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1.
J Gen Physiol ; 154(9)2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767014

RESUMO

The P2328S mutation in mice is associated with arrhythmia and spontaneous diastolic calcium release in atrial and ventricular myocytes and there is a corresponding leftward shift in the Ca2+-activation curve for mutant RYR2 channels from homozygous mouse hearts (Salvage et al. 2019. J Cell Sci. https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.229039). P2328 is located in helical domain 1 (HD1) of RYR2. Local structural changes likely result when structurally active proline residues are replaced by structurally inert serine residues. We speculate that local structural changes in HD1 lead to sequential intradomain and interdomain stearic changes through the protein to the distant channel gate, which favor the open pore conformation. The drug flecainide prevents arrhythmia in humans and mouse models of CPVT by blocking NaV1.5 and RYR2 channels. Conventionally, flecainide blocks RYR2 channels in a voltage-dependent manner. We did not observe voltage-dependent pore block. This was possibly because, in contrast to previous studies, the only channel modulators that we used to produce end-diastolic control channel activity were 1 µM cytoplasmic Ca2+ and 1 mM luminal Ca2+. We observed previously unreported, voltage-independent increases in WT and P2328S channel activity at low flecainide concentrations, followed by a decline in activity at higher concentrations. The increase in activity dominated the effect of flecainide on P2328S channels. These effects suggested high-affinity flecainide binding to an activation site and lower-affinity binding to an inhibition site, both distant from the channel pore (Salvage et al. 2021. Cells. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10082101). Unlike channel block by flecainide, the drug under our conditions stabilized intrinsic sub-conductance activity at +40 mV and -40 mV. Since flecainide effectively reduces CPVT arrythmia clinically and in animal models, we conclude that voltage-independent inhibition and voltage-dependent channel block prevail under cellular conditions. However, channel activation is important to note as it may be unmasked in other circumstances such as acquired cardiac disorders, mutations, or additional drug applications.

2.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774547

RESUMO

Effects of hypertrophic challenge on small-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+(SK2) channel expression were explored in intact murine hearts, isolated ventricular myocytes and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs). An established experimental platform applied angiotensin II (Ang II) challenge in the presence and absence of reduced p21-activated kinase (PAK1) (PAK1cko vs. PAK1f/f, or shRNA-PAK1 interference) expression. SK2 current contributions were detected through their sensitivity to apamin block. Ang II treatment increased such SK2 contributions to optically mapped action potential durations (APD80) and their heterogeneity, and to patch-clamp currents. Such changes were accentuated in PAK1cko compared to PAK1f/f, intact hearts and isolated cardiomyocytes. They paralleled increased histological and echocardiographic hypertrophic indices, reduced cardiac contractility, and increased SK2 protein expression, changes similarly greater with PAK1cko than PAK1f/f. In NRCMs, Ang II challenge replicated such increases in apamin-sensitive SK patch clamp currents as well as in real-time PCR and western blot measures of SK2 mRNA and protein expression and cell hypertrophy. Furthermore, the latter were enhanced by shRNA-PAK1 interference and mitigated by the PAK1 agonist FTY720. Increased CaMKII and CREB phosphorylation accompanied these effects. These were rescued by both FTY720 as well as the CaMKII inhibitor KN93, but not its inactive analogue KN92. Such CREB then specifically bound to the KCNN2 promoter sequence in luciferase assays. These findings associate Ang II induced hypertrophy with increased SK2 expression brought about by a CaMKII/CREB signaling convergent with the PAK1 pathway thence upregulating the KCNN2 promoter activity. SK2 may then influence cardiac electrophysiology under conditions of cardiac hypertrophy and failure.

3.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 750067, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778406

RESUMO

Aim: Mechanical dyssynchrony (MD) is associated with heart failure (HF) and may be prognostically important in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Yet, little is known about its patterns in healthy or diseased hearts. We here investigate and compare systolic and diastolic MD in both right (RV) and left ventricles (LV) of canine, primate and healthy and failing human hearts. Methods and Results: RV and LV mechanical function were examined by pulse-wave Doppler in 15 beagle dogs, 59 rhesus monkeys, 100 healthy human subjects and 39 heart failure (HF) patients. This measured RV and LV pre-ejection periods (RVPEP and LVPEP) and diastolic opening times (Q-TVE and Q-MVE). The occurrence of right (RVMDs) and left ventricular systolic mechanical delay (LVMDs) was assessed by comparing RVPEP and LVPEP values. That of right (RVMDd) and left ventricular diastolic mechanical delay (LVMDd) was assessed from the corresponding diastolic opening times (Q-TVE and Q-MVE). These situations were quantified by values of interventricular systolic (IVMDs) and diastolic mechanical delays (IVMDd), represented as positive if the relevant RV mechanical events preceded those in the LV. Healthy hearts in all species examined showed greater LV than RV delay times and therefore positive IVMDs and IVMDd. In contrast a greater proportion of the HF patients showed both markedly increased IVMDs and negative IVMDd, with diastolic mechanical asynchrony negatively correlated with LVEF. Conclusion: The present IVMDs and IVMDd findings have potential clinical implications particularly for personalized setting of parameter values in CRT in individual patients to achieve effective treatment of HF.

4.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 49(5): 1941-1961, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643236

RESUMO

Voltage-dependent Na+ channel activation underlies action potential generation fundamental to cellular excitability. In skeletal and cardiac muscle this triggers contraction via ryanodine-receptor (RyR)-mediated sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) Ca2+ release. We here review potential feedback actions of intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) on Na+ channel activity, surveying their structural, genetic and cellular and functional implications, translating these to their possible clinical importance. In addition to phosphorylation sites, both Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 possess potentially regulatory binding sites for Ca2+ and/or the Ca2+-sensor calmodulin in their inactivating III-IV linker and C-terminal domains (CTD), where mutations are associated with a range of skeletal and cardiac muscle diseases. We summarize in vitro cell-attached patch clamp studies reporting correspondingly diverse, direct and indirect, Ca2+ effects upon maximal Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 currents (Imax) and their half-maximal voltages (V1/2) characterizing channel gating, in cellular expression systems and isolated myocytes. Interventions increasing cytoplasmic [Ca2+]i down-regulated Imax leaving V1/2 constant in native loose patch clamped, wild-type murine skeletal and cardiac myocytes. They correspondingly reduced action potential upstroke rates and conduction velocities, causing pro-arrhythmic effects in intact perfused hearts. Genetically modified murine RyR2-P2328S hearts modelling catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), recapitulated clinical ventricular and atrial pro-arrhythmic phenotypes following catecholaminergic challenge. These accompanied reductions in action potential conduction velocities. The latter were reversed by flecainide at RyR-blocking concentrations specifically in RyR2-P2328S as opposed to wild-type hearts, suggesting a basis for its recent therapeutic application in CPVT. We finally explore the relevance of these mechanisms in further genetic paradigms for commoner metabolic and structural cardiac disease.

5.
Clin Endosc ; 54(5): 678-687, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted the training of medical trainees internationally. The aim of this study was to assess the global impact of COVID-19 on endoscopy training from the perspective of endoscopy trainers and to identify strategies implemented to mitigate the impact on trainee education. METHODS: Teaching faculty of gastroenterology (GI) training programs globally were invited to complete a 36-question web-based survey to report the characteristics of their training programs and the impact of COVID-19 on various aspects of endoscopy training, including what factors decisions were based on. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 52.6% (305 out of 580 individuals); 92.8% reported a negative impact on endoscopy training, with suspension of elective procedures (77.1%) being the most detrimental factor. Geographic variations were noted, with European programs reporting the lowest percentage of trainee participation in procedures. A higher proportion of trainees in the Americas were allowed to continue performing procedures, and trainers from the Americas reported receiving the greatest support for endoscopy teaching. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant negative impact on GI endoscopy training internationally, as reported by endoscopy trainers. Focus-optimizing endoscopy training and assessment of competencies are necessary to ensure adequate endoscopy training.

6.
ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci ; 4(5): 1639-1653, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661080

RESUMO

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), clinically established in antimalarial and autoimmune therapy, recently raised cardiac arrhythmogenic concerns when used alone or with azithromycin (HCQ+AZM) in Covid-19. We report complementary, experimental, studies of its electrophysiological effects. In patch clamped HEK293 cells expressing human cardiac ion channels, HCQ inhibited IKr and IK1 at a therapeutic concentrations (IC50s: 10 ± 0.6 and 34 ± 5.0 µM). INa and ICaL showed higher IC50s; Ito and IKs were unaffected. AZM slightly inhibited INa, ICaL, IKs, and IKr, sparing IK1 and Ito. (HCQ+AZM) inhibited IKr and IK1 (IC50s: 7.7 ± 0.8 and 30.4 ± 3.0 µM), sparing INa, ICaL, and Ito. Molecular induced-fit docking modeling confirmed potential HCQ-hERG but weak AZM-hERG binding. Effects of µM-HCQ were studied in isolated perfused guinea-pig hearts by multielectrode, optical RH237 voltage, and Rhod-2 mapping. These revealed reversibly reduced left atrial and ventricular action potential (AP) conduction velocities increasing their heterogeneities, increased AP durations (APDs), and increased durations and dispersions of intracellular [Ca2+] transients, respectively. Hearts also became bradycardic with increased electrocardiographic PR and QRS durations. The (HCQ+AZM) combination accentuated these effects. Contrastingly, (HCQ+AZM) and not HCQ alone disrupted AP propagation, inducing alternans and torsadogenic-like episodes on voltage mapping during forced pacing. O'Hara-Rudy modeling showed that the observed IKr and IK1 effects explained the APD alterations and the consequently prolonged Ca2+ transients. The latter might then downregulate INa, reducing AP conduction velocity through recently reported INa downregulation by cytosolic [Ca2+] in a novel scheme for drug action. The findings may thus prompt future investigations of HCQ's cardiac safety under particular, chronic and acute, clinical situations.

7.
Physiol Rep ; 9(19): e15043, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617689

RESUMO

The Scn5a gene encodes the major pore-forming Nav 1.5 (α) subunit, of the voltage-gated Na+ channel in cardiomyocytes. The key role of Nav 1.5 in action potential initiation and propagation in both atria and ventricles predisposes organisms lacking Scn5a or carrying Scn5a mutations to cardiac arrhythmogenesis. Loss-of-function Nav 1.5 genetic abnormalities account for many cases of the human arrhythmic disorder Brugada syndrome (BrS) and related conduction disorders. A murine model with a heterozygous Scn5a deletion recapitulates many electrophysiological phenotypes of BrS. This study examines the relationships between its Scn5a+/- genotype, resulting transcriptional changes, and the consequent phenotypic presentations of BrS. Of 62 selected protein-coding genes related to cardiomyocyte electrophysiological or homeostatic function, concentrations of mRNA transcribed from 15 differed significantly from wild type (WT). Despite halving apparent ventricular Scn5a transcription heterozygous deletion did not significantly downregulate its atrial expression, raising possibilities of atria-specific feedback mechanisms. Most of the remaining 14 genes whose expression differed significantly between WT and Scn5a+/- animals involved Ca2+ homeostasis specifically in atrial tissue, with no overlap with any ventricular changes. All statistically significant changes in expression were upregulations in the atria and downregulations in the ventricles. This investigation demonstrates the value of future experiments exploring for and clarifying links between transcriptional control of Scn5a and of genes whose protein products coordinate Ca2+ regulation and examining their possible roles in BrS.

8.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440870

RESUMO

Cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) mutations are implicated in the potentially fatal catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) and in atrial fibrillation. CPVT has been successfully treated with flecainide monotherapy, with occasional notable exceptions. Reported actions of flecainide on cardiac sodium currents from mice carrying the pro-arrhythmic homozygotic RyR2-P2328S mutation prompted our explorations of the effects of flecainide on their RyR2 channels. Lipid bilayer electrophysiology techniques demonstrated a novel, paradoxical increase in RyR2 activity. Preceding flecainide exposure, channels were mildly activated by 1 mM luminal Ca2+ and 1 µM cytoplasmic Ca2+, with open probabilities (Po) of 0.03 ± 0.01 (wild type, WT) or 0.096 ± 0.024 (P2328S). Open probability (Po) increased within 0.5 to 3 min of exposure to 0.5 to 5.0 µM cytoplasmic flecainide, then declined with higher concentrations of flecainide. There were no such increases in a subset of high Po channels with Po ≥ 0.08, although Po then declined with ≥5 µM (WT) or ≥50 µM flecainide (P2328S). On average, channels with Po < 0.08 were significantly activated by 0.5 to 10 µM of flecainide (WT) or 0.5 to 50 µM of flecainide (P2328S). These results suggest that flecainide can bind to separate activation and inhibition sites on RyR2, with activation dominating in lower activity channels and inhibition dominating in more active channels.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Flecainida/farmacologia , Ativação do Canal Iônico/efeitos dos fármacos , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/metabolismo , Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Flecainida/metabolismo , Ativação do Canal Iônico/fisiologia , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Potenciais da Membrana , Camundongos , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/genética , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , Bloqueadores do Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem/metabolismo , Bloqueadores do Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem/farmacologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biofilm formation and hemolytic activity are factors that may correlate with the virulence of Cutibacterium. We sought to compare the prevalence of these potential markers of pathogenicity between Cutibacterium recovered from deep specimens obtained at the time of surgical revision for failed shoulder arthroplasty and Cutibacterium recovered from skin samples from normal subjects. METHODS: We compared 42 deep-tissue or explant isolates with 43 control Cutibacterium samples obtained from skin isolates from normal subjects. Subtyping information was available for all isolates. Biofilm-forming capacity was measured by inoculating a normalized amount of each isolate onto a 96-well plate. Planktonic bacteria were removed, the remaining adherent bacteria were stained with crystal violet, the crystal violet was re-solubilized in ethyl alcohol, and biofilm-forming capacity was quantitated by optical density (OD). Hemolytic activity was measured by plating a normalized amount of isolate onto agar plates. The area of the colony and the surrounding area of blood lysis were measured and reported as minimal, moderate, or severe hemolysis. RESULTS: Biofilm-forming capacity was significantly higher in the tissue and explant samples compared with the control skin samples (OD of 0.34 ± 0.30 for deep tissue vs. 0.20 ± 0.28 for skin, P = .002). Hemolytic activity was also significantly higher in the tissue and explant samples than in the control skin samples (P < .0001). Samples with hemolytic activity had significantly higher biofilm-forming capacity compared with samples without hemolytic activity (OD of 0.27 ± 0.29 vs. 0.12 ± 0.15, P = .015). No difference in biofilm-forming capacity or hemolytic activity was found between subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Cutibacterium obtained from deep specimens at the time of revision shoulder arthroplasty has higher biofilm-forming capacity and hemolytic activity than Cutibacterium recovered from the skin of normal subjects. These data add support for the view that Cutibacterium harvested from deep tissues may have clinically significant virulence characteristics. The lack of correlation between these clinically relevant phenotypes and subtypes indicates that additional study is needed to identify genotypic markers that better correlate with biofilm and hemolytic activity.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14376, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257321

RESUMO

A finite element analysis modelled diffusional generation of steady-state Ca2+ microdomains within skeletal muscle transverse (T)-tubular-sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) junctions, sites of ryanodine receptor (RyR)-mediated SR Ca2+ release. It used established quantifications of sarcomere and T-SR anatomy (radial diameter [Formula: see text]; axial distance [Formula: see text]). Its boundary SR Ca2+ influx densities,[Formula: see text], reflected step impositions of influxes, [Formula: see text] deduced from previously measured Ca2+ signals following muscle fibre depolarization. Predicted steady-state T-SR junctional edge [Ca2+], [Ca2+]edge, matched reported corresponding experimental cytosolic [Ca2+] elevations given diffusional boundary efflux [Formula: see text] established cytosolic Ca2+ diffusion coefficients [Formula: see text] and exit length [Formula: see text]. Dependences of predicted [Ca2+]edge upon [Formula: see text] then matched those of experimental [Ca2+] upon Ca2+ release through their entire test voltage range. The resulting model consistently predicted elevated steady-state T-SR junctional ~ µM-[Ca2+] elevations radially declining from maxima at the T-SR junction centre along the entire axial T-SR distance. These [Ca2+] heterogeneities persisted through 104- and fivefold, variations in D and w around, and fivefold reductions in d below, control values, and through reported resting muscle cytosolic [Ca2+] values, whilst preserving the flux conservation ([Formula: see text] condition, [Formula: see text]. Skeletal muscle thus potentially forms physiologically significant ~ µM-[Ca2+] T-SR microdomains that could regulate cytosolic and membrane signalling molecules including calmodulin and RyR, These findings directly fulfil recent experimental predictions invoking such Ca2+ microdomains in observed regulatory effects upon Na+ channel function, in a mechanism potentially occurring in similar restricted intracellular spaces in other cell types.

11.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 42(6): 1075-1085, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820741

RESUMO

RESEARCH QUESTION: Can artificial intelligence (AI) discriminate a blastocyst's cellular area from unedited time-lapse image files using semantic segmentation and a deep learning optimized U-Net architecture for use in selecting single blastocysts for transfer? DESIGN: This platform was retrospectively applied to time-lapse files from 101 sequentially transferred single blastocysts that were prospectively selected for transfer by their highest expansion ranking within cohorts using a 10 h expansion assay rather than standard grading. RESULTS: The AI platform provides expansion curves and raw data files to classify and compare blastocyst phenotypes within both cohorts and populations. Of 35 sequential unbiopsied single blastocyst transfers, 23 (65.7%) resulted in a live birth. Of 66 sequential single euploid blastocyst transfers, also selected for their most robust expansion, 49 (74.2%) resulted in live birth. The AI platform revealed that the averaged expansion rate was significantly (P = 0.007) greater in euploid blastocysts that resulted in live births compared with those resulting in failure to give a live birth. The platform further provides a framework to analyse fragmentation phenotypes that can test new hypotheses for developmental regulation during the preimplantation period. CONCLUSIONS: AI can be used to quantitatively describe blastocyst expansion from unedited time-lapse image files and can be used to quantitatively rank-order blastocysts for transfer. Early clinical results from such single blastocyst selection suggests that live birth rates without biopsy may be comparable to those found using single euploid blastocysts in younger, good responder patients.

12.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 27: 100753, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33898262

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Murine Pgc-1α-/- hearts replicate disrupted mitochondrial function and model the associated pro-arrhythmic electrophysiological abnormalities. Quantitative PCR, western blotting and histological analysis were used to investigate the molecular basis of the electrophysiological changes associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. qPCR analysis implicated downregulation of genes related to Na+-K+ ATPase activity (Atp1b1), surface Ca2+ entry (Cacna1c), action potential repolarisation (Kcnn1), autonomic function (Adra1d, Adcy4, Pde4d, Prkar2a), and morphological properties (Myh6, Tbx3) in murine Pgc-1α-/- ventricles. Western blotting revealed reduced NaV1.5 but normal Cx43 expression. Histological analysis revealed increased tissue fibrosis in the Pgc-1α-/- ventricles. These present findings identify altered transcription amongst a strategically selected set of genes established as encoding proteins involved in cardiac electrophysiological activation and therefore potentially involved in alterations in ventricular activation and Ca2+ homeostasis in arrhythmic substrate associated with Pgc-1α deficiency. They complement and complete previous studies examining such expression characteristics in the atria and ventricles of Pgc-1 deficient murine hearts.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2846, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531589

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle Na+ channels possess Ca2+- and calmodulin-binding sites implicated in Nav1.4 current (INa) downregulation following ryanodine receptor (RyR1) activation produced by exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP or caffeine challenge, effects abrogated by the RyR1-antagonist dantrolene which itself increased INa. These findings were attributed to actions of consequently altered cytosolic Ca2+, [Ca2+]i, on Nav1.4. We extend the latter hypothesis employing cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) challenge, which similarly increases [Ca2+]i, but through contrastingly inhibiting sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) Ca2+-ATPase. Loose patch clamping determined Na+ current (INa) families in intact native murine gastrocnemius skeletal myocytes, minimising artefactual [Ca2+]i perturbations. A bespoke flow system permitted continuous INa comparisons through graded depolarizing steps in identical stable membrane patches before and following solution change. In contrast to the previous studies modifying RyR1 activity, and imposing control solution changes, CPA (0.1 and 1 µM) produced persistent increases in INa within 1-4 min of introduction. CPA pre-treatment additionally abrogated previously reported reductions in INa produced by 0.5 mM caffeine. Plots of peak current against voltage excursion demonstrated that 1 µM CPA increased maximum INa by ~ 30%. It only slightly decreased half-maximal activating voltages (V0.5) and steepness factors (k), by 2 mV and 0.7, in contrast to the V0.5 and k shifts reported with direct RyR1 modification. These paradoxical findings complement previously reported downregulatory effects on Nav1.4 of RyR1-agonist mediated increases in bulk cytosolic [Ca2+]. They implicate possible local tubule-sarcoplasmic triadic domains containing reduced [Ca2+]TSR in the observed upregulation of Nav1.4 function following CPA-induced SR Ca2+ depletion.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.4/metabolismo , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , Animais , Cafeína/farmacologia , Agonistas dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Indóis/farmacologia , Camundongos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Cultura Primária de Células , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/antagonistas & inibidores , Sódio/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
N Biotechnol ; 63: 1-9, 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588094

RESUMO

The promise of using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for cellular therapies has been hampered by the lack of easily isolatable and well characterized source cells whose genomes have undergone minimal changes during their processing. Blood-derived late-outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are used for disease modeling and have potential therapeutic uses including cell transplantation and the translation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derivatives. However, the current isolation of EPCs has been inconsistent and requires at least 40-80 mL of blood, limiting their wider use. In addition, previous EPC reprogramming methods precluded the translation of EPC-derived iPSCs to the clinic. Here a series of clinically-compatible advances in the isolation and reprogramming of EPCs is presented, including a reduction of blood sampling volumes to 10 mL and use of highly efficient RNA-based reprogramming methods together with autologous human serum, resulting in clinically relevant iPSCs carrying minimal copy number variations (CNVs) compared to their parent line.


Assuntos
Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/citologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Reprogramação Celular , Humanos
15.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(7): 1355-1365.e4, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The prevalence and significance of digestive manifestations in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain uncertain. We aimed to assess the prevalence, spectrum, severity, and significance of digestive manifestations in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were identified across a geographically diverse alliance of medical centers in North America. Data pertaining to baseline characteristics, symptomatology, laboratory assessment, imaging, and endoscopic findings from the time of symptom onset until discharge or death were abstracted manually from electronic health records to characterize the prevalence, spectrum, and severity of digestive manifestations. Regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between digestive manifestations and severe outcomes related to COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 1992 patients across 36 centers met eligibility criteria and were included. Overall, 53% of patients experienced at least 1 gastrointestinal symptom at any time during their illness, most commonly diarrhea (34%), nausea (27%), vomiting (16%), and abdominal pain (11%). In 74% of cases, gastrointestinal symptoms were judged to be mild. In total, 35% of patients developed an abnormal alanine aminotransferase or total bilirubin level; these were increased to less than 5 times the upper limit of normal in 77% of cases. After adjusting for potential confounders, the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms at any time (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.76-1.15) or liver test abnormalities on admission (odds ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.80-2.12) were not associated independently with mechanical ventilation or death. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, gastrointestinal symptoms and liver test abnormalities were common, but the majority were mild and their presence was not associated with a more severe clinical course.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , Adulto Jovem
16.
Global Spine J ; 11(3): 292-298, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875862

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case control study. OBJECTIVES: Adjacent-level ossification development (ALOD) is a distinct form of adjacent segmental degeneration that has been recognized to occur after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). It is unclear whether ACDF with plate versus standalone has an effect on rates of ALOD. This retrospective case-control study aims to assess the rate of ALOD in a large series of patients undergoing ACDF with and without plate and factors causing ALOD. METHODS: Data was collected for patients undergoing ACDF from January 2009 to July 2016. Data collected was from multiple centers and included demographic data, surgical data, radiological imaging at time of surgery, and serial follow-up imaging. The radiology for ALOD was independently reviewed. Cohorts were divided into ACDF with plate (Group P = plate) and ACDF without plate (Groups S = standalone) and outcomes were compared. RESULTS: There were 260 patients with 138 (53%) in Group P and 122 (47%) in Group S. ALOD was observed in 15.3% of patients overall, 29% in group P and 2.8% in group S (P < .001). Following multivariate adjustment, statistically significant association was found between use of plate and ALOD (odds ratio = 12.8, 95% confidence interval = 3.52-45.45, P < .001). Plate-to-disc distance <5 mm was significantly associated with ALOD (odds ratio = 13.5, 95% confidence interval = 3.83-47.62, P < .001). CONCLUSION: The use of anterior plate with ACDF was associated with ALOD. Plate-to-disc distance <5 mm was significantly associated with ALOD even after adjustment for confounding factors. We conclude utilization of standalone cages or cages with plate with more than 5 mm distance from adjacent disc to minimize ALOD.

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