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1.
Environ Res ; 203: 111834, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358501

RESUMO

Age-specific discrepancy of mortality burden attributed to temperature, measured as years of life lost (YLL), has been rarely investigated. We investigated age-specific temperature-YLL rates (per 100,000) relationships and quantified YLL per death caused by non-optimal temperature in China. We collected daily meteorological data, population data and daily death counts from 364 locations in China during 2006-2017. YLL was divided into three age groups (0-64 years, 65-74 years, and ≥75 years). A distributed lag non-linear model was first employed to estimate the associations of temperature with age-specific YLL rates in each location. Then we pooled the associations using a multivariate meta-analysis. Finally, we calculated age-specific average YLL per death caused by temperature by cause of death and region. We observed greater effects of cold and hot temperature on YLL rates for the elderly compared with the young population by region or cause of death. However, YLL per death due to non-optimal temperature for different regions or causes of death decreased with age, with 2.0 (95 % CI:1.5, 2.5), 1.2 (1.1, 1.4) and 1.0 years (0.9, 1.2) life loss per death for populations aged 0-64 years, 65-74 years and over 75 years, respectively. Most life loss per death results from moderate temperature, especially moderate cold for all age groups. The effect of non-optimal temperature on YLL rates is smaller for younger populations than older ones, while the temperature-related life loss per death was more prominent for younger populations.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118392, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678392

RESUMO

The short-term effects of ambient temperature on mortality have been widely investigated. However, the epidemiological evidence on the long-term effects of temperature on mortality is rare. In present study, we conducted a nationwide quasi-experimental design, which based on a variant of difference-in-differences (DID) approach, to examine the association between long-term exposure to ambient temperature and mortality risk in China, and to analyze the effect modification of population characteristics and socioeconomic status. Data on mortality were collected from 364 communities across China during 2006-2017, and environmental data were obtained for the same period. We estimated a 2.93 % (95 % CI: 2.68 %, 3.18 %) increase in mortality risk per 1 °C decreases in annual temperature, the greater effects were observed on respiratory diseases (5.16 %, 95 % CI: 4.53 %, 5.79 %) than cardiovascular diseases (3.43 %, 95 % CI: 3.06 %, 3.80 %), and on younger people (4.21 %, 95 % CI: 3.73 %, 4.68 %) than the elderly (2.36 %, 95 % CI: 2.06 %, 2.65 %). In seasonal analysis, per 1 °C decreases in average temperature was associated with 1.55 % (95 % CI: 1.23 %, 1.87 %), -0.53 % (95 % CI: -0.89 %, -0.16 %), 2.88 % (95 % CI: 2.45 %, 3.31 %) and 4.21 % (95 % CI: 3.98 %, 4.43 %) mortality change in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. The effects of long-term temperature on total mortality were more pronounced among the communities with low urbanization, low education attainment, and low GDP per capita. In total, the decrease of average temperature in summer decreased mortality risk, while increased mortality risk in other seasons, and the associations were modified by demographic characteristics and socioeconomic status. Our findings suggest that populations with disadvantaged characteristics and socioeconomic status are vulnerable to long-term exposure of temperature, and targeted policies should be formulated to strengthen the response to the health threats of temperature exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Mortalidade , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
3.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118324, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637827

RESUMO

Traditional soil heavy metal (HM) investigation usually costs a lot of human and material resources. In-situ portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRF) is a cheap and rapid HM analysis method, but its analysis accuracy is usually affected by spatially non-stationary field environment factors. In this study, residual sequential Gaussian co-simulation (RCoSGS) was first proposed to incorporate both continuous and categorical auxiliary variables for spatial simulation of soil Cu. Next, additional in-situ PXRF sampling sites (n = 300) were allocated in the subareas with high, medium, and low conditional variances in the proportions of 50%, 33.33%, and 16.67%, respectively. Then, robust geographically weighted regression (RGWR) was established to correct the spatially non-stationary effects of field environmental factors on in-situ PXRF and further compared with the traditionally-used multiple linear regression (MLR) and basic GWR in correction accuracy. Finally, RCoSGS with the RGWR-corrected in-situ PXRF as part of hard data (RCoSGS-PXRF) was established and further compared with the model with one or multiple auxiliary variables in the spatial simulation accuracy. Results showed that (i) RCoSGS effectively incorporated both SOM and land-use types and obtained higher spatial simulation accuracy (RI = 37.52%) than residual sequential Gaussian simulation with land-use types (RI = 19.44%) and sequential Gaussian co-simulation with SOM (RI = 20.92%); (ii) RGWR significantly weakened the spatially non-stationary effects of field environmental factors on in-situ PXRF, and RGWR (RI = 58.96%) and GWR (RI = 39.61%) obtained higher correction accuracy than MLR; (iii) the RGWR-corrected in-situ PXRF (RI = 66.57%) brought higher spatial simulation accuracy than both land-use types and SOM (RI = 37.52%); (iv) RCoSGS-PXRF obtained the highest spatial simulation accuracies (RI = 83.74%). Therefore, the proposed method is cost-effective for the rapid and high-precision investigation of soil HMs at a regional scale.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Espectrometria por Raios X , Raios X
4.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847050

RESUMO

In this article, a higher order indirect adaptive iterative learning control (HO-iAILC) scheme is developed for nonlinear nonaffine systems. The inner loop adopts a P-type controller whose set-point is updated iteratively by learning from the iterations. To this end, an ideal nonlinear learning control law is designed in the outer loop. It is then transferred to a linear parametric-learning controller with a corresponding parameter estimation law by introducing an iterative dynamic linearization (IDL) method. This IDL method is also used to gain an iterative linear data model of the nonlinear system. A parameter iterative updating algorithm is utilized for estimating the unknown parameters of the obtained linear data model. Finally, the HO-iAILC is presented that utilizes additional error information to improve the control performance and employs two iterative adaptive mechanisms to deal with uncertainties. The convergence of the proposed HO-iAILC scheme is proved by using two basic mathematical tools, namely: 1) contraction mapping and 2) mathematical induction. Simulation studies are conducted for the verification of the theoretical results.

5.
J Environ Manage ; : 114149, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838376

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for crop growth and it plays a critical role in agricultural production. Excessive P applications has become a serious concern in Chinese greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) systems. Nevertheless, P accumulation (legacy P) in GVP profile soils and its potential loss remain poorly documented. Hence, this study aimed to response this issue via paired collection of 136 soil samples (0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm depth) and 41 vegetable samples from both plastic greenhouses (PG) and solar greenhouses (SG) in Shouguang, Shandong province. Results showed that the annual input of P ranged from 772 to 2458 kg ha-1 for different vegetables through the whole growing season versus little vegetable P uptake (ranging from 47.8 to 155 kg ha-1). Results also revealed significant P accumulation in both SG and PG profile soils. Compared to arable soils (background soils), legacy P to the depth of 90 cm in PG and SG soils were 3.28 and 11.16 Mg P ha-1, respectively. The content of total P in PG and SG soils significantly increased with cultivation duration. The maximum environmental capacity of P in SG soils was 187 Mg ha-1, and the maximum number of years for safe planting was 38 yrs. After four years of cultivation, P loss would occur in these soils and the loss rate of P increased with cultivation duration. Opposite to PG soils, a potentially higher risk of P losses took place in SG soils. Our results also demonstrated that excessive P inputs driven by intensive agricultural practices dominated legacy P accumulation within the profile soils and its losses in GVP systems. Site-specific P managements, including improving P use efficiency, reducing further P surplus and reusing legacy P in soils, are urgently needed to minimize P loss. At the same time, the potential loss of subsoil P could not be neglected.

6.
J Immunol Methods ; 499: 113179, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, a novel, simple, and rapid immunoassay for the determination of gastrin-17 (G-17) in human serum was established by combining immunomagnetic beads with time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA). METHODS: Immunomagnetic beads were coated with anti-G-17 M01 antibody, anti-G-17 M02 antibody was labeled with Eu3+ chelates. The concentration of G-17 in the serum was detected with the double-antibody sandwich method. RESULTS: The limit of background(LOB), limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.09, 0.104, and 0.39 pmol/L, respectively. The detection range of G-17-TRFIA was 0.39-100 pmol/L. The average intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) were 5.95%-9.07% and 6.09%-8.14%, respectively. The recoveries for the serum samples ranged from 94.70% to 100.95%. The specificity of our G-17-TRFIA was acceptable. The correlation coefficient between G-17-TRFIA and commercial G-17-ELISA methods was R2 = 0.9092. CONCLUSIONS: A novel G-17-TRFIA detection method was successfully established to provide a reference for the early diagnosis of patients with atrophic gastritis in clinical research.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fluorimunoensaio , Gastrinas/sangue , Separação Imunomagnética , Anticorpos/química , Anticorpos/imunologia , Gastrinas/imunologia , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Adv Mater ; : e2107399, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719800

RESUMO

With the development of phase engineering of nanomaterials (PEN), construction of noble-metal heterostructures with unconventional crystal phases, including heterophases, has been proposed as an attractive approach toward the rational design of highly efficient catalysts. However, it still remains challenging to realize the controlled preparation of such unconventional-phase noble-metal heterostructures and explore their crystal-phase-dependent applications. Here, various Pd@Ir core-shell nanostructures are synthesized with unconventional fcc-2H-fcc heterophase (2H: hexagonal close-packed; fcc: face-centered cubic) through a wet-chemical seeded method. As a result, heterophase Pd66 @Ir34 nanoparticles, Pd45 @Ir55 multibranched nanodendrites, and Pd68 @Ir22 Co10 trimetallic nanoparticles are obtained via the phase-selective epitaxial growth of fcc-2H-fcc-heterophase Ir-based nanostructures on 2H-Pd seeds. Importantly, the heterophase Pd45 @Ir55 nanodendrites exhibit excellent catalytic performance toward electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) under acidic conditions. An overpotential of only 11.0 mV is required to achieve a current density of 10 mA cm-2 on Pd45 @Ir55 nanodendrites, which is lower than those of the conventional fcc-Pd47 @Ir53 counterparts, commercial Ir/C and Pt/C. This work not only demonstrates an appealing route to synthesize novel heterophase nanomaterials for promising applications in the emerging field of PEN, but also highlights the significant role of the crystal phase in determining their catalytic properties.

8.
Chemosphere ; : 132768, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736947

RESUMO

Excessive accumulation of soil heavy metals (HMs) result in the deterioration of soil quality and reduction of agricultural productivity and safety. The accumulation status, temporal change, and sources of soil HMs were determined by large-scale field surveys in 2014 and 2019 in rapid urbanization and industrialization area along the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Eighty-two surface soil samples were collected in 2014 and ninety-five surface soil samples and seven soil profiles (0-100 cm) were collected in 2019. The mean concentrations (in, mg kg-1) of As (10.17), Cd (0.33), Cr (86.38), Cu (38.22), Hg (0.11), Ni (37.67), Pb (43.95), and Zn (113.15) were greater than the corresponding background values. The concentrations of these 8 HMs significantly varied with site-specific distributions depending on nearby landscape patterns with decreasing order: agricultural soil around industrial > agricultural soil > fallow soil. Cd and Hg were found to be priority pollutants due to their greater accumulations in this study area. Combined analyses of principal component analysis and positive matrix factorization model addressed source apportionment of soil HMs. Industrial activities, parent materials, and agricultural and traffic activities were three major sources and their contributions were 35.56%, 35.20%, and 29.23%, respectively. The concentrations of soil As, Cd, Cr and Pb increased with time. This study elucidates how changes in land uses and time affect soil HMs and provides reasonable suggestions for the effective reduction of HM contamination in economically and industrially developed areas of China, and elsewhere.

9.
Innovation (N Y) ; 2(4): 100171, 2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778857

RESUMO

Although studies have investigated the associations between PM2.5 and mortality risk, evidence from rural areas is scarce. We aimed to compare the PM2.5-mortality associations between urban cities and rural areas in China. Daily mortality and air pollution data were collected from 215 locations during 2014-2017 in China. A two-stage approach was employed to estimate the location-specific and combined cumulative associations between short-term exposure to PM2.5 (lag 0-3 days) and mortality risks. The excess risks (ER) of all-cause, respiratory disease (RESP), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cerebrovascular disease (CED) mortality for each 10 µg/m3 increment in PM2.5 across all locations were 0.54% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38%, 0.70%), 0.51% (0.10%, 0.93%), 0.74% (0.50%, 0.97%), and 0.52% (0.20%, 0.83%), respectively. Slightly stronger associations for CVD (0.80% versus 0.60%) and CED (0.61% versus 0.26%) mortality were observed in urban cities than in rural areas, and slightly greater associations for RESP mortality (0.51% versus 0.43%) were found in rural areas than in urban cities. A mean of 2.11% (attributable fraction [AF], 95% CI: 1.48%, 2.76%) of all-cause mortality was attributable to PM2.5 exposure in China, with a larger AF in urban cities (2.89% [2.12%, 3.67%]) than in rural areas (0.61% [-0.60%, 1.84%]). Disparities in PM2.5-mortality associations between urban cities and rural areas were also found in some subgroups classified by sex and age. This study provided robust evidence on the associations of PM2.5 with mortality risks in China and demonstrated urban-rural disparities of PM2.5-mortality associations for various causes of death.

10.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(10): 211-213, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594851

RESUMO

Summary: What is already known on this topic? Clusters of COVID-19 cases often happened in small settings (e.g., families, offices, school, or workplaces) that facilitate person-to-person virus transmission, especially from a common exposure. What is added by this report? On January 10 and 11, 2021, an individual gave three product promotional lectures in Tonghua City, Jilin Province, that ultimately led to a 74-case cluster of COVID-19. Our investigation determined the outbreak to be an import-related COVID-19 superspreading cluster event in which elderly, retired people were exposed to the infected individual during his promotional lectures, which were delivered in a confined space and lasted several hours. What are the implications for public health practice? Routine activities, such as attending a lecture in a classroom, can provide an environment conducive to COVID-19 superspreading events because respiratory viruses can spread easily and widely. We suggest local government to strengthen infection control management, reduce unnecessary indoor large gathering activities, and promote wearing of masks, especially during wintertime in the north of China. Health education for elderly people should promote use of effective personal protection and emphasize the importance of wearing masks.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(41): 17292-17299, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613737

RESUMO

Crystal phase engineering of noble-metal-based alloy nanomaterials paves a new way to the rational synthesis of high-performance catalysts for various applications. However, the controlled preparation of noble-metal-based alloy nanomaterials with unconventional crystal phases still remains a great challenge due to their thermodynamically unstable nature. Herein, we develop a robust and general seeded method to synthesize PdCu alloy nanomaterials with unconventional hexagonal close-packed (hcp, 2H type) phase and also tunable Cu contents. Moreover, galvanic replacement of Cu by Pt can be further conducted to prepare unconventional trimetallic 2H-PdCuPt nanomaterials. Impressively, 2H-Pd67Cu33 nanoparticles possess a high mass activity of 0.87 A mg-1Pd at 0.9 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)) in electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under alkaline condition, which is 2.5 times that of the conventional face-centered cubic (fcc) Pd69Cu31 counterpart, revealing the important role of crystal phase on determining the ORR performance. After the incorporation of Pt, the obtained 2H-Pd71Cu22Pt7 catalyst shows a significantly enhanced mass activity of 1.92 A mg-1Pd+Pt at 0.9 V (vs RHE), which is 19.2 and 8.7 times those of commercial Pt/C and Pd/C, placing it among the best reported Pd-based ORR electrocatalysts under alkaline conditions.

13.
Cancer Manag Res ; 13: 7759-7769, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675671

RESUMO

Purpose: The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical value of the combined detection of soluble T cell immunoglobulinand mucin domain molecule 3 (sTim-3) and pepsinogen (PG) in sera for gastric cancer (GC) diagnosis. Patients and Methods: The double antibody sandwich method was used to establish a highly sensitive time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for the detection of sTim-3. Serum sTim-3, PGI, and PGII levels in 149 GC patients (123 first-diagnosis GC patients and 26 post-GC patients), 81 patients with benign gastric disease (BGD), and 73 healthy controls were quantitatively detected. The clinical diagnostic value of the combined detection of sTim-3 and PG in GC was analyzed. Results: Serum sTim-3 levels in GC (20.41 ± 9.55 ng/mL) and BGD (16.50 ± 9.76 ng/mL) patients were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those in healthy controls (9.22 ± 3.40 ng/mL). Combined detection of sTim-3 and PGI/PGII (AUC: 0.9330, sensitivity: 86.44%, and specificity: 91.78%) showed a high diagnostic value for GC. When the level of PGI/PGII was less than 12.11 and that of sTim-3 was greater than 14.30 ng/mL, the positive rate of the control group was reduced to 0%, and the positive detection rate of GC was 54.47%. In addition, in post-operative patients, serum sTim-3 levels in the recurrence group (33.56 ± 4.91 ng/mL) were significantly higher than those in the no recurrence group (11.95 ± 5.16 ng/mL). Conclusion: sTim-3 levels in BGD and GC sera were significantly higher than those in the control group sera. Additionally, sTim-3 serum levels can predict recurrence in post-operative patients. Compared with PG alone, the combined detection of serum PG and sTim-3 can significantly improve the detection sensitivity and specificity of BGD and GC.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151101, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688734

RESUMO

Phthalate pollution in plastic greenhouses (PGs) has aroused concerns. However, mechanisms and factors of vegetables planted in PGs (VPGs) accumulating phthalates from soil and air are unclear. To fill the gap, 19 PGs in Shaanxi, the largest vegetable production province in northwestern China, were selected to probe this issue. 35 soil samples, 48 air samples, and 26 VPG samples were collected in winter and summer. Medians of sum of 7 phthalate concentrations (∑7 PAEs) in PG soil, air, and VPGs were 73.9 µg kg-1, 5300 ng m-3, and 1053 µg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. ∑7 PAE concentrations in PG environmental media in winter were higher than summer, with the significant difference in VPGs. Sum concentrations of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) accounted for 76.8% and 82.3% of the ∑7 PAEs in soil and VPGs. DnBP and DEHP concentrations in VPGs were significantly correlated to those in air and soil, with correlation coefficients (R) of 0.89 and 0.96 to air and 0.68 and 0.59 to soil. Log-transformed soil-air partition coefficient (log KSA) and fugacity fraction (log ff) of DnBP decreased while log KSA and log ff of DEHP increased from winter to summer, though DnBP in soil volatilized to air while DEHP in air sank to soil within the year. These issues were caused by air temperature changes and the application of plastic films. Furthermore, DnBP concentrations in VPGs were positively correlated to KSA values of DnBP (R = 0.87) while those of DEHP were negative (R = -0.82). Therefore, VPGs could uptake more phthalates from air than from soil, especially for edible parts of leafy and solanaceous VPGs. Applying phthalates free agricultural films and precision management such as adjusting air temperature in PGs could be considered to ensure VPG safeties.

15.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 1521013, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512932

RESUMO

Background: Known as an autoimmune glomerular disease, idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is considered to be associated with phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) in terms of the main pathogenesis. The quantitative detection of serum PLA2R-IgG and PLA2R-IgG4 antibodies by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) was determined, and the value of them, both in the clinical prediction of risk stratification in IMN, was observed in this study. Methods: 95 patients with IMN proved by renal biopsy were enrolled, who had tested positive for serum PLA2R antibodies by ELISA, and the quantitative detection of serum PLA2R-IgG and PLA2R-IgG4 antibodies was achieved by TRFIA. All the patients were divided into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups, respectively, which were set as dependent variables, according to proteinuria and renal function. Random forest (RF) was used to estimate the value of serum PLA2R-IgG and PLA2R-IgG4 in predicting the risk stratification of progression in IMN. Results: Out-of-bag estimates of variable importance in RF were employed to evaluate the impact of each input variable on the final classification accuracy. The variable of albumin, PLA2R-IgG, and PLA2R-IgG4 had high values (>0.3) of 0.3156, 0.3981, and 0.7682, respectively, which meant that these three were more important for the risk stratification of progression in IMN. In order to further assess the contribution of PLA2R-IgG and PLA2R-IgG4 to the model, we built four different models and found that PLA2R-IgG4 played an important role in improving the predictive ability of the model. Conclusions: In this study, we established a random forest model to evaluate the value of serum PLA2R-IgG4 antibodies in predicting risk stratification of IMN. Compared with PLA2R-IgG, PLA2R-IgG4 is a more efficient biomarker in predicting the risk of progression in IMN.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite Membranosa , Receptores da Fosfolipase A2 , Biomarcadores , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Medição de Risco
16.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 107(6): 1070-1079, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542665

RESUMO

Previous studies on the impact of the mining of metal-bearing minerals on surrounding soil mainly focused on single or a few areas. However, these studies' results cannot provide effective making-support for soil pollution control in large-scale areas, especially in cross-provincial scale. This study first collected 78 literature before 2020 on soil heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) affected by the mining of metal-bearing minerals in Southwest China. Then, the geo-accumulation index, ecological risk, and health risk were assessed based on the extracted heavy metal data. Results showed that As, Cd, Hg, and Pb should be selected as the preferentially controlled heavy metals; Yunnan and Guizhou Provinces should be selected as the preferentially concerned areas; children should be given priority attention. The results provided more effective decision support for reducing heavy metal pollution in the areas affected by the mining of metal-bearing minerals in Southwest China.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Minerais , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
17.
Innovation (N Y) ; 2(1): 100072, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557729

RESUMO

Although numerous studies have investigated premature deaths attributable to temperature, effects of temperature on years of life lost (YLL) remain unclear. We estimated the relationship between temperatures and YLL, and quantified the YLL per death caused by temperature in China. We collected daily meteorological and mortality data, and calculated the daily YLL values for 364 locations (2013-2017 in Yunnan, Guangdong, Hunan, Zhejiang, and Jilin provinces, and 2006-2011 in other locations) in China. A time-series design with a distributed lag nonlinear model was first employed to estimate the location-specific associations between temperature and YLL rates (YLL/100,000 population), and a multivariate meta-analysis model was used to pool location-specific associations. Then, YLL per death caused by temperatures was calculated. The temperature and YLL rates consistently showed U-shaped associations. A mean of 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.67, 1.37) YLL per death was attributable to temperature. Cold temperature caused 0.98 YLL per death with most from moderate cold (0.84). The mean YLL per death was higher in those with cardiovascular diseases (1.14), males (1.15), younger age categories (1.31 in people aged 65-74 years), and in central China (1.34) than in those with respiratory diseases (0.47), females (0.87), older people (0.85 in people ≥75 years old), and northern China (0.64) or southern China (1.19). The mortality burden was modified by annual temperature and temperature variability, relative humidity, latitude, longitude, altitude, education attainment, and central heating use. Temperatures caused substantial YLL per death in China, which was modified by demographic and regional characteristics.

18.
Anal Biochem ; 631: 114359, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473955

RESUMO

AIM: To establish a highly sensitive time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay of heparin-binding protein (HBP-TRFIA) and evaluate its application value for bacterial or fungal infections in tumor patients. METHODS: Two types of HBP monoclonal specific antibodies against different epitopes of the antigen molecule were used as coating antibodies and Eu3+-labeled antibodies, respectively. The double-antibody sandwich method was used in establishing HBP-TRFIA, and the methodology was evaluated. The established HBP-TRFIA was used in detecting HBP concentration in the plasma samples of healthy individuals, patients with bacterial or fungal infections, and infected or uninfected patients with various types of tumors. RESULTS: The linear range of HBP-TRFIA was (0.11-530 ng/mL). Plasma HBP concentrations detected through HBP-TRFIA were consistent with the results of fluorescence quantitative immunochromatography (ρ = 0.964). The plasma HBP concentrations of infected tumor patients were significantly higher than those of uninfected tumor patients (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study successfully established a highly sensitive HBP-TRFIA, which was highly comparable to commercially available fluorescent quantitative immunochromatographic kits and was able to facilitate the timely diagnosis of bacterial or fungal infections in patients with tumor.

19.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357875

RESUMO

Deep-learning-based soft sensors have been extensively developed for predicting key quality or performance variables in industrial processes. However, most approaches assume that data are uniformly sampled while the multiple variables are often acquired at different rates in practical processes. This article designed a progressive transfer strategy, based on which a variational progressive-transfer network (VPTN) method is proposed for the soft sensor development of industrial multirate processes. In VPTN, the multirate data are first separated into multiple data chunks where the variables within each chunk are acquired at a uniform rate. Then, a variational multichunk data modeling framework is developed to model the multiple chunks in a unified fashion through deep variational structures. The base models, including the unsupervised ones with only partial process variables and the supervised soft sensor model share a similar network structure, such that the subsequent transfer strategy can be readily implemented. Finally, a progressive transfer learning strategy is designed to transfer the model parameters from the fastest sampled data chunk to the slowest one in a progressive manner. Thus, the knowledge from various data chunks can be sequentially explored and transferred to enhance the performance of the terminal soft sensor model. Case studies on both a debutanizer column dataset and a real coal mill dataset in a thermal power plant validate the performance of the proposed method.

20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(9): 4414-4421, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414741

RESUMO

Metal mining is one of the main contributors of soil heavy metals. Previous studies examining the impact of metal mining on surrounding soil have mainly focused on one or a few metal mining areas. However, such studies cannot effectively inform the management of heavy metal pollution in soil at an inter-provincial scale. As part of this study, literature was collected on soil heavy metals (i.e., As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) affected by metal mining in regions of Southwest China (i.e., Yunnan Province, Sichuan Province, Guizhou Province, Chongqing Municipality, and Tibet Autonomous Region); Next, the impact of metal mining on the soil concentrations of these metals was quantified through meta-analysis, and the relationships between the selected factors (i.e., different sub-regions, metal minerals, and land-use types) and soil heavy metal concentrations were explored. Finally, the literature data was tested for publication bias. The results showed that metal mining in Southwest China has significantly increased the concentrations of heavy metals in topsoil. The different metals were ranked according to their weight effect sizes (ES+) in the following order Cd > Pb > Hg > Zn > As > Cu > Ni > Cr. Metal mining in both Sichuan and Yunnan led to higher effect sizes of soil Cd (ES+Sichuan=4.16, ES+Yunnan=3.20) and Pb (ES+Sichuan=3.47, ES+Yunnan=2.54) than those of the other heavy metals, while metal mining in Guizhou led to a higher effect size of soil Hg (ES+=2.80). The effect size of metal mining on soil heavy metals was higher in cultivated soil (ES+=1.42) than in forested soil (ES+=0.50). The mining of lead-zinc and tin significantly increased the concentrations of soil Cd, Pb, and Zn, and the mining of copper significantly increased the concentrations of soil Cu, Cd, and Pb. Of the investigated soil heavy metals in Southwest China, Pb and Zn showed slight potential publication biases (P<0.05). The above results can provide more effective information for the environmental protection of soil in metal mining areas of Southwest China.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
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