic structural parameters of the CA1 region in the brain of the newborn rat, were measured. The Barnes maze test demonstrated that prenatal low-protein pups had significantly greater error scale values, hole deviation scores, strategy scores and spatial search strategy and had lesser random search strategy values than normal protein pups (all P<.05). These alterations were significantly reversed by choline supplementation. Choline supplementation increased the brain levels of choline, betaine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine of newborns by 51.35% (P<.05), 33.33% (P<.001), 28.68% (P<.01) and 23.58% (P<.05), respectively, compared with the LPD group. Prenatal choline supplementation reversed the increased width of the synaptic cleft (P<.05) and decreased the curvature of the synaptic interface (P<.05) induced by a low-protein diet. Prenatal choline supplementation could attenuate the spatial learning deficits caused by prenatal protein malnutrition by increasing brain choline, betaine and phospholipids and by influencing the hippocampus structure.


Assuntos
Colina/uso terapêutico , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Aprendizagem Espacial , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Comportamento Animal , Região CA1 Hipocampal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Região CA1 Hipocampal/metabolismo , Região CA1 Hipocampal/patologia , Região CA1 Hipocampal/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/etiologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/patologia , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Comportamento Espacial , Sinapses/metabolismo , Sinapses/patologia , Sinapses/ultraestrutura
6.
Br J Nutr ; 115(12): 2181-8, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27079329

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that betaine supplements increase lean body mass in livestock and improve muscle performance in human beings, but evidence for its effect on human lean mass is limited. Our study assessed the association of circulating betaine with lean mass and its composition in Chinese adults. A community-based study was conducted on 1996 Guangzhou residents (weight/mass: 1381/615) aged 50-75 years between 2008 and 2010. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. Fasting serum betaine was assessed using HPLC-MS. A total of 1590 participants completed the body composition analysis performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during a mean of 3·2 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, regression analyses demonstrated a positive association of serum betaine with percentage of lean mass (LM%) of the entire body, trunk and limbs in men (all P<0·05) and LM% of the trunk in women (P=0·016). Each sd increase in serum betaine was associated with increases in LM% of 0·609 (whole body), 0·811 (trunk), 0·422 (limbs), 0·632 (arms) and 0·346 (legs) in men and 0·350 (trunk) in women. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of lower LM% decreased by 17 % (whole body) and 14 % (trunk) in women and 23 % (whole body), 28 % (trunk), 22 % (arms) and 26 % (percentage skeletal muscle index) in men with each sd increment in serum betaine. Elevated circulating betaine was associated with a higher LM% and lower prevalence of lower LM% in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults, particularly men.


Assuntos
Betaína/sangue , Composição Corporal , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/sangue , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Betaína/farmacologia , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
7.
PLoS One ; 10(2): e0118071, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25679378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Previous studies have indicated that neck circumference is a valuable predictor for obesity and metabolic syndrome, but little evidence is available for fatty liver disease. We examined the association of neck circumference with fatty liver disease and evaluated its predictive value in Chinese adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 4053 participants (1617 women and 2436 men, aged 20-88) recruited from the Health Examination Center in Guangzhou, China between May 2009 and April 2010. Anthropometric measurements were taken, abdominal ultrasonography was conducted and blood biochemical parameters were measured. Covariance, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were employed. RESULTS: The mean neck circumference was greater in subjects with fatty liver disease than those without the disease in both women and men after adjusting for age (P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that the age-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of fatty liver disease for quartile 4 (vs. quartile 1) of neck circumference were 7.70 (4.95-11.99) for women and 12.42 (9.22-16.74) for men. After further adjusting for other anthropometric indices, both individually and combined, the corresponding ORs remained significant (all P-trends<0.05) but were attenuated to 1.94-2.53 for women and 1.45-2.08 for men. An additive interaction existed between neck circumference and the other anthropometric measures (all P<0.05). A high neck circumference value was associated with a much greater prevalence of fatty liver disease in participants with both high and normal BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio values. CONCLUSIONS: Neck circumference was an independent predictor for fatty liver disease and provided an additional contribution when applied with other anthropometric measures.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico , Fígado Gorduroso/epidemiologia , Pescoço , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco
8.
Public Health Nutr ; 18(8): 1506-13, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25222105

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to compare the effects of a general dietary intervention and an intervention with low glycaemic load (GL) on glycaemic control, blood lipid metabolism and pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Participants were randomly assigned to two groups, receiving either an individualized general dietary intervention (Control group) or an intensive low-GL intervention (Low-GL group) every two weeks, from 24-26 weeks of gestation to delivery. SETTING: The Center of Maternal Primary Care in Guangdong General Hospital, China. SUBJECTS: Ninety-five women with gestational diabetes mellitus were enrolled from June 2008 to July 2009. RESULTS: After the intervention, both groups significantly decreased their dietary intakes of energy, fat and carbohydrate. The Low-GL group had significantly lower values for GL (122 v. 136) and glycaemic index (50 v. 54) but greater dietary fibre intake (33 v. 29 g/d) than did the Control group (all P<0·01). Significantly greater decreases in fasting plasma glucose (-0·33 v. -0·02 mmol/l, P<0·01) and 2 h postprandial glucose (-2·98 v. -2·51 mmol/l, P<0·01), significantly lower increases in total cholesterol (0·12 v. 0·23 mmol/l) and TAG (0·41 v. 0·56 mmol/l) and a significantly lower decrease in HDL cholesterol (-0·01 v. -0·11 mmol/l) were also observed in the Low-GL group compared with the Control group (all P<0·05). There were no significant differences in body weight gain, birth weight or other maternal-fetal perinatal outcomes between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The low-GL targeted dietary intervention outperformed the general dietary intervention in glycaemic control and the improvement of blood lipid levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/dietoterapia , Carga Glicêmica , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Avaliação Nutricional , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ganho de Peso
9.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 375(6): 775-80, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12664177

RESUMO

Determination of low molecular weight organic acids in soils and plants by capillary zone electrophoresis was accomplished using a phthalate buffer and indirect UV detection mode. The influence of some crucial parameters, such as pH, buffer concentration and surfactant were investigated. A good separation of seven organic acids was achieved within 5 min using an electrolyte containing 15 mmol L(-1) potassium hydrogen phthalate, 0.5 mmol L(-1) myristyltrimethylammonium bromide (MTAB), and 5% methanol (MeOH) (v/v) at pH 5.60, separation voltage -20 kV, and temperature 25 degrees C. The relative standard deviation (n=5) of the method was found to be in range 0.18-0.56% for migration time and 3.2-4.8% for peak area. The limit of detection ranged between 0.5 micro mol L(-1) to 6 micro mol L(-1) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The recovery of standard organic acids added to real samples ranged from 87 to 119%. This method was simple, rapid and reproducible, and could be applied to the simultaneous determination of organic acids in environmental samples.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Plantas/química , Solo/análise , Água/química , Eletrólitos/química , Eletroforese Capilar/instrumentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peso Molecular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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