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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784716

RESUMO

A prominent source of hydroxyl radicals (•OH), nitrous acid (HONO) plays a key role in tropospheric chemistry. Apart from direct emission, HONO (or its conjugate base nitrite, NO2-) can be formed secondarily in the atmosphere. Yet, how secondary HONO forms requires elucidation, especially for heterogeneous processes involving numerous organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols. We investigated nitrite production from aqueous photolysis of nitrate for a range of conditions (pH, organic compound, nitrate concentration, and cation). Upon adding small oxygenates such as ethanol, n-butanol, or formate as •OH scavengers, the average intrinsic quantum yield of nitrite [Φ(NO2-)] was 0.75 ± 0.15%. With near-UV-light-absorbing vanillic acid (VA), however, the effective Φ(NO2-) was strongly pH-dependent, reaching 8.0 ± 2.1% at a pH of 8 and 1.5 ± 0.39% at a more atmospherically relevant pH of 5. Our results suggest that brown carbon (BrC) may greatly enhance the nitrite production from the aqueous nitrate photolysis through photosensitizing reactions, where the triplet excited state of BrC may generate solvated electrons, which reduce nitrate to NO2 for further conversion to nitrite. This photosensitization process by BrC chromophores during nitrate photolysis under mildly acidic conditions may partly explain the missing HONO in urban environments.

2.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812766

RESUMO

Undifferentiated carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract has variable rhabdoid features. Expression of switch/sucrose nonfermenting (SWI/SNF) complex subunits is reportedly lost in a portion of cases; however, the prognostic significance of this loss remains unknown. Herein, 30 undifferentiated carcinoma cases were assessed for the expression of 4 SWI/SNF complex subunits (SMARCB1, SMARCA2, SMARCA4, and ARID1A). Tumor origin sites comprised stomach (40.0%), large intestine (20.0%), small intestine (16.7%), lower esophagus and stomach fundus (13.3%), ileocecal junction (3.3%), rectum (3.3%), and pancreas (3.3%). The tumors were composed of epithelioid neoplastic cells arranged in diffuse solid or discohesive sheets, nests, cords, poor cohesive pseudoglandular, and trabecular patterns. Rhabdoid tumor cells were identified in 66.7% (20/30) of cases. In total, 29/30 (96.7%) showed complete loss of at least 1 SWI/SNF subunit: SMARCA4-/SMARCA2- (11), isolated SMARCA4- (2), SMARCA4-/SMARCA2 unknown (6), isolated SMARCA2- (7), SMARCA2-/ARID1A- (1), and isolated ARID1A- (2). Negative or decreased expression (≤10% positive) of pan-cytokeratin was observed in 58.6% (17/29) of cases. In addition, 66.7% (20/30) of patients were late-stage (III or IV), and 65.2% (15/23) of stage IIB to IV patients succumbed to the disease at a mean clinical follow-up of 12.7 months. Specifically, patients with loss of SMARCA4 expression had the worst overall survival (P=0.028) and disease-free survival (P=0.006) rates, compared with those with SMARCA4 expression. The loss or decreased expression of epithelial markers is thus common in SWI/SNF complex-deficient undifferentiated carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract, and loss of SMARCA4 correlates with poor prognosis.

3.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 348, 2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-throughput next-generation sequencing (HT-NGS) has the potential to detect a large variety of pathogens; however, the application of HT-NGS in lung transplant (LTx) recipients remains limited. We aimed to evaluate the value of HT-NGS for pathogen detection and diagnosis of pulmonary infection during early-stage post-lung transplantation. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we enrolled 51 LTx recipients who underwent lung transplantation between January 2020 and December 2020. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were collected for the detection of pathogens using both HT-NGS and conventional microbiological testing. The detection of pathogens and diagnostic performance of HT-NGS were compared with that of conventional methods. RESULTS: HT-NGS provided a higher positive rate of pathogen detection than conventional microbiological testing (88.24% vs. 76.47%). The most common bacteria detected via HT-NGS during early-stage post-lung transplantation were Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella, while all fungi were Candida and all viruses were Herpesvirus. Uncommon pathogens, including Strongyloides, Legionella, and Mycobacterium abscesses were identified by HT-NGS. The sensitivity of HT-NGS for diagnosing pulmonary infection was significantly higher than that of conventional microbiological testing (97.14% vs. 68.57%; P < 0.001). For three LTx recipients, treatment regimens were adjusted according to the results of HT-NGS, leading to a complete recovery. CONCLUSION: HT-NGS is a highly sensitive technique for pathogen detection, which may provide diagnostic advantages, especially in LTx recipients, contributing to the optimization of treatment regimens against pulmonary infection during early-stage post-lung transplantation.

4.
Dermatol Ther ; : e15189, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729875

RESUMO

Giant condyloma acuminatum (GCA) which is also called Buschke-Lowenstein tumor. It is a rare tumor of the anorectal area and external genitalia associated with low-risk HPV types 6 or 11. GCA has a high-rate of recurrence (66%) and malignant transformation (56%). The clinical features of GCA are progression of exophytic, ulcerative, and cauliflower-shaped tumors, it has significant dimensions and may undergo malignant transformation such as squamous cell carcinoma or cervical cancer. It is difficult to treat GCA, and it may be impossible for GCA to self-healing, but we herein report a rare case of a 19-year-old female with self-healing GCA.

5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(undefined)2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799469

RESUMO

Emerging evidence revealed the critical roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in maintaining genomic instability. However, genome instability-associated lncRNAs (GILncRNAs) and their performance in clinical prognostic significance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are rarely reported. Our study constructed a computational framework integrating somatic mutation information and lncRNA expression profiles of HCC genome and we identified 88 GILncRNAs of HCC. Function enrichment analysis revealed that GILncRNAs were involved in various metabolism processes and genome instability of cancer. A genome instability-derived lncRNA-based gene signature (GILncSig) was constructed using training set data. The performance of GILncSig for outcome prediction was validated in testing set and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) set. The multivariate cox regression analysis and stratification analysis demonstrated GILncSig could serve as an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival of HCC patients. The time-dependent Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve illustrated GILncSig outperformed two recently published lncRNA signatures for overall survival prediction. The combination of GILncSig and tumor protein p53 (TP53) mutation status exhibited better prognostic performance in survival evaluation compared to TP53 mutation status alone. AC145343.1 was further validated to be a risk factor for HCC in vitro among GILncSig. Overall, our study provided a novel approach for identification of genome instability-associated lncRNAs and established an independent risk score system for outcome prediction of HCC patients, which provided a new insight for exploring in-depth mechanism and potential therapy strategy.

6.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e24115, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by impaired alveolar function and excessive inflammation, which is commonly seen in clinical anesthesia and intensive care units. tRNA-derived small RNA (tsRNA) is a non-coding RNA that can be used as a potential disease diagnostic biomarker. The connection between ALI and tsRNA remains unknown. We aimed to explore the possible regulatory functions and mechanisms of tsRNAs in ALI treated with DEX. METHODS: Firstly, we established the ALI model by LPS injection and explored the effect of dexmedetomidine (DEX) treatment on lung damage. Then, the lung tissues were obtained from the LPS and LPS + DEX group for small RNA sequencing. RESULTS: We proved that DEX could ameliorate pulmonary injury, and decreased inflammation, pulmonary edema, and ferroptosis (MDA down-regulation and GPX4 up-regulation) in ALI. Furthermore, in the tsRNA expression profile, the top 10 down-regulated tsRNAs were tsRNA-1018, tsRNA-3045b, tsRNA-5021a, tsRNA-1020, tsRNA-5002b, tsRNA-3045b, tsRNA-1026, tsRNA-5004a, tsRNA-5005b and tsRNA-1009, and the top 10 up-regulated tsRNAs were tsRNA-3025b, tsRNA-3025a, tsRNA-5016b, tsRNA-3042b, tsRNA-3029b, tsRNA-3028b, tsRNA-5006a, tsRNA-3027b, tsRNA-3027a, and tsRNA-5009b. The enrichment analysis of GO terms and KEGG pathways pointed that target genes of DE-tsRNAs were mainly enriched in regulation of transcription-associated GO terms, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. The RT-qPCR results of tsRNA-1020 and tsRNA-1018 were in accordance with small RNA sequencing data. CONCLUSION: DEX affected the abnormal expression of tsRNAs in ALI. These aberrantly expressed tsRNAs and enriched physiological processes provide a scientific basis for the diagnosis and treatment of ALI.

7.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 761641, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744741

RESUMO

Safflower polysaccharide (SPS) is one of the active fractions extracted from safflower petals (Carthamus tinctorius L.) which has been reported to possess antitumor and immune control roles. However, its antitumor mechanisms by regulating the immune pathway remain barely understood. In this study, a mouse model was established by azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to evaluate the antitumor effect of SPS on colorectal cancer (CRC). The results showed that 50 mg/kg SPS-1, an active fraction isolated from SPS, could significantly inhibit CRC induced by AOM/DSS and changed the polarization of macrophages to the M1 phenotype. Meanwhile, SPS-1 treatment significantly alleviated the characteristic AOM/DSS-induced pathological symptoms, in terms of decreasing the nucleoplasmic ratio, nuclear polarity extinction, and gland hyperplasia. However, the results in vitro showed that SPS-1 did not directly inhibit the growth of CRC cells but could upregulate the NF-κB signal and trigger M1 macrophage transformation. Thus, the condition medium (CM) of Mφ pretreated with SPS-1 was used against CRC cells. As expected, SPS-1-activated Raw 264.7 markedly exhibited antitumor effects by inhibiting cell proliferation and suppressing cell colony formation. In addition, SPS-1-activated Raw 264.7 could also induce CRC cell apoptosis by upregulating the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO). Further results suggested that SPS-1-induced transition of the macrophage phenotype could be suppressed by an NF-κB inhibitor, PDTC. Moreover, SPS-1-activated Raw 264.7 inhibiting CRC cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis were also rescued by PDTC. Taken together, all results suggested that SPS-1 could be a therapeutic option for the prevention and treatment of CRC.

8.
Front Oncol ; 11: 750741, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745976

RESUMO

The prognosis of advanced malignant tumors is very poor, and effective treatment is limited. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a novel treatment method. However, its anti-tumor effect is relatively low in solid tumors, which is mainly due to the blood-tumor barrier preventing RIT from penetrating the tumor, resulting in an insufficient dose. Low-intensity ultrasound with microbubbles (USMB) has proven capable of opening the blood-tumor barrier. The combination of the two technologies may overcome the poor anti-tumor effect of RIT and promote the clinical application of RIT in solid tumors. In this article, we reviewed the current research status of RIT in the treatment of solid tumors and the opportunities and challenges of USMB combined with RIT.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 688981, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630343

RESUMO

Daqu is an important saccharifying and fermenting agent. It provides various microorganisms and enzymes for the fermentation of Baijiu and plays a vital role in the formation of Baijiu flavor. However, it is difficult to obtain information on microbial growth and metabolism in time for Daqu production. Therefore, the "Qu Xiang" obtained by smelling is an important index in the traditional production process to evaluate the microbial fermentation in the process of Daqu-making, "Qu Xiang" mainly represents the volatile flavor compounds in Daqu. The microbial diversity and volatile metabolites on 0, 6, 16, and 29 days of the fermentation process were measured using high-throughput sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Significant differences were found in the composition of the microbial community. Pseudomonas, Weissella, Bacillus, and Pelomonas were the main bacterial genera. Alternaria, Rhizopus, and Pichia are the main fungal genera. A total of 32 differential volatile metabolites were detected in samples at four time points using differential metabolic analysis. The correspondence of prevailing microorganisms with differential metabolites distinguished by Spearman correlation and two-way orthogonal partial least square analysis show that Saccharopolyspora exhibited a significant connection for the 12 differential metabolites. A significant positive correlation was observed between Rhizomucor and 13 different metabolites. These findings further understanding of the metabolism of microorganisms in Daqu fermentation and also help to control the microorganisms in the Daqu-making process, to obtain more stable Baijiu products.

10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 579: 153-160, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601200

RESUMO

Long-term high-fat diet (HFD) destroys the intestinal mucosal barrier by damaging intestinal stem cells (ISCs). A HFD can increase the concentration of intestinal deoxycholic acid (DCA) and decrease the secretion of interleukin-22 (IL-22), which plays an important role in the proliferation, repair and regeneration of ISCs. We hypothesized that increased level of intestinal DCA induced by a HFD leads to ISC dysfunction by reducing the IL-22 levels in intestinal tissues. In this study, 2 weeks of a DCA diet or a HFD damaged ileal ISC and its proliferation and differentiation, resulting in a decrease in Paneth cells and goblet cells. Importantly, 2 weeks of a DCA diet or a HFD also reduced ileal IL-22 concentration, accompanied by a decreased number of group 3 innate lymphoid cells in ileal mucosa, which produce IL-22 after intestinal injury. Concurrent feeding with bile acid binder cholestyramine prevented all these changes induced by a HFD. In addition, in vitro study further confirmed that exogenous IL-22 reversed the decline in the proliferation and differentiation of ileal ISCs induced by DCA stimulation. Collectively, these results revealed that the decrease in intestinal IL-22 induced by DCA may be a novel mechanism by which HFD damages ISCs. The administration of IL-22 or a bile acid binder may provide novel therapeutic targets for the metabolic syndrome caused by a HFD.

12.
J Genet Couns ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674340

RESUMO

We conducted a survey to evaluate the awareness of genetic counseling and testing for hereditary gynecologic cancers among Korean healthcare providers. We performed an on-the-spot survey using 29 questions on respondents' basic information, awareness of pre/post-test genetic counseling, genetic information management, and related social issues. We surveyed healthcare providers who attended the 2019 Hereditary Gynecologic Cancer Symposium organized by the Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology. Of the 108 attendees, 85 (78.7%) participated in the survey. Among them, 45% (37/83) and 40% (33/83) did not have a separate clinic and had a dedicated team for genetic counseling in their institutions, respectively. Most respondents (60/76, 79%) recommended genetic testing for all women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer. Many respondents simultaneously (20/85, 24%) or sequentially (45/85, 53%) tested for both pathogenic somatic and germline variants, whereas a few respondents (2/85, 2%) checked for only pathogenic somatic variants using tissue samples. Only 20% (17/85) of the respondents recommended genetic testing for all women with endometrial cancer; meanwhile, 68% (58/86) offered the test based on the results of the screening test or family history. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy was recommended to unaffected women with pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants by 69.4% of the respondents (59/85). Most respondents (73/85, 85.9%) needed a manual on bioethics law; a few required a clinical update of hereditary cancer (73/85, 85.9%). The awareness of genetic counseling and testing and the pattern of clinical practice for hereditary gynecologic cancers differ among institutions and regions in Korea. A discussion on these issues and the development of an integrated manual for healthcare providers are required.

13.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 911: 174526, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599914

RESUMO

Berberine is an extract derived from Chinese herbs with pleiotropic cardiovascular protective effects. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear because of its poor bioavailability. Herin, we aimed to investigate whether berberine affects choline diet-induced arterial thrombosis and explore the potential mechanism. Ultrasound and optical coherence tomography were used to assess the potential risk of artery thrombosis in vivo. The plasma concentrations of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and trimethylamine (TMA) were quantified with mass spectrometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were utilized to detect the levels of microbial TMA-lyase choline utilization C (CutC) in faeces. Gut microbiota analysis was performed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. For in vitro studies, platelet aggregometry, intracellular Ca2+ measurement, ATP release assay, flow cytometry and Western blot were applied to identify the effects of TMAO on platelets. Berberine treatment significantly decreased the CutC levels in the caecal contents, reduced choline diet-induced TMA and TMAO production, and subsequently, reduced the arterial thrombosis potential risk. Berberine administration remodelled the structure of gut microbiota in rats and increased the levels of the genus Lactobacillus. Finally, TMAO enhanced platelet reactivity to collagen by promoting the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in platelets. These results demonstrate that berberine attenuates the risk of choline diet-induced arterial thrombosis by changing the gut microbial composition and reducing TMAO generation.

14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(11): 5086-5099, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708948

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide(H2S) is one of the most common gas products from modern industrial processes. It is highly toxic, corrosive, and polluting, and poses harm to both the natural environment and human health if it is not properly removed. Biochar has been widely applied for the treatment of environmental pollution due to its excellent adsorption ability, low cost, and wide choice of source materials. Currently, although studies on hydrogen sulfide adsorption by biochar have attracted increasing attention, the factors involved are complex and varied, leading to a necessity to review and summarize the available knowledge and advances. To bridge the research gap, this paper presents the advances in H2S adsorption by biochar, including properties, influencing factors(i.e., biomass feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, residence time, and particle size), control measures(i.e., humidity, adsorption temperature, operating conditions, and modification of biochar by activation), and adsorption mechanism. The work will provide further reference for the preparation and optimization of biochar adsorption conditions to realize a highly efficient removal of H2S.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula
15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 727706, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631748

RESUMO

Background: Some controversy remains regarding conventional serum indices for the evaluation of liver fibrosis. Therefore, we aimed to combine the existing index with other serum parameters to discriminate liver fibrosis stages in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods: A total of 1,622 treatment-naïve CHB patients were divided into training (n = 1,211) and validation (n = 451) cohorts. Liver histology was assessed according to the Scheuer scoring scheme. All common demographic and clinical parameters were analyzed. Results: By utilizing the results of the logistic regression analysis, we developed a novel index, the product of GPR, international normalized ratio (INR), and type IV collagen (GIVPR), to discriminate liver fibrosis. In the training group, the areas under the ROCs (AUROCs) of GIVPR, APRI, FIB-4, and GPR for significant fibrosis were 0.81, 0.75, 0.72, and 0.77, respectively; the AUROCs of GIVPR, APRI, FIB-4, and GPR for advanced fibrosis were 0.82, 0.74, 0.74, and 0.78, respectively; and the AUROCs of GIVPR, APRI, FIB-4, and GPR for cirrhosis were 0.87, 0.78, 0.78, and 0.83, respectively. Similar results were also obtained in the validation group. Furthermore, the decision curve analysis suggested that GIVPR represented superior clinical benefits in both independent cohorts. Conclusion: The GIVPR constructed on GPR represents a superior predictive model for discriminating liver fibrosis in CHB patients.

16.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e055112, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update data on strabismus and evaluate the changes in prevalence and patterns among preschoolers in eastern China over a period of 5 years. DESIGN: Nanjing Eye Study, a longitudinal population-based study. SETTING: Recruitment and testing in kindergartens in Yuhuatai District, Nanjing. PARTICIPANTS: 2300 eligible children. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comprehensive ocular examinations were conducted in 1986 children aged 48-<60 months in Nanjing Eye Study (NES, 2016-2017), including visual acuity, ocular alignment, refractive error and ocular structures evaluation. The prevalence rate and pattern of strabismus were calculated and compared with those from the Nanjing Pediatric Vision Project (NPVP, 2011-2012) in children of the same age, of the same area and using the same diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rate of strabismus in NES was 5.56% (95% CI 4.54% to 6.57%), which was not significantly different from that in NPVP (4.99%, 95% CI 4.13% to 5.84%, p=0.40). The prevalence of subtypes of strabismus underwent significant changes, with significant increase in intermittent exotropia (IXT) in NES (2.78% vs 4.69%, p=0.001) and significant decrease in constant exotropia (1.17% vs 0.15%, p<0.001). Significant change in pattern was observed in IXT, where the proportion of the convergence insufficiency type (2.90% vs 27.17%) increased and exceeded the divergence excess type (20.29% vs 11.96%) to be the second common type (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of strabismus appeared stable in children aged 48-<60 months in eastern China at a 5-year interval. The prevalence of IXT increased significantly, and the convergence insufficiency type became more prevalent in patients with IXT. Timely detection and intervention of IXT are important among preschoolers.


Assuntos
Estrabismo , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Refração Ocular , Estrabismo/epidemiologia
17.
Chem Biodivers ; : e2100594, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704347

RESUMO

Terrein is a small-molecule polyketide compound with a simple structure mainly isolated from fungi. Since its discovery in 1935, many scholars have conducted a series of research on its structure identification, isolation source, production increase, synthesis and biological activity. Studies have shown that terrein has a variety of biological activities, not only can inhibit melanin production and epidermal hyperplasia, but also has anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiopoietic secretion, antibacterial, insecticidal activities, and so on. It has potential application prospects in beauty, medicine, agriculture and other fields. This article reviews the process of structural identification of terrein since 1935, and summarizes the latest advances in its isolation, source, production increase, synthesis, and biological activity evaluation, with a view to providing a reference and helping for the in-depth research of terrein.

18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(21): 14526-14535, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672547

RESUMO

Cooking organic aerosol (COA) is an important source of particulate pollutants in urbanized regions. Yet, the diversity and complexity of COA components make direct identification and quantification of COA difficult. In this study, we conducted collocated OA measurements with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TAG) in Shanghai. Cooking molecular tracers (e.g., C18 fatty acids, azelaic acid) measured by TAG provide unambiguous source information for evaluating the tracer ion (C6H10O+, m/z 98) used for identification and apportionment of COA in AMS analysis. Based on the collocated AMS and TAG measurements, two COA factors, namely, a primary COA (PCOA) and an oxygenated COA (OCOA) produced from rapid oxygenation of freshly emitted PCOA, were identified. Criteria for identifying COA factors from AMS analysis with different oxygenation levels are proposed, i.e., characteristic mass spectra, temporal variations, etc. Furthermore, two positive matrix factorization approaches, namely, AMS-PMF and the molecular marker (MM)-PMF, were compared for COA quantification, where high consistency was found with the contribution of COA to total PM2.5 mass estimated to be 9 ± 7% by AMS-PMF and 6 ± 5% by the MM-PMF. Our study highlights the important impacts of cooking activities on air quality in urban areas. We also demonstrate the advantage of conducting collocated measurements using multiple high time resolution mass spectrometric techniques in advancing our understanding of atmospheric OA chemistry and improving the accuracy of source apportionment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Massas , Material Particulado/análise
19.
Xenobiotica ; 51(10): 1181-1187, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514945

RESUMO

1. Morin, a natural flavonol, is present in many plants. It has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities and is often used as an adjuvant treatment for arthritis. Diclofenac sodium is the first-choice drug in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, the herb-drug interaction (HDI) between morin and diclofenac sodium remains unclear.2. The aim of the present research was to investigate whether and how morin affect the pharmacokinetic profile of diclofenac sodium.3. The enzyme kinetic and pharmacokinetic studies showed that morin significantly accelerated the metabolism and reduced systemic exposure of diclofenac sodium. Interestingly, the effect of morin on the pharmacokinetic profile of diclofenac sodium was not in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, the effect of morin on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was further investigated.4. The results implied that the influence mechanism of morin on the pharmacokinetic of diclofenac sodium might be related to CYP2C9 and P-gp. Attention should be paid to the risk of HDI between morin and diclofenac sodium in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco , Flavonoides , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Ratos
20.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(15): 3599-3608, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522187

RESUMO

Objective: The easy liver fibrosis test (eLIFT) is a novel predictor of liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease (CLD). This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of the eLIFT for liver inflammation and fibrosis in CLD patients. Methods: We enrolled 1125 patients with CLD who underwent liver biopsy. The predictive accuracy for liver inflammation and fibrosis of the eLIFT was assessed and compared to that of the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis-4 score (FIB-4), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-to-platelet ratio (GPR) by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and decision curve analysis (DCA). Results: The areas under the ROC curves (AUROCs) of the eLIFT for assessing liver inflammation G ≥ 2 and G ≥ 3 were 0.77 (0.75-0.80) and 0.81 (0.79-0.84), with cut-offs of 8.0 and 11.0, respectively. The AUROCs of the eLIFT for predicting fibrosis stages S ≥ 2 and S4 were 0.72 (0.70-0.76) and 0.76 (0.72-0.80), with cut-offs of 9.0 and 10.0, respectively. In discriminating G≥2 inflammation, the AUROC of the eLIFT was better than that of the FIB-4, with no difference compared with the GPR, but lower than that of the APRI. When discriminating G≥3 inflammation, the AUROC of the eLIFT was comparable to that of the APRI and GPR but superior to that of the FIB-4. There were no significant differences between the four indexes for predicting S≥2 and S4. Conclusion: The eLIFT is a potentially useful noninvasive predictor of liver inflammation and fibrosis in patients with CLD.

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