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1.
Nature ; 574(7777): 249-253, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578523

RESUMO

The integrity of the mammalian epidermis depends on a balance of proliferation and differentiation in the resident population of stem cells1. The kinase RIPK4 and the transcription factor IRF6 are mutated in severe developmental syndromes in humans, and mice lacking these genes display epidermal hyperproliferation and soft-tissue fusions that result in neonatal lethality2-5. Our understanding of how these genes control epidermal differentiation is incomplete. Here we show that the role of RIPK4 in mouse development requires its kinase activity; that RIPK4 and IRF6 expressed in the epidermis regulate the same biological processes; and that the phosphorylation of IRF6 at Ser413 and Ser424 primes IRF6 for activation. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), histone chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) and assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) of skin in wild-type and IRF6-deficient mouse embryos, we define the transcriptional programs that are regulated by IRF6 during epidermal differentiation. IRF6 was enriched at bivalent promoters, and IRF6 deficiency caused defective expression of genes that are involved in the metabolism of lipids and the formation of tight junctions. Accordingly, the lipid composition of the stratum corneum of Irf6-/- skin was abnormal, culminating in a severe defect in the function of the epidermal barrier. Collectively, our results explain how RIPK4 and IRF6 function to ensure the integrity of the epidermis and provide mechanistic insights into why developmental syndromes that are characterized by orofacial, skin and genital abnormalities result when this axis goes awry.

2.
J Med Chem ; 62(20): 8953-8972, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314518

RESUMO

As a member of the Janus (JAK) family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, TYK2 plays an important role in mediating the signaling of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-12, IL-23, and type 1 interferons. The nicotinamide 4, identified by a SPA-based high-throughput screen targeting the TYK2 pseudokinase domain, potently inhibits IL-23 and IFNα signaling in cellular assays. The described work details the optimization of this poorly selective hit (4) to potent and selective molecules such as 47 and 48. The discoveries described herein were critical to the eventual identification of the clinical TYK2 JH2 inhibitor (see following report in this issue). Compound 48 provided robust inhibition in a mouse IL-12-induced IFNγ pharmacodynamic model as well as efficacy in an IL-23 and IL-12-dependent mouse colitis model. These results demonstrate the ability of TYK2 JH2 domain binders to provide a highly selective alternative to conventional TYK2 orthosteric inhibitors.

3.
J Med Chem ; 62(20): 8973-8995, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318208

RESUMO

Small molecule JAK inhibitors have emerged as a major therapeutic advancement in treating autoimmune diseases. The discovery of isoform selective JAK inhibitors that traditionally target the catalytically active site of this kinase family has been a formidable challenge. Our strategy to achieve high selectivity for TYK2 relies on targeting the TYK2 pseudokinase (JH2) domain. Herein we report the late stage optimization efforts including a structure-guided design and water displacement strategy that led to the discovery of BMS-986165 (11) as a high affinity JH2 ligand and potent allosteric inhibitor of TYK2. In addition to unprecedented JAK isoform and kinome selectivity, 11 shows excellent pharmacokinetic properties with minimal profiling liabilities and is efficacious in several murine models of autoimmune disease. On the basis of these findings, 11 appears differentiated from all other reported JAK inhibitors and has been advanced as the first pseudokinase-directed therapeutic in clinical development as an oral treatment for autoimmune diseases.

4.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 171: 30-34, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959317

RESUMO

Conjugation of macromolecular drugs to polyethylene glycol (PEG) improves their therapeutic potential by reducing their rate of degradation, thereby extending the drugs half life. As a substantial component of the drug, it is necessary to measure the pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics of PEG in vivo. A quantitative NMR-based method was developed and successfully applied to measuring double-branched polyethylene glycol 40 kDa (PEG40) in serum samples, enabling determination of PK parameters of PEG40 in preclinical species. NMR is ideal for measuring such polymers because a single, sharp peak is obtained for all the equivalent methylene protons; this amplifies the signal and makes the method insensitive to polymeric heterogeneity. High field NMR (600 MHz) with proton-observe cryoprobe technology allowed for analysis of samples in 300 nM range. Mice received 50 mg/kg of PEG40 intravenously (IV) and serum samples were collected at regular intervals for up to 72 h after dosing. The serum samples were analyzed for PEG40 using the NMR method and PK parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. The volume of distribution was determined to be 0.17 L/kg for IV dosing, indicating limited distribution to interstitial space. A low clearance and observed half life of 18 h is consistent with previous reports on the PK properties of a variety of different PEG molecules ranging from 3 kDa to 190 kDa using 125I-labeled PEG in mice. The current NMR technique is easy to implement and does not require labeling of the PEG. Additionally, this is the first report, to our knowledge, of NMR spectroscopy application to PK profiling in serum.

5.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 165: 198-206, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553110

RESUMO

Stable isotope labeled (SIL) compounds have been commonly used as internal standards (IS) to ensure the accuracy and quality of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) bioanalytical assays. Recently, the application of SIL drugs and LC-MS assays to microdose absolute bioavailability (BA) studies has gained increasing attention. This approach can provide significant cost and time saving, and higher data quality compared to the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)-based method, since it avoids the use of radioactive drug, high-cost AMS instrumentation and complex measurement processes. It also eliminates potential metabolite interference with AMS-based assay. However, one major challenge in the application of this approach is the potential interference between the unlabeled drug, the microdose SIL drug, and the SIL-IS during LC-MS analysis. Here we report a convenient and cost-effective strategy to overcome the interference by monitoring the isotopic ion (instead of the commonly used monoisotopic ion) of the interfered compound in MS analysis. For the BMS-986205 absolute BA case study presented, significant interference was observed from the microdose IV drug [13C7,15N]-BMS-986205 to its SIL-IS, [13C7,15N, D3]-BMS-986205, since the difference of nominal molecular mass between the two compounds is only 3 mu, and there is a Cl atom in the molecules. By applying this strategy (monitoring the 37Cl ion for the analysis of the IS), a 90-fold reduction of interference was achieved, which allowed the use of a synthetically accessible SIL compound and enabled the fast progress of the absolute BA study. This strategy minimizes the number of stable isotope labels used for avoiding interference, which greatly reduces the difficulty in synthesizing the SIL compounds and generates significant time and cost savings. In addition, this strategy can also be used to reduce the MS response of the analyte, therefore, avoiding the detector saturation issue of LC-MS/MS assay for high concentration BMS-986205. A LC-MS/MS assay utilizing this strategy was successfully developed for the simultaneous analysis of BMS-986205 and [13C7, 15N]-BMS-986205 in dog plasma using [13C7,15N, D3]-BMS-986205 as the IS. The assay was successfully applied to a microdose absolute BA study of BMS-986205 in dogs. The assay was also validated in human plasma and used to support a human absolute BA study. The same strategy can also be applied to other compounds, including those not containing Cl or other elements with abundant isotopes, or other applications (e.g. selection of internal standard), and the applications were presented.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/análise , Quinolinas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Acetamidas/administração & dosagem , Acetamidas/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Cães , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/economia
6.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348490

RESUMO

Endothelial lipase (EL) inhibitors have been shown to elevate HDL-C levels in pre-clinical murine models and have potential benefit in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Modification of the 1-ethyl-3-hydroxy-1,5-dihydro-2H-pyrrol-2-one (DHP) lead, 1, led to the discovery of a series of potent tetrahydropyrimidinedione (THP) EL inhibitors. Synthesis and SAR studies including modification of the amide group, together with changes on the pyrimidinone core led to a series of arylcycloalkyl, indanyl, and tetralinyl substituted 5-amino or 5-hydroxypyrimidinedione-4-carboxamides. Several compounds were advanced to PK evaluation. Among them, compound 4a was one of the most potent with measurable ELHDL hSerum potency and compound 3g demonstrated the best overall pharmacokinetic parameters.

7.
Opt Lett ; 43(20): 5162-5165, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320845

RESUMO

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as a powerful imaging instrument and technology in biomedicine. OCT imaging is predominantly performed using wavelengths in the near infrared; however, visible light (VIS) has been recently employed in OCT systems with encouraging results for high-resolution retinal imaging. Using a broadband supercontinuum VIS source, we present a sensorless adaptive optics (SAO) multimodal imaging system driven by VIS-OCT for volumetric retinal structural imaging, followed by the acquisition of fluorescence emission. The coherence-gated, depth-resolved VIS-OCT images used for image-guided SAO aberration correction enable high-resolution structural and fluorescence imaging.

8.
Cell ; 174(5): 1158-1171.e19, 2018 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057110

RESUMO

Characterizing cell surface receptors mediating viral infection is critical for understanding viral tropism and developing antiviral therapies. Nevertheless, due to challenges associated with detecting protein interactions on the cell surface, the host receptors of many human pathogens remain unknown. Here, we build a library consisting of most single transmembrane human receptors and implement a workflow for unbiased and high-sensitivity detection of receptor-ligand interactions. We apply this technology to elucidate the long-sought receptor of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), the leading viral cause of congenital birth defects. We identify neuropilin-2 (Nrp2) as the receptor for HCMV-pentamer infection in epithelial/endothelial cells and uncover additional HCMV interactors. Using a combination of biochemistry, cell-based assays, and electron microscopy, we characterize the pentamer-Nrp2 interaction and determine the architecture of the pentamer-Nrp2 complex. This work represents an important approach to the study of host-pathogen interactions and provides a framework for understanding HCMV infection, neutralization, and the development of novel anti-HCMV therapies.

9.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 9(7): 673-678, 2018 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30034599

RESUMO

Screening of a small set of nonselective lipase inhibitors against endothelial lipase (EL) identified a potent and reversible inhibitor, N-(3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)propyl)-3-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-4-carboxamide (5; EL IC50 = 61 nM, ELHDL IC50 = 454 nM). Deck mining identified a related hit, N-(3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)propyl)-4-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamide (6a; EL IC50 = 41 nM, ELHDL IC50 = 1760 nM). Both compounds were selective against lipoprotein lipase (LPL) but nonselective versus hepatic lipase (HL). Optimization of compound 6a for EL inhibition using HDL as substrate led to N-(4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)butan-2-yl)-1-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamide (7c; EL IC50 = 148 nM, ELHDL IC50 = 218 nM) having improved PK over compound 6a, providing a tool molecule to test for the ability to increase HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in vivo using a reversible EL inhibitor. Compound 7c did not increase HDL-C in vivo despite achieving plasma exposures targeted on the basis of enzyme activity and protein binding demonstrating the need to develop more physiologically relevant in vitro assays to guide compound progression for in vivo evaluation.

10.
Structure ; 26(5): 767-777.e5, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706531

RESUMO

Receptor-interacting protein kinase 4 (RIPK4) is a highly conserved regulator of epidermal differentiation. Members of the RIPK family possess a common kinase domain as well as unique accessory domains that likely dictate subcellular localization and substrate preferences. Mutations in human RIPK4 manifest as Bartsocas-Papas syndrome (BPS), a genetic disorder characterized by severe craniofacial and limb abnormalities. We describe the structure of the murine Ripk4 (MmRipk4) kinase domain, in ATP- and inhibitor-bound forms. The crystallographic dimer of MmRipk4 is similar to those of RIPK2 and BRAF, and we show that the intact dimeric entity is required for MmRipk4 catalytic activity through a series of engineered mutations and cell-based assays. We also assess the impact of BPS mutations on protein structure and activity to elucidate the molecular origins of the disease.

11.
Mol Cell ; 70(3): 408-421.e8, 2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628311

RESUMO

The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) consists of core subunits SUZ12, EED, RBBP4/7, and EZH1/2 and is responsible for mono-, di-, and tri-methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3. Whereas two distinct forms exist, PRC2.1 (containing one polycomb-like protein) and PRC2.2 (containing AEBP2 and JARID2), little is known about their differential functions. Here, we report the discovery of a family of vertebrate-specific PRC2.1 proteins, "PRC2 associated LCOR isoform 1" (PALI1) and PALI2, encoded by the LCOR and LCORL gene loci, respectively. PALI1 promotes PRC2 methyltransferase activity in vitro and in vivo and is essential for mouse development. Pali1 and Aebp2 define mutually exclusive, antagonistic PRC2 subtypes that exhibit divergent H3K27-tri-methylation activities. The balance of these PRC2.1/PRC2.2 activities is required for the appropriate regulation of polycomb target genes during differentiation. PALI1/2 potentially link polycombs with transcriptional co-repressors in the regulation of cellular identity during development and in cancer.

12.
J Pharm Sci ; 107(5): 1352-1360, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317226

RESUMO

BMS-A is an inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein and is a highly lipophilic compound (clogP 10.5) with poor aqueous solubility (<0.0001 mg/mL at pH 6.5). The compound exhibits low oral exposure when dosed as cosolvent solution formulations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate lipid-based formulations for enabling high-dose toxicology studies and enhancing toxicology margins of BMS-A in preclinical studies in nonrodent species. The solubility of BMS-A was screened in lipid and cosolvent/surfactant excipients, and prototype formulations were developed. In vitro tests showed that fine/microemulsions were formed after aqueous dilution of lipid formulations, and BMS-A was transferred from oil phase to aqueous phase with enhanced solubility following lipid digestion. When dosed in dogs at 200 mg/kg, a Gelucire-based formulation exhibited more than 10-fold higher exposure compared to the solution formulation and was thus selected for toxicology studies in dogs. For monkeys, an olive oil formulation was developed, and the exposure was about 7-fold higher than that from the solution. In summary, lipid-based drug delivery could be applied in early stages of drug discovery to enhance oral exposure and enable preclinical toxicology studies of highly lipophilic compounds, while facilitating the candidate selection of a molecule which is more specifically designed for bioperformance in a lipid-based drug delivery strategy.

13.
Exp Neurol ; 297: 168-178, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28822839

RESUMO

While numerous changes in the GABA system have been identified in models of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), alterations in subunits of the GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that mediate tonic inhibition are particularly intriguing. Considering the key role of tonic inhibition in controlling neuronal excitability, reduced tonic inhibition could contribute to FXS-associated disorders such as hyperactivity, hypersensitivity, and increased seizure susceptibility. The current study has focused on the expression and function of the δ subunit of the GABAAR, a major subunit involved in tonic inhibition, in granule cells of the dentate gyrus in the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse model of FXS. Electrophysiological studies of dentate granule cells revealed a marked, nearly four-fold, decrease in tonic inhibition in the Fmr1 KO mice, as well as reduced effects of two δ subunit-preferring pharmacological agents, THIP and DS2, supporting the suggestion that δ subunit-containing GABAARs are compromised in the Fmr1 KO mice. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a small but statistically significant decrease in δ subunit labeling in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus in Fmr1 KO mice compared to wildtype (WT) littermates. The discrepancy between the large deficits in GABA-mediated tonic inhibition in granule cells in the Fmr1 KO mice and only modest reductions in immunolabeling of the δ subunit led to studies of surface expression of the δ subunit. Cross-linking experiments followed by Western blot analysis demonstrated a small, non-significant decrease in total δ subunit protein in the hippocampus of Fmr1 KO mice, but a four-fold decrease in surface expression of the δ subunit in these mice. No significant changes were observed in total or surface expression of the α4 subunit protein, a major partner of the δ subunit in the forebrain. Postembedding immunogold labeling for the δ subunit demonstrated a large, three-fold, decrease in the number of symmetric synapses with immunolabeling at perisynaptic locations in Fmr1 KO mice. While α4 immunogold particles were also reduced at perisynaptic locations in the Fmr1 KO mice, the labeling was increased at synaptic sites. Together these findings suggest that, in the dentate gyrus, altered surface expression of the δ subunit, rather than a decrease in δ subunit expression alone, could be limiting δ subunit-mediated tonic inhibition in this model of FXS. Finding ways to increase surface expression of the δ subunit of the GABAAR could be a novel approach to treatment of hyperexcitability-related alterations in FXS.


Assuntos
Giro Denteado/metabolismo , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/metabolismo , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Subunidades Proteicas/biossíntese , Receptores de GABA-A/biossíntese , Animais , Giro Denteado/patologia , Giro Denteado/ultraestrutura , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/genética
14.
Opt Lett ; 42(7): 1365-1368, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28362770

RESUMO

Adaptive Optics (AO) for scanning laser ophthalmoscopy enables high-resolution retinal imaging that can be used for preclinical research of diseases causing vision loss. Pupil Segmentation (PS) is an approach to wavefront-sensorless AO that acquires images within subregions across the imaging pupil to measure the wavefront slopes at the corresponding locations of the beam. We present PS-AO as an approach to correct ocular aberrations in ∼7 s, implemented to minimize respiratory motion from an anesthetized mouse. We demonstrated an improvement in resolution and an image intensity increase of ∼25% across all results using PS-AO for in vivo fluorescence retinal imaging in mice using a MEMS-based segmented deformable mirror.

15.
Cell ; 168(5): 878-889.e29, 2017 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28235199

RESUMO

Design of small molecules that disrupt protein-protein interactions, including the interaction of RAS proteins and their effectors, may provide chemical probes and therapeutic agents. We describe here the synthesis and testing of potential small-molecule pan-RAS ligands, which were designed to interact with adjacent sites on the surface of oncogenic KRAS. One compound, termed 3144, was found to bind to RAS proteins using microscale thermophoresis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry and to exhibit lethality in cells partially dependent on expression of RAS proteins. This compound was metabolically stable in liver microsomes and displayed anti-tumor activity in xenograft mouse cancer models. These findings suggest that pan-RAS inhibition may be an effective therapeutic strategy for some cancers and that structure-based design of small molecules targeting multiple adjacent sites to create multivalent inhibitors may be effective for some proteins.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Calorimetria , Linhagem Celular , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Transdução de Sinais , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas
16.
J Med Chem ; 59(19): 8848-8858, 2016 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27564419

RESUMO

The potent MCHR1 in vitro and in vivo antagonist activity of a series of cyclic tertiary alcohols derived from compound 2b is described. Subsequent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies identified BMS-814580 (compound 10) as a highly efficacious antiobesity agent with a relatively clean in vitro and in vivo safety profile.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Somatostatina/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacocinética , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Cães , Halogenação , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Receptores de Somatostatina/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Bioanalysis ; 8(15): 1611-1622, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27397670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isomerization of aspartic acid and deamidation of asparagine are two common amino acid modifications that are of particular concern if located within the complementarity-determining region of therapeutic antibodies. Questions arise as to the extent of modification occurring in circulation due to potential exposure of the therapeutic antibody to different pH regimes. RESULTS: To enable evaluation of site-specific isomerization and deamidation of human mAbs in vivo, immunoprecipitation (IP) has been combined with LC-MS providing selective enrichment, separation and detection of naive and modified forms of tryptic peptides comprising complementarity-determining region sequences. CONCLUSION: IP-LC-MS can be applied to simultaneously quantify in vivo drug concentrations and measure the extent of isomerization or deamidation in PK studies conducted during the drug discovery stage.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Asparagina/análise , Ácido Aspártico/análise , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação/métodos , Isomerismo , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
18.
Curr Emerg Hosp Med Rep ; 4: 11-18, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27073749

RESUMO

Nitrous oxide is a gas inhalation agent that has a long history of administration in procedures requiring analgesia and sedation. Although use may be limited by patient condition, patient comorbidities, and appropriate scavenging equipment, nitrous is a proven and safe tool for use in many health care settings-from the dental office to the operating room to the emergency department.

19.
J Infect Dis ; 213(5): 723-30, 2016 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26486638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An ecological correlation between invasive cervical cancer incidence and burden of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) is hypothesized to explain the excess in detectable human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Latin America, via a global T-helper type 2 (Th2)-biased mucosal immune response secondary to STH infection. METHODS: The association between current STH infection and HPV prevalence was compared in regions of Peru where STH is or is not endemic. Adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) with robust variance were estimated as an effect measure of STH infection on HPV prevalence in each study site. Soluble immune marker profiles in STH-infected and STH-uninfected women were compared using Spearman rank correlation with the Sidak correction. RESULTS: Among women in the helminth-endemic region of the Peruvian Amazon, those with STH infection women had a 60% higher prevalence of HPV, compared with those without STH infection (PR, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-2.7). Non-STH parasitic/protozoal infections in the non-STH-endemic population of Peru were not associated with HPV prevalence. In Iquitos, A Th2 immune profile was observed in cervical fluid from helminth-infected women but not helminth-uninfected women. CONCLUSIONS: A proportion of the increased HPV prevalence at older ages observed in Latin America may be due to a population-level difference in the efficiency of immunological control of HPV across the lifespan due to endemic STH infection.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Helmintíase/complicações , Helmintíase/transmissão , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Solo/parasitologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Adulto , Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/metabolismo , Peru/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto
20.
J Neurosci ; 35(49): 16142-58, 2015 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26658866

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The role of GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated tonic inhibition in interneurons remains unclear and may vary among subgroups. Somatostatin (SOM) interneurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus show negligible expression of nonsynaptic GABAAR subunits and very low tonic inhibition. To determine the effects of ectopic expression of tonic GABAAR subtypes in these neurons, Cre-dependent viral vectors were used to express GFP-tagged GABAAR subunits (α6 and δ) selectively in hilar SOM neurons in SOM-Cre mice. In single-transfected animals, immunohistochemistry demonstrated strong expression of either the α6 or δ subunit; in cotransfected animals, both subunits were consistently expressed in the same neurons. Electrophysiology revealed a robust increase of tonic current, with progressively larger increases following transfection of δ, α6, and α6/δ subunits, respectively, indicating formation of functional receptors in all conditions and likely coassembly of the subunits in the same receptor following cotransfection. An in vitro model of repetitive bursting was used to determine the effects of increased tonic inhibition in hilar SOM interneurons on circuit activity in the dentate gyrus. Upon cotransfection, the frequency of GABAAR-mediated bursting in granule cells was reduced, consistent with a reduction in synchronous firing among hilar SOM interneurons. Moreover, in vivo studies of Fos expression demonstrated reduced activation of α6/δ-cotransfected neurons following acute seizure induction by pentylenetetrazole. The findings demonstrate that increasing tonic inhibition in hilar SOM interneurons can alter dentate gyrus circuit activity during strong stimulation and suggest that tonic inhibition of interneurons could play a role in regulating excessive synchrony within the network. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: In contrast to many hippocampal interneurons, somatostatin (SOM) neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus have very low levels of nonsynaptic GABAARs and exhibit very little tonic inhibition. In an effort to increase tonic inhibition selectively in these interneurons, we used Cre-dependent viral vectors in SOM-Cre mice to achieve interneuron-specific expression of the nonsynaptic GABAAR subunits (α6 and δ) in vivo. We show, for the first time, that such recombinant GFP-tagged GABAAR subunits are expressed robustly, assemble to form functional receptors, substantially increase tonic inhibition in SOM interneurons, and alter circuit activity within the dentate gyrus.


Assuntos
Giro Denteado/citologia , Rede Nervosa/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Somatostatina/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais de Ação/genética , Animais , Giro Denteado/efeitos dos fármacos , Agonistas GABAérgicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas GABAérgicos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Inibição Neural/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibição Neural/genética , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Pentilenotetrazol/farmacologia , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Somatostatina/genética
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