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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040293


Graphene has been applied to thermal technology including boiling and condensation heat transfer, from which the pool boiling enhancement relies on adjusting the surface morphology and wettability that is favorable to catalyze the vaporization on the fluid/graphene interface. However, previous works using graphene or reduced graphene oxide (RGO) flake coatings, where the morphology of graphene coating is nonuniform and most of the underlying structured cavities are sealed by graphene flakes. For a long time, this hampered the unraveling of the mechanism behind the enhanced boiling performance by graphene coatings. Moreover, the previous work relied on using water-based pool boiling, which limits the scope of its practical applications since the versatile nonpolar refrigerant has been widely used in boiling heat transfer. The pool boiling was carried out on a plain copper surface to study the effect of fluorinated graphene (F-graphene) coating using nonpolar refrigerant R-141b as the working fluid along with bubble dynamic visualization. It was found that the increase of contact angle leads to more active cavities and enhances heat transfer performance up to twice as much, by applying the F-graphene coating. Moreover, the mechanism of graphene-enhanced heat transfer performance was unraveled and mainly attributed to the hydrophobic surface and effective cavity structure. This research provides a practical and reliable route for enhancing the heat transfer through F-graphene-coatings, which paves the way for potential application in graphene-based thermal technologies.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(50): 47289-47298, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746197


Development of n-/p-type semiconducting graphenes is a critical route to implement in graphene-based nanoelectronics and optronics. Compared to the p-type graphene, the n-type graphene is more difficult to be prepared. Recently, phosphorous doping was reported to achieve air-stable and high mobility of n-typed graphene. The phosphorous-doped graphene (P-Gra) by ion implantation is considered as an ideal method for tailoring graphene due to its IC compatible process; however, for a conventional ion implanter, the acceleration energy is in the order of kiloelectron volts (keV), thus severely destroys the sp2 bonding of graphene owing to its high energy of accelerated ions. The introduced defects, therefore, degrade the electrical performance of graphene. Here, for the first time, we report a low-damage n-typed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene by an industrial-compatible ion implanter with an energy of 20 keV where the designed protection layer (thin Au film) covered on as-grown CVD graphene is employed to efficiently reduce defect formation. The additional post-annealing is found to heal the crystal defects of graphene. Moreover, this method allows transferring ultraclean and residue-free P-Gra onto versatile target substrates directly. The doping configuration, crystallinity, and electrical properties on P-Gra were comprehensively studied. The results indicate that the low-damaged P-Gra with a controllable doping concentration of up to 4.22 at % was achieved, which is the highest concentration ever recorded. The doped graphenes with tunable work functions (4.85-4.15 eV) and stable n-type doping while keeping high-carrier mobility are realized. This work contributes to the proof-of-concept for tailoring graphene or 2D materials through doping with an exceptional low defect density by the low energy ion implantation, suggesting a great potential for unconventional doping technologies for next-generation 2D-based nanoelectronics.

Nanotechnology ; 30(44): 445702, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349243


In this study, we demonstrated the integration of black phosphorus (BP) nanoflakes in a resistive random access memory (RRAM) with a facile and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible process. The solution-processed BP nanoflakes embedded in polystyrene (PS) as an active layer were sandwiched between aluminum electrodes (Al/BP:PS/Al). The device shows a figure of merit with typical bipolar behavior and forming-free characteristics as well as excellent memory performances such as nonvolatile, low operation voltage (1.75 V) and high ON/OFF ratio (>102) as well as the long retention time (>1500 s). The improved device performances were attributed to the formation of effective trap sites from the hybrid structure of the active layer (BP:PS), especially the BP nanoflakes and the partly oxidized species (P x O y ). Moreover, the extrinsic aluminum oxide layer was observed after the device operation. The mechanism of switching behavior was further unveiled through the carrier transport models, which confirms the conductive mechanisms of space-charge-limited current and Ohmic conductance at high resistance state (HRS) and low resistance state, respectively. Additionally, in the high electric field at HRS, the transfer curve was well fitted with the Poole-Frenkel emission model, which could be attributed to the formation of the aluminum oxide layer. Accordingly, both the trapping/de-trapping of carriers and the formation/rupture of conductive filaments were introduced as transport mechanisms in our devices. Although the partial P x O y species on BP were inevitable during the liquid phase exfoliation process, which was regarded as the disadvantages for various applications, it turns to a key point for improving performances in memory devices. The proposed approach to integrating BP nanoflakes in the active layer of the RRAM device could pave the way for next-generation memory devices.

Nanoscale ; 10(26): 12612-12624, 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942963


Graphene is impermeable to all molecules and has high chemical stability, which makes it an excellent anticorrosion coating for metals. However, current studies have indicated that galvanic coupling between graphene and a metal actually accelerates corrosion at the interface. Due to the insulating nature of polymers, graphene-polymer composite coatings with a strong interaction between the filler and the polymer matrix are an alternative means of addressing this issue. Nevertheless, such coatings require well-dispersed graphene flakes to lengthen the diffusion paths of gases or liquids, while preventing the formation of a conducting network from graphene to the metal. The difficulty in preparing such coatings was mainly due to problems with the control of the assembled phase during interfacial reactions. Herein, the interactions between the filler and the polymer were found to be a key factor governing anticorrosion performance, which has scarcely been previously reported. The advantage of graphene as a filler in anticorrosion coatings lies in its dispersibility and miscibility with both the casting solvent and the polymer. Electrochemically exfoliated graphene (EC-graphene) with appropriate surface functionalities that allow high miscibility with waterborne polyurethane (PU) and hydrophobic epoxy has been found to be an ideal filler that outperforms other graphene materials such as graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Furthermore, a bilayer coating with EC-graphene additives for PU over epoxy has been found to reduce the corrosion rate (CR) to 1.81 × 10-5 mm per year. With a graphene loading of less than 1%, this represents the lowest CR ever achieved for copper and steel substrates and a diffusion coefficient that is lower by a factor of nearly 2.2 than that of the pristine polymer. Furthermore, we have shown that by controlling the amount of graphene loaded in the polymer galvanic corrosion favored by the formation of an interconnected graphene percolation network can successfully be limited. The present study, together with a facile and eco-friendly method of nanocomposite synthesis, may pave the way toward practical applications in the development of graphene-based anticorrosion coatings.

Nanoscale ; 8(6): 3555-64, 2016 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26805513


In this work, we fabricate ultra-large suspended graphene membranes, where stacks of a few layers of graphene could be suspended over a circular hole with a diameter of up to 1.5 mm, with a diameter to thickness aspect ratio of 3 × 10(5), which is the record for free-standing graphene membranes. The process is based on large crystalline graphene (∼55 µm) obtained using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, followed by a gradual solvent replacement technique. Combining a hydrogen bubbling transfer approach with thermal annealing to reduce polymer residue results in an extremely clean surface, where the ultra-large suspended graphene retains the intrinsic features of graphene, including phonon response and an enhanced carrier mobility (200% higher than that of graphene on a substrate). The highly elastic mechanical properties of the graphene membrane are demonstrated, and the Q-factor under 2 MHz stimulation is measured to be 200-300. A graphene-based capacitive pressure sensor is fabricated, where it shows a linear response and a high sensitivity of 15.15 aF Pa(-1), which is 770% higher than that of frequently used silicon-based membranes. The reported approach is universal, which could be employed to fabricate other suspended 2D materials with macro-scale sizes on versatile support substrates, such as arrays of Si nano-pillars and deep trenches.

J Periodontol ; 82(3): 489-96, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20936917


BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to analyze biomechanical interactions in the alveolar bone surrounding implants with smaller-diameter abutments by changing position of the fixture-abutment interface, loading direction, and thickness of cortical bone using the finite element method. METHODS: Twenty different finite element models including four types of cortical bone thickness (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mm) and five implant positions relative to bone crest (subcrestal 1, implant shoulder 1 mm below bone crest; subcrestal 0.5, implant shoulder 0.5 mm below bone crest; at crestal implant shoulder even with bone crest; supracrestal 0.5, implant shoulder 0.5 mm above bone crest; and supracrestal 1, implant shoulder 1 mm above bone crest) were analyzed. All models were simulated under two different loading angles (0 and 45 degrees) relative to the long axis of the implant, respectively. The three factors of implant position, loading type, and thickness of cortical bone were computed for all models. RESULTS: The results revealed that loading type and implant position were the main factors affecting the stress distribution in bone. The stress values of implants in the supracrestal 1 position were higher than all other implant positions. Additionally, compared with models under axial load, the stress values of models under off-axis load increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Both loading type and implant position were crucial for stress distribution in bone. The supracrestal 1 implant position may not be ideal to avoid overloading the alveolar bone surrounding implants.

Processo Alveolar/fisiologia , Dente Suporte , Implantes Dentários , Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Análise de Variância , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Densidade Óssea , Força Compressiva , Análise do Estresse Dentário/métodos , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Mandíbula , Modelos Biológicos , Dente Molar , Estresse Mecânico , Suporte de Carga