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1.
Opt Lett ; 47(15): 3676-3679, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913287

RESUMO

Integrated photonics provides a path for miniaturization of an optical system to a compact chip scale and offers reconfigurability by the integration of active components. Here we report a chip-scale reconfigurable scan lens based on an optical phased array, consisting of 30 actively controlled elements on the InP integrated photonic platform. By configuring the phase shifters, we show scanning of a nearly diffraction-limited focused spot with a full width at half maximum spot size down to 2.7 µm at the wavelength of 1550 nm. We demonstrate the key functions needed for a laser-scanning microscope, including light focusing, collection, and steering. We also perform confocal measurements to detect reflection at selective depths.

2.
Am J Cancer Res ; 12(6): 2659-2672, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35812043

RESUMO

Microscopic vascular invasion (MVI) is a strong risk factor associated with tumor recurrence and poor overall survival (OS) among hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after resection. Two types of MVI are identified: portal vein and capsular vein invasion. However, little is known about the impact of different types of MVI on HCC recurrence. The present study aimed to compare HCC recurrence and OS between the portal vein and capsule vein MVI. Patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage 0 or A HCC who underwent primary resection between January 2001 and June 2016 were consecutively recruited. Factors that influenced OS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. Of the 857 eligible patients, 327 (38.2%) had MVI, and 530 (61.8%) were without MVI. Of the 327 patients with MVI, 85 (26.0%) were with portal vein, 178 (54.4%) with capsular vein, and 64 (19.6%) with both-MVI type. Patients with both-MVI type suffered from a higher proportion of BCLC stage A (P < 0.001), capsular invasion (P = 0.002), and satellite nodules (P < 0.001). Both-MVI type is an independent risk factor for HCC recurrence (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.69; 95% CI, 1.22-2.36, P = 0.002) and mortality (HR: 2.29; 95% CI, 1.59-3.29, P < 0.001) compared with non-MVI. We further found that both-MVI type was significantly associated with a higher risk of extrahepatic recurrence (EHR) (HR: 8.74; 95% CI, 2.38-32.03, P = 0.001). Among HCC patients after curative resection, concurrent portal and capsular MVI is a risk factor for HCC recurrence, especially for EHR, in comparison with non-MVI or only portal or capsular MVI alone.

3.
J Med Chem ; 65(14): 9955-9973, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35818137

RESUMO

Phenylbutyric acid (PBA) has been reported as a dual inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), exhibiting anticancer effects. However, the low membrane permeability and poor cellular uptake limit its access to the target organelle, resulting in weak potencies against the intended targets. Herein, we report the design and identification of a novel 4-CF3-phenyl triphenylphosphonium-based PBA conjugate (53) with improved in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities. Compound 53 exhibited an IC50 value of 2.22 µM against A375 cells, outperforming the parent drug PBA by about 4000-fold. In the A375 cell-derived xenograft mouse model, 53 reduced the tumor growth by 76% at a dose of 40 mg/kg, while PBA only reduced the tumor growth by 10% at a dose of 80 mg/kg. On the basis of these results, 53 may be considered for further preclinical evaluations for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Pró-Fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Histona Desacetilases , Humanos , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Piruvato Desidrogenase Quinase de Transferência de Acetil
4.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(15)2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35893647

RESUMO

Plant leaf stoichiometry reflects its adaptation to the environment. Leaf stoichiometry variations across different environments have been extensively studied in grassland plants, but little is known about intraspecific leaf stoichiometry, especially for widely distributed species, such as Stellera chamaejasme L. We present the first study on the leaf stoichiometry of S. chamaejasme and evaluate its relationships with environmental variables. S. chamaejasme leaf and soil samples from 29 invaded sites in the two plateaus of distinct environments [the Inner Mongolian Plateau (IM) and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QT)] in Northern China were collected. Leaf C, N, P, and K and their stoichiometric ratios, and soil physicochemical properties were determined and compared with climate information from each sampling site. The results showed that mean leaf C, N, P, and K concentrations were 498.60, 19.95, 2.15, and 6.57 g kg-1; the average C:N, C:P, N:P, N:K and K:P ratios were 25.20, 245.57, 9.81, 3.13, and 3.21, respectively. The N:P:K-ratios in S. chamaejasme leaf might imply that its growth is restricted by K- or K+N. Moreover, the soil physicochemical properties in the S. chamaejasme-infested areas varied remarkably, and few significant correlations between S. chamaejasme leaf ecological stoichiometry and soil physicochemical properties were observed. These indicate the nutrient concentrations and stoichiometry of S. chamaejasme tend to be insensitive to variations in the soil nutrient availability, resulting in their broad distributions in China's grasslands. Besides, different homeostasis strength of the C, N, K, and their ratios in S. chamaejasme leaves across all sites were observed, which means S. chamaejasme could be more conservative in their use of nutrients improving their adaptation to diverse conditions. Moreover, the leaf C and N contents of S. chamaejasm were unaffected by any climate factors. However, the correlation between leaf P content and climate factors was significant only in IM, while the leaf K happened to be significant in QT. Besides, MAP or MAT contribution was stronger in the leaf elements than soil by using mixed effects models, which illustrated once more the relatively weak effect of the soil physicochemical properties on the leaf elements. Finally, partial least squares path modeling suggested that leaf P or K contents were affected by different mechanisms in QT and IM regions, suggesting that S. chamaejasme can adapt to changing environments by adjusting its relationships with the climate or soil factors to improve its survival opportunities in degraded grasslands.

5.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 138, 2022 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of the loving-kindness meditation (LKM) on employees' mindfulness, affect, altruism and knowledge hiding. METHODS: In total, 100 employees were recruited from a knowledge-based enterprise in China and randomly divided into the LKM training group (n = 50) and the control group (n = 50). The LKM training group underwent LKM training for 8 weeks, while the control group did not. Seven main variables (mindfulness, altruism positive affect, negative affect, playing dumb, rationalized hiding, and evasive hiding) were measured both before (pre-test) and after (post-test) the LKM training intervention. RESULTS: The LKM intervention significantly increased participants' altruism, and significantly reduced negative affect, playing dumb and evasive hiding, but did not significantly improve mindfulness, positive affect, and rationalized hiding. CONCLUSIONS: LKM significantly improved employees' altruism, and significantly reduce their negative affect, but did not significantly improve their mindfulness and positive affect. For knowledge hiding, LKM significantly reduced playing dumb and evasive hiding, but had no significant effect on rationalized hiding. These results further elucidate the psychological effects of LKM and suggest the possibility of reducing knowledge hiding in the workplace. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR2200057460. Registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR), 13 March 2022-Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Meditação , Atenção Plena , Altruísmo , China , Humanos , Meditação/métodos
6.
Front Psychol ; 13: 894337, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719584

RESUMO

Creativity is so important for social and technological development that people are eager to find an easy way to enhance it. Previous studies have shown that mindfulness has significant effects on positive affect (PA), working memory capacity, cognitive flexibility and many other aspects, which are the key to promoting creativity. However, there are few studies on the relationship between mindfulness and creativity. The mechanism between mindfulness and creativity is still uncertain. Meditation is an important method of mindfulness training, but for most people who do not have the basic training, it's difficult to master how to get into a state of mindfulness. Animation has been shown by many studies to help improve cognition and is often used as a guiding tool. Using animation as the guiding carrier of meditation is more convenient and easier to accept. Therefore, this study adopted the intervention method of animation-guided meditation, aiming to explore: (1) the effect of animation-guided meditation on enhancing creativity; (2) the role of flow and emotion in the influence of mindfulness on creativity. We advertised recruitment through the internal network of a creative industrial park, and the final 95 eligible participants were divided into two groups: animation (n = 48) and audio (n = 47) guided meditation. The animation group was given an animated meditation intervention, and the audio group was given an audio meditation intervention, both interventions were performed 3 times a week and last for 8 weeks. Results: (1) Animation-guided meditation significantly increased participants' mindfulness and creativity levels; Significantly reduced their cognitive load compared to audio-guided meditation. (2) Mindfulness has a significant direct effect on creativity, and significant indirect effects on creativity; Flow and PA act as the mediating variable. Conclusion: (1) Mindfulness, flow, and PA all helped to improve the subjects' work creativity. In addition to the direct positive impact of mindfulness on creativity, mindfulness can also have an indirect positive impact on creativity through flow and PA. (2) Compared with audio, animation can significantly reduce cognitive load and help improve users' cognitive ability, which is more suitable for the guidance materials of mindfulness meditation to enhance the effect of meditation.

7.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 101(8): 889-900, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35645037

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cesarean scar defect (CSD) is a long-term outcome of cesarean section (CS) and associated with numerous gynecological and obstetric problems. Previous studies indicate that infection may be a risk factor for CSD. Adjunctive azithromycin was shown to reduce the risk of postoperative infection in patients undergoing non-elective primary cesarean delivery in labor or after the rupture of membranes compared with standard antibiotic prophylaxis. This study investigated the protective effect of adjunctive azithromycin in combination with single-dose cephalosporin against CSD in women undergoing non-elective cesarean delivery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted in a University hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of 242 women who underwent their first non-elective CS were randomly assigned to receive 1500 mg cefuroxime sodium plus 500 mg intravenous azithromycin (n = 121; experimental group) or 1500 mg cefuroxime sodium plus a placebo (n = 121; placebo group). The primary outcome was CSD prevalence, as determined by transvaginal ultrasound and saline infusion sonohysterography within 6 months of delivery. Secondary outcomes were changes in infectious indicators (eg hypersensitive C-reactive protein and procalcitonin), postoperative morbidity, and use of postoperative antibiotics. We also examined the operative procedure, pathogenic microorganism cultures, and fetal outcomes. Outcomes were compared between groups with the chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, or Student's t test. RESULTS: Between May 2018 and May 2021, 121 women were randomized to each arm. Because the sonographic follow up was disrupted by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and strict management policies, we merged the follow-up time points (6 weeks and 6 months) into a single time period (6 weeks to 6 months); 104 and 108 women in the experimental and placebo groups, respectively, completed the first sonographic follow up. CSD was diagnosed by sonography in 34/104 (32.7%) and 50/108 (46.3%) patients in the experimental and placebo groups, respectively (relative risk 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.50-0.99; p = 0.043). Characteristics of CSD and short-term infection outcomes did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of intravenous 500 mg azithromycin adjunctive to single-dose cefuroxime prophylaxis significantly reduced the incidence of CSD in women undergoing non-elective CS.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Cefuroxima/uso terapêutico , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Cesárea/métodos , China , Cicatriz/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Sódio
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627413

RESUMO

Little is known about the effectiveness of Interdisciplinary teaching (IDT) in higher education, particularly for healthcare education in Taiwan. It is vital to determine if IDT could enhance divergent creative thinking and team creativity among nursing students. A quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest design. Students enrolled in a capstone nursing course for the development of healthcare-related products were divided into two groups. The intervention group (n = 61) was taught creative thinking skills with IDT by faculty. The control group (n = 84) was taught by nursing faculty with traditional teaching. This study found that students who received the IDT intervention scored significantly higher on measures of creative thinking and team creativity compared with students in the control group. These findings suggest integrating IDT from nursing and design faculty into the teaching curriculum to foster students' creative thinking abilities when formulating interdisciplinary student teams to develop innovative, creative healthcare products.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Currículo , Docentes de Enfermagem , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patient safety is a worldwide problem and a focus of academic research. Human factors and ergonomics (HFE) is an approach to improving healthcare work systems and processes. From the perspective of the cognitive ergonomics of HFE, the aim of this study is to improve the flow level, communication skills, and safety attitudes of surgeons through focused-attention meditation (FAM) training, thus helping to reduce adverse clinical events. METHODS: In total, 140 surgeons were recruited from three hospitals in China and randomly divided into two groups (FAM group and control group). The FAM group received 8 weeks of FAM training, while the control group was on the waiting list and did not receive any interventions. Three scales (WOLF, LCSAS, and SAQ-C) were used to measure the data of three variables (flow, communication skills, and safety attitude), respectively, at two times, before and after the intervention (pre-test and post-test). The incidence of adverse events during the intervention was also collected for both groups. RESULTS: The ANOVA results showed that all three variables had a significant main effect of time and significant interactions between time and group. The independent-sample T-test results showed that the incidence of adverse events during the intervention was significantly lower in the FAM group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention of FAM could significantly improve surgeons' flow levels, communication skills, and safety attitudes, potentially helping to reduce adverse clinical events.


Assuntos
Meditação , Cirurgiões , Atenção , Atitude , Comunicação , Humanos , Meditação/métodos
10.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 127, 2022 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, sufentanil has a stronger sedative effect on patients than fentanyl at equivalent doses. This study hypothesized that, at equivalent doses, patients undergoing gynaecologic laparoscopic surgery (GLS) receiving fentanyl would have an earlier emergence from anaesthesia (EA), a shorter time to extubation (TE), and a better degree of wakefulness. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of equipotent doses of fentanyl and sufentanil on the quality of emergence in patients undergoing GLS. METHODS: One hundred seven patients scheduled for GLS under general anaesthesia were randomly divided into two groups and were induced with 0.35 µg/kg sufentanil (Group S; n = 55) or 3.5 µg/kg fentanyl (Group F; n = 52). When the GLS was almost over, the patient's abdominal cavity was flushed with warm saline, and 5 µg of sufentanil or 50 µg of fentanyl in a double-blind manner was intravenously injected into the patients. The primary outcomes of the study included EA, TE, the rate of leaving the surgical bed voluntarily and the incidence of endotracheal tube tolerance. The Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS), and Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) scores at 15 and 30 min in the postanaesthesia care unit (PACU), as well as other adverse events, including nausea and vomiting, itching, delirium, dizziness, chills, and respiratory depression (SpO2 < 95%) in the PACU, were evaluated as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant dissimilarities between the two groups with respect to baseline characteristics. For recovery, the EA (9.0 ± 4.8 min vs. 8.9 ± 3.0 min; P = 0. 146), TE (9.5 ± 4.7 min vs. 9.0 ± 3.0 min; P = 0.135), rate of leaving the surgical bed voluntarily (31.18% vs. 38.46%; P = 0.976), and incidence of endotracheal tube tolerance (94.55% vs. 96.15%; P = 0.694) were not significantly different between the two groups. In the PACU, the 15-min RSS score (2.07 ± 0.38 vs. 2.15 ± 0.36; P = 0.125), the 30-min RSS score (2.02 ± 0.13 vs. 2.04 ± 0.19; P = 0.207), the 15-min VRS score (0.50 ± 0.57 vs. 0.67 ± 0.55; P = 0.295), and the 30-min VRS score (0.45 ± 0.50 vs. 0.75 ± 0.52; P = 0.102) were not significantly different between Groups S and F. No adverse events, such as nausea, vomiting, pruritus, delirium, and tremors, occurred in either group. The rates of respiratory depression (1.82% vs. 1.92%; P = 0.968) and dizziness (0.00% vs. 4.85%; P = 0.142) were not different between Groups S and F in the PACU. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients scheduled for GLS were able to rapidly and smoothly emerge from anaesthesia. After surgery, similar outcomes, including EA, TE, the incidence of endotracheal tube tolerance, the rate of leaving the surgical bed voluntarily, RSS scores, VRS scores, and adverse events in the PACU, were achieved for the patients between the two anaesthetic protocols.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Delírio , Laparoscopia , Propofol , Insuficiência Respiratória , Tontura/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Fentanila , Humanos , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Propofol/efeitos adversos , Remifentanil , Insuficiência Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Sufentanil , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of mindfulness meditation on doctors' mindfulness, patient safety culture, patient safety competency, and adverse events. METHODS: We recruited 91 doctors from a hospital in China and randomized them to mindfulness meditation group (n = 46) and a waiting control group (n = 45). The mindfulness meditation group underwent an 8-week mindfulness meditation intervention, while the control group underwent no intervention. We measured four main variables (mindfulness, patient safety culture, patient safety competency, and adverse event) before and after the mindfulness meditation intervention. RESULTS: In the experimental group, mindfulness, patient safety culture and patient safety competency were significantly higher compared with those of the control group. In the control group, there were no significant differences in any of the three variables between the pre-test and post-test. Adverse events in the experimental group were significantly lower than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention of mindfulness meditation significantly improved the level of mindfulness, patient safety culture and patient safety competency. During the mindfulness meditation intervention, the rate of adverse events in the meditation group was also significantly lower than in the control group. As a simple and effective intervention, mindfulness meditation plays a positive role in improving patient safety and has certain promotional value.


Assuntos
Meditação , Atenção Plena , Médicos , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Gestão da Segurança
12.
J Exp Bot ; 73(11): 3610-3624, 2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263759

RESUMO

Deciphering the genetic basis of organoleptic traits is critical for improving the quality of fruits, which greatly shapes their appeal to consumers. Here, we characterize the citrus R3-MYB transcription factor TRIPTYCHON-LIKE (CitTRL), which is closely associated with the levels of citric acid, proanthocyanidins (PAs), and anthocyanins. Overexpression of CitTRL lowered acidity levels and PA contents in citrus calli as well as anthocyanin and PA contents in Arabidopsis leaves and seeds. CitTRL interacts with the two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins CitbHLH1 and ANTHOCYANIN 1 (CitAN1) to regulate fruit quality. We show that CitTRL competes with the R2R3-MYB CitRuby1 for binding to CitbHLH1 or CitAN1, thereby repressing their activation of anthocyanin structural genes. CitTRL also competes with a second R2R3-MYB, CitPH4, for binding to CitAN1, thus altering the expression of the vacuolar proton-pump gene PH5 and Leucoanthocyanidin reductase, responsible for vacuolar acidification and proanthocyanidins biosynthesis, respectively. Moreover, CitPH4 activates CitTRL transcription, thus forming an activator-repressor loop to prevent the overaccumulation of citric acid and PAs. Overall, this study demonstrates that CitTRL acts as a repressor of the accumulation of citric acid, PAs, and anthocyanins by a cross-regulation mechanism. Our results provide an opportunity to simultaneously manipulate these key traits as a means to produce citrus fruits that are both visually and organoleptically appealing.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Citrus , Proantocianidinas , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Citrus/genética , Citrus/metabolismo , Cor , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Paladar , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
J Plant Res ; 135(3): 443-452, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35338406

RESUMO

Abrus pulchellus subsp. cantoniensis, an endemic medicinal plant in southern China, is clinically used to treat jaundice hepatitis, cholecystitis, stomachache and breast carbuncle. Here, we assembled and analyzed the first complete chloroplast (cp) genome of A. pulchellus subsp. cantoniensis. The A. pulchellus subsp. cantoniensis cp genome size is 156,497 bp with 36.5% GC content. The cp genome encodes 130 genes, including 77 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and four rRNA genes, of which 19 genes are duplicated in the inverted repeats (IR) regions. A total of 30 codons exhibited codon usage bias with A/U-ending. Moreover, 53 putative RNA editing sites were predicted in 20 genes, all of which were cytidine to thymine transitions. Repeat sequence analysis identified 45 repeat structures and 125 simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) in A. pulchellus subsp. cantoniensis cp genome. In addition, 19 mononucleotides (located in atpB, trnV-UAC, ycf3, atpF, rps16, rps18, clpP, rpl16, trnG-UCC and ndhA) and three compound SSRs (located in ndhA, atpB and rpl16) showed species specificity between A. pulchellus subsp. cantoniensis and Abrus precatorius, which might be informative sources for developing molecular markers for species identification. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis inferred that A. pulchellus subsp. cantoniensis was closely related to A. precatorius, and the genus Abrus formed a subclade with Canavalia in the Millettioid/Phaseoloid clade. These data provide a valuable resource to facilitate the evolutionary relationship and species identification of this species.


Assuntos
Abrus , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Plantas Medicinais , Abrus/genética , Composição de Bases , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Filogenia , Plantas Medicinais/genética
14.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35214819

RESUMO

Allelopathy is an important process in plant communities. The effects of allelopathy on seed germination and seedling development have been extensively investigated. However, the influences of extract soaking time and concentration on the foregoing parameters are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a seed germination assay to determine the allelopathic effects of the donor herbs Achnatherum splendens (Trin.) Nevski, Artemisia frigida Willd., and Stellera chamaejasme L., from a degraded grassland ecosystem in northern China, on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination and early seedling growth. Extract soaking times (12 h or 24 h) did not exhibit significantly different effects on lettuce seed germination or seedling development. However, all aqueous herb extracts inhibited lettuce seed germination and root length (RI < 0) and promoted lettuce shoot length, stem length, leaf length, and leaf width (RI > 0) at both low (0.005 g mL-1) and high (0.05 g mL-1) concentrations. Moreover, A. splendens extracts increased seedling biomass (RI > 0) and synthetical allelopathic effect (SE > 0) at both concentrations. In contrast, both A. frigida and S. chamaejasme extracts had hormesis effects, which stimulate at low concentrations (RI > 0) but inhibit at high concentrations (RI < 0) on seedling biomass and synthetical allelopathic effect (SE). The results suggest that allelopathic potential may be an important mechanism driving the dominance of A. frigida and S. chamaejasme in degraded grasslands. Reseeding allelopathy-promoting species such as A. splendens may be beneficial to grassland restoration. The present study also demonstrated that seedling biomass, root and shoot length, and seed germination rate are the optimal bioindicators in allelopathy assays and could be more representative when they are combined with the results of multivariate analyses.

15.
Hortic Res ; 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043180

RESUMO

Pueraria lobata var. thomsonii (hereinafter abbreviated as Podalirius thomsonii), a member of legumes, is one of the important traditional Chinese herbal medicines, and its puerarin extraction is widely used in health and pharmaceutical industry. Here, we assembled a high-quality genome of P. thomsonii using long-read single-molecule sequencing and Hi-C technologies. The genome assembly is approximately 1.37 Gb in size and consists of 5145 contigs with a contig N50 of 593.70 Kb, further clustered into 11 pseudochromosomes. The genome structural annotation resulted in about 869.33 Mb (about 62.70% of the genome) repeat regions and 45 270 protein-coding genes. Genome evolution analysis revealed that P. thomsonii is most closely related to soybean and underwent two ancient whole-genome duplication events, one was in the common ancestor shared by legume species, the other occurred independently at around 7.2 million years ago after its specification. A total of 2373 gene families were found unique in P. thomsonii comparing to five other legume species. Genes and metabolites related to puerarin content in tuberous tissues were characterized. A total of 572 genes upregulated in the puerarin biosynthesis pathway were identified, and 235 candidate genes were further enriched by omics data. Furthermore, we identified 6 8-C-glucosyltransferase (8-C-GT) candidate genes significantly involved in puerarin metabolism. Our study filled in a key genomic gap in legume family, and provided valuable multi-omic resources for the genetic improvement of P. thomsonii.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(5): 7102-7108, 2022 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35089031

RESUMO

Nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices were fabricated by implanting a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of functional dithienylethene (DTE) derivative on the gold nanoparticle (Au-NP) surface in a pentacene-based organic transistor. The Au-NPs and DTE served as a charge-trapping medium and tunneling barrier layer, respectively. The transfer characteristic of the NVM device showed a narrow hysteresis window and wide memory window, indicating that the DTE-SAM served as a variable barrier layer to regulate the trapping and detrapping of external free charges at the Au-NPs. The energy gap introduced by the DTE-SAM is modulated through photoisomerization between a ring-open form and a ring-closed form by absorbing UV or visible light. For a memory device, the ring-closed DTE allows more free charge injection into the trapping sites, and the ring-open one better retains the trapped charges. A longer anchoring alkanethiol chain at the DTE moiety can further extend the device's retention time. For the NVM operation, programming with the ring-closed DTE and then switching the DTE structure to the ring-open form for erasing can facilitate the charge trapping and charge retention with the same molecule compared to operating all in the ring-open form or all in the ring-closed form of DTE. The structural characterization and electronic characteristics of these devices are discussed in detail.

17.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 37(3): 495-506, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis aimed to determine whether artificial intelligence (AI) improves colonoscopy outcome metrics i.e. adenoma detection rate (ADR) and polyp detection rate (PDR). METHODS: Two authors independently searched Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, and Cochrane Library to find all published research before July 2021 that has compared AI-aided colonoscopy with routine colonoscopy (RC) for detection of adenoma and polyp. RESULTS: This meta-analysis included 10 RCTs with 6629 individuals in AI-aided (n = 3300) and routine (n = 3329) groups. The results showed that both ADR (RR, 1.43; P < 0.001) and PDR (RR, 1.44; P < 0.001) using AI-aided endoscopy were significantly greater when compared with RC. The adenomas detected per colonoscopy (APC) (WMD, 0.25; P = 0.009), polyps detected per colonoscopy (PPC) (WMD, 0.52; P < 0.001), and sessile serrated lesions detected per colonoscopy (SSLPC) (RR, 1.53; P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the AI-aided group compared with the RC group. Subgroup analysis based on size, location, and shape of adenomas and polyps demonstrated that, except for in the cecum and pedunculated adenomas or polyps, the AI-aided groups of the other subgroups are more advantageous. Withdrawal time was longer in the AI-aided group when biopsies were included, while withdrawal time excluding biopsy time showed no significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: AI-aided polyp detection system significantly increases lesion detection rate. In addition, lesion detection by AI is hardly affected by factors such as size, location, and shape.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Pólipos do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Inteligência Artificial , Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 765041, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34880889

RESUMO

The degradation of the grassland system has severely threatened the safety of the ecological environment and animal husbandry. The supplement of key substances lost due to degradation is widely used to accelerate the restoration of the degraded grassland ecosystem. In this study, we investigated the effects of biochar and nitrogen addition on soil properties and microorganisms of degraded alpine grassland. The experimental treatments consisted of the control without any addition, only nitrogen addition (10 gN/m2), only biochar addition (4.00 kg/m2 biochar), and the mixed addition of biochar and nitrogen (4.00 kg/m2 biochar and 10 gN/m2 nitrogen, respectively). Adding N alone did not significantly change the pH, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass (MB), and the composition proportion of microbes of the soil, but increased the contents of soil water content (SWC), NH4 +-N, NO3 --N, available phosphorus (AP), and the biomass of bacteria and fungi. The addition of biochar or the mixture of biochar and nitrogen increased the contents of pH, TOC, TN, MB, SWC, NH4 +-N, NO3 --N, AP, bacteria, and fungi in the soil and changed the structure of the soil microbial community. The increasing intensity of AP, bacteria, and fungi under the addition of biochar or the mixture of biochar and nitrogen was significantly greater than that under N addition alone. These results indicated that the separated addition of nitrogen and biochar and the mixed addition of biochar and nitrogen all improved the soil condition of the moderate-severe degraded alpine grassland, but the mixed addition of biochar and nitrogen could be a better strategy to remediate the degraded alpine grassland.

19.
Hum Factors ; : 187208211060900, 2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether animation can help to improve the comprehension of universal healthcare symbols for middle-aged and older adults. BACKGROUND: The Hablamos Juntos (HJ) healthcare symbol system is a set of widely used universal healthcare symbols that were developed in the United States. Some studies indicated that HJ healthcare symbols are not well-understood by users in non-English-speaking areas. Other studies found that animations can improve users' comprehension of complex symbols. Thus, we wanted to test whether animation could help to improve users' comprehension of HJ symbols. METHODS: The participants included 40 middle-aged and 40 older adults in Taiwan. We redesigned the 12 HJ symbols into three visual formats-static, basic animation, and detailed animation-and compared them to find which best improved the participants' guessability scores. RESULTS: (1) Middle-aged adults' comprehension of static and basic animated symbols was significantly better than that of older adults, but there was no significant difference in the guessability scores between the two age groups in terms of detailed animated symbols; (2) In general, both basic animation and detailed animation significantly improved the guessability score, but the effect with detailed animation was significantly greater than that with basic animation; (3) Older women were more receptive to detailed animation and showed better guessing performance. CONCLUSION: Detailed animation contains more details and provides a more complete explanation of the concept of the static symbols, helping to improve the comprehension of HJ symbols for middle-aged and older adult users. APPLICATION: Our findings provide a reference for the possibility of new style symbol design in the digital and aging era, which can be applied to improve symbol comprehension.

20.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 27(4): 295-300, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914210

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the expression of the Spag6L gene during spermatogenesis and the effects of Spag6L silencing on the proliferation and apoptosis of mouse GC-2 spd cells. METHODS: Using reverse-transcription PCR and real-time qPCR, we detected the expression of the Spag6L gene in the testis tissue collected from the mice at 8, 16, 20, 28 and 42 postnatal days. We prepared lentiviral particles inhibiting the expression of Spag6L and transfected them into the GC-2 spd cells. Then we screened the stably transfected cell lines with the Spag6L expression effectively down-regulated by real-time qPCR, analyzed the effects of Spag6L silencing on the proliferation, activity, cell cycle and apoptosis of the GC-2 spd cells by cell counting and flow cytometry, and on the expression levels of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 by Western blot. RESULTS: The Spag6L gene was slightly expressed in the testis tissue of the mice at 8 postnatal days and gradually up-regulated with the development of the testis. Inhibition of the Spag6Lexpression significantly decreased the activity of the GC-2 spd cells (P < 0.01), leading to cell arrest in the G1 phase. The expression of the Bax protein was dramatically up-regulated (P < 0.01) while that of Bcl-2 remarkably down-regulated (P < 0.01) in the Spag6L shRNA- transfected cells, inducing the apoptosis of the cells. CONCLUSIONS: The Spag6L gene is involved in the spermatogenesis of mice by regulating the cell cycle, proliferation and apoptosis of spermatocytes.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Espermatócitos , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Masculino , Camundongos
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