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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150210, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534871

RESUMO

As more and more countries have prohibited the manufacture and sale of plastic products with bisphenol A (BPA), a number of bisphenol analogues (BPs), including BPS, BPF and BPAF, have gradually been used as its primary substitutes. Ideally, substitutes used to replace chemicals with environmental risks should be inert, so it makes sense that the risk of the similar chemical substitutes (BPS, BPF, and BPAF) should be assessed before they used. Therefore, in the present study, the neurotoxicity of four BPs at environmentally relevant concentration (200 µg/L) were systematically compared using zebrafish as a model. Our results showed that the four BPs (BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF) exhibited no obvious effect on the hatchability, survival rate and body length of zebrafish larvae, noteworthily a significant inhibitory effect on spontaneous movement at 24 hpf was observed in the BPA, BPF and BPAF treatment groups. Behavioral tests showed that BPAF, BPF and BPA exposure significantly reduced the locomotor activity of the larvae. Additionally, BPAF treatment adversely affected motor neuron axon length in transgenic lines hb9-GFP zebrafish and decreased central nervous system (CNS) neurogenesis in transgenic lines HuC-GFP zebrafish. Intriguingly, BPAF displayed the strongest effects on the levels and metabolism of neurotransmitters, followed by BPF and BPA, while BPS showed the weakest effects on neurotransmitters. In conclusion, our study deciphered that environmentally relevant concentrations of BPs exposure exhibited differential degrees of neurotoxicity, which ranked as below: BPAF > BPF ≈ BPA > BPS. The possible mechanisms can be partially ascribed to the dramatical changes of multiple neurotransmitters and the inhibitory effects on neuronal development. These results suggest that BPAF and BPF should be carefully considered as alternatives to BPA.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Larva , Fenóis/toxicidade
2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 191: 1087-1095, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600953

RESUMO

Due to its low molecular weight and abundant functional groups, water-soluble lignin (WSL) is considered as a more potent antioxidant than traditional industrial lignin in biofields. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate its intracellular and endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging ability, especially for the intervention of ROS-related disease in vivo. In this work, WSL in bamboo autohydrolysate (WSL-BM) and wheat stalk autohydrolysate (WSL-WS) were isolated and characterized to comparably analyze their bioactivities. The composition analysis and NMR characterization showed that both WSL-BM and WSL-WS contained relatively similar components and substructures, but WSL-BM contained higher contents of phenolic OH groups. Both WSL samples exhibited excellent biocompatibility with the concentration below 50 µg/mL, while WSL-BM exhibited superior ROS-scavenging ability and ROS-related ulcerative colitis treatment potential at same concentration. In addition, WSL-BM also showed better performance in ameliorating inflammation and oxidative stress in RAW 264.7 cells and colitis mice by activating Nrf2 and suppressing NFκB signaling, resulting in an overall improvement in both macroscopic and histological parameters. Overall, these results implied that WSL from gramineous biomass can be used as a novel anti-inflammatory and antioxidative agent in the biomedical field.

3.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679774

RESUMO

Lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCCs) from different lignocellulosic biomass have shown biological qualities as antioxidant and immunostimulant. By contrast, the application of LCCs as protectant against neurotoxicity caused by different compounds is scarce. In this work, two kinds of LCCs with carbohydrate-rich and lignin-rich fractions were obtained from wheat stalk and used to protect against BPA-neurotoxicity in zebrafish. The results showed that BPA at a concentration of 500 µg/L results in neurotoxicity, including significant behavioral inhibition, and prevents the expression of central nervous system proteins in transgenic zebrafish models (Tg (HuC-GFP)). When the zebrafish was treated by LCCs, the reactive oxygen species of zebrafish decreased significantly with the change of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation, which was due to the LCCs' ability to suppress the mRNA expression level of key genes related to nerves. This is essential in view of the neurotoxicity of BPA through oxidative stress. In addition, BPA exposure had negative effects on the exercise behavior, the catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and the larval development and gene expression of zebrafish larvae, and LCC preparations could recover these negative effects by reducing oxidative stress. In zebrafish treated with BPA, carbohydrate-rich LCCs showed stronger antioxidant activity than lignin-rich LCCs, showing their potential as a neuroprotective agents.

4.
Bioresour Technol ; 342: 125955, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547709

RESUMO

A promising approach for production of value-added xylooligosaccharides (XOS) from poplar was developed by combining hydrothermal pretreatment and endo-xylanase post-hydrolysis. Results showed that the 35.4% XOS (DP 2-6) and 17.6% low DP xylans (DP > 6) were obtained at the identified optimal condition (170 °C, 50 min) for hydrothermal pretreatment. Structural features of low DP xylans generated during the hydrothermal pretreatment were examined, revealing that low DP xylans are mainly comprised of 4-O-methylglucuronic xylan and are involved in lignin carbohydrate complexes. Moreover, higher pretreatment intensity promoted the cleavage of side-chain substituents including arabinose and glucuronic acid groups. The subsequent endo-xylanase hydrolysis of the pretreatment liquor hydrolyzed low DP xylans, contributing to a significant improvement in xylobiose and xylotriose proportions. This combined strategy resulted in a XOS with conversion yield of 44.6% containing 78.7% xylobiose and xylotriose starting from the initial xylan in raw poplar.

5.
Bioresour Technol ; 342: 125983, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592616

RESUMO

The addition of various metallic chlorides in pretreatment of lignocellulose have been widely reported to improve cellulose conversion via cellulolytic processing. However, the interaction mechanism between lignin and metallic cations is not well known. In this work, pretreatment with different concentrations of FeCl3 and AlCl3 were performed upon waste wheat straw to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. Results showed that pretreatment with FeCl3 and AlCl3 could facilitate the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency increasing from 50.4% to 82.9% and 76.6%, which was attributed to the enhancement of xylan removal by 33.8% (FeCl3) and 36.5% (AlCl3), respectively. Meanwhile, the surface charge, hydrophobicity, and protein adsorption capacity of lignin from waste wheat straw can be decreased by 3.3 mV, 0.6 L/g, 7.6 mg/g (FeCl3). This was due to the depolymerization of lignin in metallic chlorides pretreatment. These findings will be used to further evaluate the effect of metallic chlorides in biorefinery pretreatment.

6.
Biotechnol Adv ; : 107830, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480987

RESUMO

Bioconversion of renewable lignocellulosics to produce liquid fuels and chemicals is one of the most effective ways to solve the problem of fossil resource shortage, energy security, and environmental challenges. Among the many biorefinery pathways, hydrolysis of lignocellulosics to fermentable monosaccharides by cellulase is arguably the most critical step of lignocellulose bioconversion. In the process of enzymatic hydrolysis, the direct physical contact between enzymes and cellulose is an essential prerequisite for the hydrolysis to occur. However, lignin is considered one of the most recalcitrant factors hindering the accessibility of cellulose by binding to cellulase unproductively, which reduces the saccharification rate and yield of sugars. This results in high costs for the saccharification of carbohydrates. The various interactions between enzymes and lignin have been explored from different perspectives in literature, and a basic lignin inhibition mechanism has been proposed. However, the exact interaction between lignin and enzyme as well as the recently reported promotion of some types of lignin on enzymatic hydrolysis is still unclear at the molecular level. Multiple analytical techniques have been developed, and fully unlocking the secret of lignin-enzyme interactions would require a continuous improvement of the currently available analytical techniques. This review summarizes the current commonly used advanced research analytical techniques for investigating the interaction between lignin and enzyme, including quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy (FLS), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Interdisciplinary integration of these analytical methods is pursued to provide new insight into the interactions between lignin and enzymes. This review will serve as a resource for future research seeking to develop new methodologies for a better understanding of the basic mechanism of lignin-enzyme binding during the critical hydrolysis process.

7.
J Poult Sci ; 58(3): 147-153, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447278

RESUMO

Herein, we assessed the impact of dietary addition of konjac mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the growth, intestinal morphology, serum immune status, and oxidative status in Partridge Shank chickens. For the experiment, one-day-old chicks (n=192) were randomized into six replicates (n=8/replicate) and fed four different diets: a basal diet containing 0 (Control group), 0.5, 1, or 1.5 g MOS per kg of diet (g/kg) for 50 d. Relative to the control, the group fed 0.5 g/kg MOS decreased feed consumption from 22nd to 50th d and 1st to 50th d (P<0.05). By adding MOS, the height of the intestinal villus and the villus height to crypt depth ratio were increased (P<0.05); 1.5 g/kg MOS was the best dosage for these parameters. Jejunal and ileal goblet cell density increased following MOS supplementation at 21 d (P<0.01) and 50 d in the jejunum (P<0.05), respectively. Moreover, adding MOS to the diet increased the contents of IgA and IgM at 21 d (P<0.05) and total antioxidant capacity (P<0.05) at 50 d in the serum but decreased malondialdehyde content (P<0.01) at 21 d in the group fed 0.5 and 1.5 g/kg MOS. The findings suggested that MOS supplementation could affect feed consumption, intestinal health, serous immunity, and antioxidant capacity of Partridge Shank chickens.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 188: 343-349, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389382

RESUMO

Biological activity of incomplete degradation products of polygalacturonic acid (IDPP) is closely related to its molecular weight and molecular weight distribution. Therefore, it is necessary to provide a reliable quantitative characterization method for evaluating these types of bioproducts. A novel method was established in this work for the quantitative characterization of IDPP based upon ethanol fractional precipitation. IDPP was fractionated into several fractions with high recovery (>95%), and the average molecular weights of each fraction was in descending order with the increase of ethanol concentration. Oligosaccharides (polymerization degree: 2-20) could be effectively harvested from the polygalacturonic acid enzymatic hydrolysate by ethanol precipitation. Moreover, the developed method had good repeatability and could also be applied to quantify enzymatic hydrolysis products of citrus-derived pectin polysaccharides. In conclusion, this paper provides a simple, accurate method for the quantitative characterization of IDPP and a strategy for the extraction of oligosaccharides.

9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 188: 350-358, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389383

RESUMO

Sesbania cannabina galactomannan (2%) solutions added with strongly hydrated ions (Na2CO3, NaH2PO4, NaCl) and weakly hydrated ions (NaNO3) at different ionic strengths were rheologically characterized. The four selected salts dramatically decreased the intrinsic viscosity of galactomannan solution in the following order of effectiveness: Na2CO3 < NaH2PO4 < NaCl < NaNO3. This conforms effectively to the Hofmeister anion series. Moreover, salt addition increased the viscosity of galactomannan solution when the ionic strength was 1 mmol/kg, which related to an increased occurrence of intermolecular interactions. As increasing ionic strength, galactomannan chains may tend to contract or expand due to the presence of strongly or weakly hydrated ions, thereby decreasing the viscosity. These phenomena were demonstrated by zeta potential measurement and again observed in dynamic viscoelasticity measurement. Overall, this property can be used to manipulate the rheological properties of galactomannan in food gums to obtain gums of high quality for enhancing consumer goods.

10.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125757, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411942

RESUMO

Glycolic acid has chemical properties similar to those of formic acid. Therefore, similar to formic acid pretreatment, glycolic acid pretreatment has the separation effect of hemicellulose. In this study, eucalyptus hemicellulose was effectively separated by glycolic acid pretreatment. The effects of glycolic acid concentration, temperature and time on the separation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin were investigated. The optimum conditions were acid concentration 5.40%, temperature 140 °C, time 3.0 h. The highest yield of xylose was 56.72%. The recovery rate of glycolic acid was 91%. Compared to formic acid, the yield of xylose increased to 10.33% while that of lignin decreased to 11.08%. It showed high selectivity for hemicellulose separation, yielding 65.48% hemicellulose with 72.08% purity. The depolymerization and repolymerization of lignin were inhibited. The integrity of the cellulose structure was preserved. It provides theoretical support for the fractional separation and high-value transformation of lignocellulosic biomass.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Biomassa , Glicolatos , Hidrólise , Lignina , Polissacarídeos
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125787, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419877

RESUMO

Full utilization of lignocellulose is critical for its biorefinery development. In this study, a sustainable biorefinery process based upon poplar sawdust was established using sequential hydrothermal and deep eutectic solvent treatment (HP-DES). Results showed that single hydrothermal pretreatment (HP) could produce 53.2% xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) (based on raw xylan), while the enzymatic digestibility was low. Conversely, single DES treatment achieved effective enzymatic digestibility but low XOS yields. As compared to HP, both DES treatment and HP-DES showed high selectivity for lignin removal and high glucose yield. Surprisingly, most of HP-DES residues had obviously lower enzymatic digestibilities than those of single DES residues. This was mainly explained by the differences of the surface lignin contents between DES and HP-DES residues. Moreover, nearly complete enzymatic hydrolysis of HP-DES residues was achieved with the addition of bovine serum albumin. This work demonstrated this HP-DES yielded XOS, fermentable sugar, and pure lignin with high processibility.


Assuntos
Lignina , Populus , Hidrólise , Oligossacarídeos , Solventes , Xilanos
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 190: 291-300, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461157

RESUMO

Due to the antioxidant properties of lignin, it has been demonstrated as an active substance for treating oxidation-related and inflammatory diseases. However, how the structural properties of lignin affect its biological activities is still ambiguous. In this study, Kraft lignin from wheat straw (KL-A) was used as the raw material to fractionate into three fractions (e.g., KL-B, KL-C, and KL-D) with different molecular weight by ultrafiltration, which possessed different physicochemical properties. The biocompatibility, in vivo and in vitro scavenging abilities for reactive oxygen species (ROS), and anti-apoptotic abilities of the lignin fractions were evaluated using SW1353 chondrocyte cell lines and were quantitatively fitted to their physicochemical properties. The results showed that lignin fractions with lower molecular weights, lower G/S ratios, and higher non-condensed phenolic OH contents endowed lignin with stronger ROS scavenging ability in vivo and in vitro, but was accompanied by increased cytotoxicity to cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of KL-A, KL-B, KL-C, and KL-D were separately determined as 44.02, 33.43, 32.41, and 18.40 µg/mL. Furthermore, KL-D, with the lowest molecular weight and highest number of functional groups, showed the best antioxidant ability, while it performed poorly in inhibiting cellular apoptosis of chondrocytes. Compared to KL-D, KL-C with inverse structural properties, performed better in anti-apoptosis of SW1353 cells, which is the optimum lignin as promising active substances to be applied in the treatment of osteoarthritis in biomedical engineering.

13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 270: 118328, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364591

RESUMO

Here, biomimetic dual esterification strategy was proposed on natural polysaccharides cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and galactomannan (GM) in combination with tartaric acid (TA) and benzoic anhydride (BA) respectively. Evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) formed the oriented quasinematic structure of the nanocomposites membranes. The CNCs crystallites were modified by TA and intercalated by amorphous polysaccharides, building a complex supramolecular network. Thus, it presents excellent light scattering property with the optical haze of ~90%, which was rarely reported previously. TA and BA simultaneously contributed to satisfying UV adsorption capability for the membranes, showing almost whole-spectra UVA/UVB blocking. Super high mechanical strength (>150 MPa) and toughness (~8 kJ/m3) were revealed by the membranes with high addition amount of BA, together with the efficient antibacterial capability on both Gram-positive and negative bacteria. The diverse optical, mechanical and biological functions displayed by the polysaccharides membranes, propose new horizons on application for packaging, optoelectronic and biomonitoring sensors.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Benzoatos/química , Celulose/química , Galactose/análogos & derivados , Mananas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Tartaratos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Esterificação , Galactose/química , Galactose/farmacologia , Mananas/farmacologia , Nanocompostos/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Tartaratos/farmacologia , Resistência à Tração , Raios Ultravioleta
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 270: 118342, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364595

RESUMO

The naturally tight entanglement of fibers in bacterial cellulose (BC) results in low printability when BC is used as a bioink for printing scaffolds. In this study, neat BC was treated by TEMPO-mediated oxidation (TO-BC) and maleic acid (MA-BC) to prepare homogeneous BC dispersions to fabricate scaffolds for bone regeneration. Results showed that the treatments released individual fibrils in the corresponding uniform dispersions without impairing inherent crystalline properties. Compared with TO-BC, MA-BC hybridized with gelatin could endow the gel with improved rheological properties and compression modulus for 3D printing. Both TO-BC and MA-BC dispersions showed good osteoblast viability. However, MA-BC possessed more pronounced ability to express osteogenic marker genes and formation of mineralized nodules in vitro. Compared with TO-BC-based gelatin scaffolds, MA-BC-based gelatin scaffolds showed a better ability to stimulate the regeneration of rat calvaria, demonstrating a higher bone mineral density of newly formed bone and trabecular thickness in vivo.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Celulose/química , Gelatina/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Impressão Tridimensional , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/química , Hidrogéis/química , Hidrólise , Maleatos/química , Camundongos , Nanofibras/química , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Oxirredução , Ratos , Crânio/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
15.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101296, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237545

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of incomplete degradation products of galactomannan (IDPG) on the production performance, egg quality, plasma parameters, and lipid metabolites of laying hens. A total of 288 laying hens were allocated into 4 treatments and fed diets supplemented with 0%, 0.01%, 0.025%, and 0.05% IDPG. Results showed that IDPG supplementation significantly increases egg production and decreases feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05). Eggs laid by hens receiving IDPG exhibited higher eggshell strength (P < 0.05). Moreover, IDPG supplementation significantly increased the serum albumin content, and decreased the blood ammonia content as well as triglyceride levels in serum and liver (P < 0.05). Overall, IDPG can be considered as an effective feed additive due to its capacity of improving egg production, increasing plasma protein, and changing lipid metabolism of laying hens.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ovos , Feminino , Lipídeos , Mananas , Óvulo
16.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 14(1): 143, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the dilute acid pretreatment process, the resulting pseudo-lignin and lignin droplets deposited on the surface of lignocellulose and inhibit the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose in lignocellulose. However, how these lignins interact with cellulase enzymes and then affect enzymatic hydrolysis is still unknown. In this work, different fractions of surface lignin (SL) obtained from dilute acid-pretreated bamboo residues (DAP-BR) were extracted by various organic reagents and the residual lignin in extracted DAP-BR was obtained by the milled wood lignin (MWL) method. All of the lignin fractions obtained from DAP-BR were used to investigate the mechanism for interaction between lignin and cellulase using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology to understand how they affect enzymatic hydrolysis RESULTS: The results showed that removing surface lignin significantly decreased the yield for enzymatic hydrolysis DAP-BR from 36.5% to 18.6%. The addition of MWL samples to Avicel inhibited its enzymatic hydrolysis, while different SL samples showed slight increases in enzymatic digestibility. Due to the higher molecular weight and hydrophobicity of MWL samples versus SL samples, a stronger affinity for MWL (KD = 6.8-24.7 nM) was found versus that of SL (KD = 39.4-52.6 nM) by SPR analysis. The affinity constants of all tested lignins exhibited good correlations (r > 0.6) with the effects on enzymatic digestibility of extracted DAP-BR and Avicel. CONCLUSIONS: This work revealed that the surface lignin on DAP-BR is necessary for maintaining enzyme digestibility levels, and its removal has a negative impact on substrate digestibility.

17.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 255: 119730, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794421

RESUMO

Two Schiff-base fluorescent probes (1 and 2) were directly synthesized from natural cinnamaldehyde, and they were characterized by FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR, HRMS. Compound 1 had no fluorescence, while compound 2 could emit significant yellow fluorescence in solid and provide green light in solution. Probe 1 could selectively sense ClO- with a fluorescence enhancement, providing a good linear relationship between the fluoresence intensity and ClO- concentrations (0-5.5 × 10-5 mol/L), y = 175.64x-19.399, R2 = 0.9937, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 39.4 nM. Probe 2 was sensitive for Cu2+ by quenching with two linear relationships at the Cu2+ concentrations from 0 to 2.1 × 10-5 mol/L, LOD = 73.9 nM. Furthermore, live celluar imaging of human astrocytoma U-251 MG cells and human liver cancer cells (Hu-7) had achieved using the 1 + ClO- and 2, offering clear intracellular fluorescence. Finally, the 1 + ClO- and 2 could also be used to dye bamboo tissues for a good use. Thus, the cinnamaldehyde derivatives could be further used in the field of celluar and bamboo imaging.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Bases de Schiff , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Imagem Óptica , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 333: 125122, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878500

RESUMO

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have received considerable interests as pretreatment solvents for biorefinery. In the present work, five kinds of dicarboxylic acids based DESs were introduced to pretreatments on moso bamboo (MB) with microwave irradiation assistance. Factors influencing the enzymatic conversion of MB cellulose to glucose were determined. With the fast heating, pretreated samples all present significant delignification and hemicelluloses matrix removal, thus improving the enzymatic conversion yield from 15% of MB to ~60%. For the DESs, hydrogen donors with less carbon atoms (oxalic acid) and more hydroxyl groups (tartaric acid) displayed higher efficiency due to separation of aggregated cellulose microfibrils. The microwave assisted DESs (MW-DESs) pretreatments also contributed to cellulose crystal variations including decrystallization and more exposure of hydrophobic surfaces, which are beneficial for followed cellulase adsorption and hydrolysis. The exploration of fast MW-DESs pretreatments may expand the potentials of lignocellulose biomass on effective and applicable biorefinery.


Assuntos
Celulose , Micro-Ondas , Biomassa , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos , Hidrólise , Lignina , Solventes
19.
Carbohydr Polym ; 261: 117833, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766336

RESUMO

Seleno-polysaccharides have become a major topic for research owing to their high anti-oxidative capacity and immune-enhancing activities. In this study, galactomannan (GM) was isolated from Sesbania cannabina, and next modified using HNO3-Na2SeO3 method to obtain six varieties of seleno-galactomannans (SeGMs). FT-IR and GPC results showed the changes in chemical structure of SeGMs, indicating successful combination of selenium and GM. By measuring superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde, the SeGMs showed a stronger protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in vitro than unmodified GM using macrophage RAW264.7 cell as a model, and the effect of SeGMs-14 was prominent. However, the selenylation modification did not show any obvious effect on the immunomodulatory activity of GM, as determined by the index of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1ß. Overall, the prepared SeGMs from galactomannan could potentially serve as a dietary supplement of Se or an organic antioxidant.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mananas/farmacologia , Compostos de Selênio/farmacologia , Sesbania/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Mananas/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Compostos de Selênio/isolamento & purificação
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(6): 7600-7607, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538573

RESUMO

Interaction of the conjugated structure in melanin contributed to photothermal conversion. Inspired by this, here, we first demonstrated that lignin nanoparticles (L-NPs) can carry out photothermal conversion, which was attributed to π-π stacking of lignin molecules. Lignin can be readily converted into L-NPs, using the self-assembly method at room temperature. L-NPs showed a stable photothermal effect (22%). The L-NPs were successfully used to power a thermoelectric generator and drive a solar steam generation device under standard 1 sun irradiation (100 mW/cm2). Because thermoelectric generators and solar steam generation technologies have huge potential for energy generation and water purification, the as-prepared L-NPs are expected to provide an important contribution to sustainable energy and clean water production.

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