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1.
J Affect Disord ; 297: 269-275, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to adapt and modify the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Patient to develop the COVID-19 Stigma Instrument-Patient (CSI-P) and validate its psychometric characteristics, as well as explore how affected individuals in China experienced COVID-related stigma and its associated variables, including depressive symptomology and quality of life (QOL). METHODS: From September to October 2020, 151 COVID-19 survivors recruited in Shanghai, China, completed a set of measures of demographic characteristics, depression, stigma, and QOL. RESULTS: The 15-item CSI-P-2 achieved a Cronbach's α of 0.67 to 0.91. The six-factor structure was obtained by exploratory factor analysis. The mean score for the CSI-P-2 in Chinese COVID survivors was 8.14 ± 9.98. Regression analysis showed that survivors' age, comorbid diseases, education levels, and loneliness level were the factors influencing their COVID-19 stigma, explaining 37.80% of the total variance (F = 19.25, p < 0.001). Also, stigma's effect on QOL was significant in direct and indirect paths mediated by depressive symptomology. LIMITATIONS: First, this sample might limit the generalization of the findings to other Chinese-speaking regions. Second, future longitudinal or experimental studies are warranted for checking and further refinement of the scale. Finally, future studies are needed on the changing dynamics of stigma in different stages of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The 29-item CSI-P-2 with six domains is an instrument with sound psychometric properties that can be used to measure COVID-19 stigma during the COVID-19 outbreak and, later, for COVID-19 survivors. Future studies should explore how to integrate the significant demographic and psychological characteristics influencing the experience of stigma work on this study into the development of stigma-reducing interventions.

2.
Chest ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory and cardiovascular disease (CVD) frequently coexist; however, there is limited evidence on the relationship between chronic respiratory symptoms in young adulthood and late-onset CVD. RESEARCH QUESTION: Are chronic respiratory symptoms in young adulthood associated with CVD and all-cause mortality in later life? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 4,621 participants from CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) cohort study aged 18-30 were included. Chronic respiratory symptoms were identified through respiratory symptom questionnaires in two consecutive exams. Incident CVD and all-cause mortality were adjudicated over 30-year follow-up. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to explore association of chronic respiratory symptoms with incident CVD and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 30.9 years, 284 CVD events (6.15%) and 378 deaths (8.18%) occurred. After multivariable adjustment for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, smoking and lung function, the hazard ratios (95% CIs) for CVD events were 1.51 (1.18-1.93) for any respiratory symptom, 1.57 (1.18-2.09) for cough or phlegm, 1.31 (1.01-1.68) for wheeze, 1.73 (1.25-2.41) for shortness of breath, and 1.32 (1.01-1.71) for chest illnesses. Similar findings were also observed in all-cause mortality. Comparing 0 versus 3-4 respiratory symptoms, the hazard ratios (95% CIs) were 1.97 (1.34-2.91) for CVD and 1.75 (1.23-2.47) for all-cause mortality. Similar results were observed in various sensitivity analyses. INTERPRETATION: Chronic respiratory symptoms in young adulthood are associated with an increased risk of CVD and all-cause mortality in midlife independent of established cardiovascular risk factors, smoking and lung function. Identifying chronic respiratory symptoms in young adulthood may help provide prognostic information regarding future cardiovascular health.

3.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837523

RESUMO

AIMS: Few studies have examined the secular trend of the energy intake distribution, and its effect on future risk of hyperglycemia. This study aims to describe trajectories of energy intake distribution over 12 years and relate them to subsequent risk of hyperglycemia over 9 years of follow-up. METHODS: Our study used ten waves of data from the CHNS survey, a population-based longitudinal survey in China, ongoing since 1989. We examined a cohort of adult participants who were free from diabetes but had at least three waves of dietary data from 1997 to 2009. We assessed energy intake using three consecutive 24 h recalls. We used these data to identify trajectory groups of energy intake distribution by multi-trajectory model based on energy intake proportions of breakfast, lunch, and dinner. We followed up participants for hyperglycemia, diabetes, and impaired fasting glucose for 9 years from 2009 to 2018. Outcomes were ascertained with fasting glucose, serum HbA1c, and self-report of diabetes and/or glucose-lowering medication. We estimated relative risk (RR) for hyperglycemia, diabetes, and impaired fasting glucose by identified trajectory groups using multilevel mixed-effects modified Poisson regression with robust (sandwich) estimation of variance. Gender difference was additionally examined. RESULTS: A total of 4417 participants were included. Four trajectory groups were identified, characterized and labeled by "Energy evenly distributed with steady trend group" (Group 1), "Dinner and lunch energy dominant with relatively steady trend group" (Group 2), "Dinner energy dominant with increasing trend and breakfast energy with declining trend group" (Group 3), and "breakfast and dinner energy dominant with increasing trend group" (Group 4). During 48,091 person-years, 1053 cases of incident hyperglycemia occurred, 537 cases of incident diabetes occurred, and 516 cases of impaired fasting glucose occurred. Compared with Group 1, Group 3 was associated with higher subsequent risk of incident hyperglycemia in 9 years of follow-up (RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.61). No association was found for incident diabetes and impaired fasting glucose. Among males, Group 3 was associated with higher risk of incident hyperglycemia in 9 years of follow-up (RR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.94). No relationship was found in females. CONCLUSIONS: Energy intake distribution characterized by over 40% of energy intake from dinner with a rising trend over years was associated with higher long-term risk of hyperglycemia in Chinese adults.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836062

RESUMO

Unique rapid urbanization-related changes in China may affect the dietary protein intake of the aging population. We aimed to evaluate trends in dietary protein intake and major food sources of protein and estimate conformity to the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) in the elderly Chinese population. A sample of 10,854 elderly adults aged 60 years or older, drawn from 10 waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) between 1991 and 2018, was included. Protein intake data were obtained on the basis of 3-day, 24 h dietary recalls. The dietary protein intake among elderly Chinese individuals declined from 63.3 g/day to 57.8 g/day over the 28-year period, with a -0.032 ± 0.0001 g/day change per year (p < 0.05). There was a significant increase in the proportion of subjects with a protein intake level below the estimated averaged requirement (EAR) and a reduction in the proportion of subjects consuming protein above the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) across all population subgroups. Cereals ranked as the major sources of dietary protein, although their contribution to dietary protein gradually decreased as time went on. The contribution from meat steadily rose from 18.2% in 1991 to 28.7% in 2018. The proportion of energy gained from fat increased notably, reaching 34.2% in 2018. The elderly Chinese population experienced a significant reduction in dietary protein intake. Although the transformation of dietary patterns had positive effects on improving protein quality due to increases in animal source food, some elderly Chinese individuals currently face the risk of inadequate dietary protein intake.

5.
Plant Commun ; 2(6): 100230, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778746

RESUMO

Genotyping platforms, as critical supports for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding, have been well implemented at national institutions/universities in developed countries and multinational seed companies that possess high-throughput, automatic, large-scale, and shared facilities. In this study, we integrated an improved genotyping by target sequencing (GBTS) system with capture-in-solution (liquid chip) technology to develop a multiple single-nucleotide polymorphism (mSNP) approach in which mSNPs can be captured from a single amplicon. From one 40K maize mSNP panel, we developed three types of markers (40K mSNPs, 251K SNPs, and 690K haplotypes), and generated multiple panels with various marker densities (1K-40K mSNPs) by sequencing at different depths. Comparative genetic diversity analysis was performed with genic versus intergenic markers and di-allelic SNPs versus non-typical SNPs. Compared with the one-amplicon-one-SNP system, mSNPs and within-mSNP haplotypes are more powerful for genetic diversity detection, linkage disequilibrium decay analysis, and genome-wide association studies. The technologies, protocols, and application scenarios developed for maize in this study will serve as a model for the development of mSNP arrays and highly efficient GBTS systems in animals, plants, and microorganisms.

6.
Mindfulness (N Y) ; : 1-10, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777622

RESUMO

Objectives: Valid and reliable instruments for the measurement of mindfulness are crucial for people living with HIV. However, there was no Myanmar version of such an instrument. Methods: We adapted the English version of the 12-item Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R) based on standard cross-cultural procedures. By randomly sampling methods, a sample of 248 eligible people living with HIV was contacted from a closed Myanmar Facebook group; 159 PLHIV completed the initial 12-item version of the adapted survey. Results: Three items were removed due to low item-to-total correlations of the corrected item-total correlation as well as having infit and outfit mean squares outside the range of 0.6 to 1.4. After deleting the 3 items, the three-factor structure was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis, which indicated good model fit. The resultant 9-item CAMS-R in Myanmar (CAMS-R-M-2) achieved good internal reliability (Cronbach's α of 0.75 to 0.87, and the corrected item-total correlation ranged from 0.44 to 0.81). Construct validity of the scale was demonstrated by significant association with self-reported HIV stigma and social support levels (r = 0.63, and - 0.53). In Rasch analysis, the infit and outfit mean squares for each item ranged from 0.49 to 1.24, and the person reliability was 2.17 and the separation index was 0.83. Conclusions: The 9-item CAMS-R-M-2 with a three-factor structure has good reliability and validity. Higher total scores and subscale score reflected greater mindfulness qualities in people living with HIV in Myanmar.

7.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 127, 2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a common cardiovascular disease, and abnormal blood lipid metabolism is an important risk factor. Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) and its receptor (TGF-ßR) can inhibit the release of inflammatory factors through the SMAD pathway-mediated immune response, thereby suppressing the progression of CAD. Endoglin (TGF-ßRIII), a TGF-ßR family homologous receptor protein, is directly involved in the immunoregulatory process, but the exact mechanism is unclear. This study aimed to clarify the pathophysiological effects of endoglin on the development of atherosclerosis and to explore the mechanism of the signalling pathway. METHODS: We downloaded the GEO dataset to perform a functional analysis of SMAD family activity and TGF-ß receptor protein expression in the monocyte expression profiles of patients with familial hyperlipidaemia (FH). The effect of endoglin on endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis was examined by disrupting the endoglin gene in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and validated by western blotting. The related genes and pathways regulated by endoglin were obtained by analysing the sequencing data. RESULTS: Research has shown that interference with endoglin can promote the proliferation and migration and significantly inhibit the apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. Interference with endoglin particularly encourages the expression of VEGFB in vascular endothelial cells. CONCLUSION: The endoglin gene in vascular endothelial cells regulates the PI3K-Akt, Wnt, TNF, and cellular metabolism pathways by activating the SMAD pathway. RAB26, MR1, CCL2, SLC29A4, IBTK, VEGFB, and GOLGA8B play critical roles. Endoglin interacts closely with 11 proteins such as CCL2 and SEPRINE1, which participate in the vital pathway of plaque formation. Interference with endoglin can alter the course of coronary atherosclerosis.

9.
Dalton Trans ; 50(43): 15688-15695, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693945

RESUMO

Nowadays, there is enthusiastic effort to develop luminescent thermometers used for remote and high-sensitivity temperature readout over a wide sensing range. Herein, Pr3+ and Gd3+ co-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals are designed, prepared and investigated by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, TEM, EDS, DRS, PLE and PL spectroscopy. Upon 275 nm irradiation, the PL spectrum of ZrO2:Pr3+,Gd3+ is found to be composed of a narrow emission peak at 314 nm (Gd3+ 6P7/2-8S7/2), a broad defect-related emission band at 400 nm, and several emission peaks in the wavelength region of 585-700 nm (Pr3+ 1D2-3H4, 3P0-3H6, and 3P0-3F2), which exhibit different thermal responses owing to the effects of the various non-radiative relaxation processes and trap energy levels. Accordingly, the luminescence intensity ratio (LIR) between the Pr3+ 1D2-3H4 and Gd3+ 6P7/2-8S7/2 transitions demonstrates excellent relative sensing sensitivity values ((2.32 ± 0.01)% K-1-(8.32 ± 0.05)% K-1) and low temperature uncertainties (0.08 K-0.28 K) over a wide temperature sensing range of 303 K to 573 K, which are remarkably better than those of many other luminescence thermometers. What is discussed in the present study may be conducive to broadening the research region of RE3+ doped luminescence thermometric phosphors, especially for materials with rich 4f-4f transition lines and defect-related luminescence.

10.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684489

RESUMO

Few studies have examined the secular trend of energy intake distribution. This study aims to describe trajectories of energy intake distribution and determine their association with dyslipidemia risk. Data of 2843 adult participants from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were analyzed. Trajectory groups of energy intake distribution were identified by multi-trajectory model over 27 years. Multilevel mixed-effects modified Poisson regression with robust estimation of variance was used to calculate risk ratio for incident dyslipidemia in a 9-year follow-up. Four trajectory groups were identified: "Energy evenly distributed group" (Group 1), "Lunch and dinner energy dominant group" (Group 2), "Dinner energy dominant group" (Group 3), "breakfast and dinner energy dominant group" (Group 4). Compared with Group 1, Group 3 was associated with higher risk of dyslipidemia (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.26, 1.75), hypercholesterolemia (RR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.37, 2.81) and high low-density lipoproteins cholesterols (LDL-C) (RR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.82, 3.20). A U-shape was observed between cumulative average proportion of dinner energy and dyslipidemia risk (p for non-linear = 0.01), with stronger relationship at 40% and above. Energy intake distribution characterized by higher proportion of dinner energy, especially over 40% was associated with higher dyslipidemia risk in Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Refeições , China/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/etnologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/etnologia , Ingestão de Energia/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Refeições/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Razão de Chances , Distribuição de Poisson
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 485, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) are the most commonly used scales to detect mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in population-based epidemiologic studies. However, their comparison on which is best suited to assess cognition is scarce in samples from multiple regions of China. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 4923 adults aged ≥55 years from the Community-based Cohort Study on Nervous System Diseases. Objective cognition was assessed by Chinese versions of MMSE and MoCA, and total score and subscores of cognitive domains were calculated for each. Education-specific cutoffs of total score were used to diagnose MCI. Demographic and health-related characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Correlation and agreement for MCI between MMSE and MoCA were analyzed; group differences in cognition were evaluated; and multiple logistic regression model was used to clarify risk factors for MCI. RESULTS: The overall MCI prevalence was 28.6% for MMSE and 36.2% for MoCA. MMSE had good correlation with MoCA (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.8374, p < 0.0001) and moderate agreement for detecting MCI with Kappa value of 0.5973 (p < 0.0001). Ceiling effect for MCI was less frequent using MoCA versus MMSE according to the distribution of total score. Percentage of relative standard deviation, the measure of inter-individual variance, for MoCA (26.9%) was greater than for MMSE (19.0%) overall (p < 0.0001). Increasing age (MMSE: OR = 2.073 for ≥75 years; MoCA: OR = 1.869 for≥75 years), female (OR = 1.280 for MMSE; OR = 1.163 for MoCA), living in county town (OR = 1.386 and 1.862 for MMSE and MoCA, respectively) or village (OR = 2.579 and 2.721 for MMSE and MoCA, respectively), smoking (OR = 1.373 and 1.288 for MMSE and MoCA, respectively), hypertension (MMSE: OR = 1.278; MoCA: OR = 1.208) and depression (MMSE: OR = 1.465; MoCA: OR = 1.350) were independently associated with greater likelihood of MCI compared to corresponding reference group in both scales (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: MoCA is a better measure of cognitive function due to lack of ceiling effect and with good detection of cognitive heterogeneity. MCI prevalence is higher using MoCA compared to MMSE. Both tools identify concordantly modifiable factors for MCI, which provide important evidence for establishing intervention measures.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevista Psiquiátrica Padronizada , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
12.
AIDS Care ; : 1-8, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668807

RESUMO

ABSTRACTAlthough depression has been associated with low QOL, limited research has quantified the change of depression to improvement of QOL among naïve PLHIV using ART in Shanghai, China. This study examined the association between depression symptoms and QOL among Chinese PLWH in a six-month longitudinal study. Data were collected from 111 people living with HIV at baseline, 3rd month and 6th month after initiating ART, using the WHOQOL-HIV BREF and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and analyzed using a mixed effects model. QOL is improved after initiating ART, while the symptoms of depression did not decrease significantly. The depression symptoms were strong and negatively associated with QOL and all domains of QOL, and the strength of this association decreased over time in the six months follow-up. ART had different impacts on depression symptoms and QOL. Besides, depression symptoms were strong and negatively associated with QOL among PLHIV over time. Mental health practitioners and nurses should consider the ART and time factors when designed interventions to improve QOL by targeting depression symptoms. Interventions designed to improve QOL and depression symptoms should be developed targeting both ART and self-management among PLHIV.

13.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 57: 103244, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715643

RESUMO

AIM: The Reporting of Clinical Adverse Events Scale is a tool for evaluating the attitudes of medical staff toward reporting adverse events in clinical practice. This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Reporting of Clinical Adverse Events Scale translated into Chinese used with trainee nurses in mainland China. DESIGN: The Chinese version of the Reporting of Clinical Adverse Events Scale was developed following guidelines for the cross-cultural adaptation of self-reporting measures. METHODS: The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Reporting of Clinical Adverse Events Scale was tested on 773 nursing interns by online investigation. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on 350 questionnaires completed by the participants while exploratory factor analysis was performed on 423 questionnaires to test the structural validity of the scale. RESULTS: There were 23 items included in the Chinese version of the Reporting of Clinical Adverse Events Scale. The Cronbach's α-coefficient for the internal consistency of the total score was found to be 0.84 with a test-retest reliability value of 0.82, indicating a high level of reliability. Five common factors were extracted. The structural validity on the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test was 0.87 and the contribution rate of cumulative variance was 58.51%. The content validity values ranged between 0.86 and 1.00. CONCLUSION: The Chinese version of the Reporting of Clinical Adverse Events Scale is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating nursing interns' attitudes toward reporting clinical adverse events in China. This validation of the Chinese version of the scale also extends the use of the scale to a different population. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Nursing interns are responsible for a relatively high incidence of adverse events and their attitude to reporting these is crucial to patient safety. The Chinese version of the Reporting of Clinical Adverse Events Scale will be helpful for evaluating the reporting attitude of nursing interns.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476765

RESUMO

Chemical penetration enhancer (CPE) is a preferred approach to improve drug permeability through the skin, due to its unique advantages of simple use and high compatibility. However, CPEs efficiency and safety problems frequently arise, which greatly restrains the further application in transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS). To get access to the root of problems, the efficiency and safety of CPEs are reviewed especially from molecular perspectives, which include (1) the possible factors of CPEs low efficiency; (2) the possible contribution of CPEs in the evolution of safety problems such as skin irritation and allergic reaction; (3) the interactive relationship between CPEs efficiency and safety, as well as the bottlenecks of achieving their balance. More importantly, based on these, recent advances are summarized in improving efficiency or safety of CPEs, which offers a guidance of rationally selecting CPEs in future research.

15.
Front Psychol ; 12: 707142, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557132

RESUMO

Introduction: Valid and reliable instruments are crucial for measuring perceived social support among people living with HIV (PLHIV). We aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the English version of the 19-item Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) adapted for PLHIV in Myanmar. Methods: Based on a standard cross-cultural procedure, we adapted the MOS-SSS and formed a Myanmar version of the scale (MOS-SSS-M), and then tested its validity and reliability. A sample of 250 eligible PLHIV was collected from a closed Facebook group that included more than 10,000 Myanmars, most of whom were PLHIV. Results: The MOS-SSS-M achieved a Cronbach's α of 0.82-0.95. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable fit index for the four-factor structure. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant association with self-reported HIV stigma and stress levels, and further confirmed by the findings of Rasch analysis. Conclusion: The MOS-SSS-M with a four-factor structure can be used to measure the level and categories of perceived social support among PLHIV in Myanmar.

16.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-11, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470677

RESUMO

Little is known about the impact of modifiable risk factors on blood pressure (BP) trajectories and their associations with hypertension (HTN). We aimed to identify BP trajectories in normotensive Chinese adults and explore their influencing factors and associations with HTN. We used data from 3436 adults with at least four BP measurements between 1989 and 2018 in the China Health and Nutrition Survey, an ongoing cohort study. We measured BP using mercury sphygmomanometers with appropriate cuff sizes in all surveys. We used group-based trajectory modelling to identify BP trajectories between 1989 and 2009 and multiple logistic and Cox regression models to analyse their influencing factors and associations with HTN in 2011-2018. We identified five systolic blood pressure (SBP) trajectories, 'Low-increasing (LI)', 'Low-stable (LS)', 'Moderate-increasing (MI)', 'High-stable (HS)' and 'Moderate-decreasing (MD)', and four diastolic blood pressure (DBP) trajectories classified as 'Low-increasing (LI)', 'Moderate-stable (MS)', 'Low-stable (LS)' and 'High-increasing (HI)'. People with higher physical activity (PA) levels and lower waist circumferences (WC) were less likely to be in the SBP LI, MI, HS and MD groups (P < 0·05). People with higher fruit and vegetable intakes, lower WCs and salt intakes and higher PA levels were less likely to be in the DBP LI, MS and HI groups (P < 0·05). Participants in the SBP HS group (hazard ratio (HR) 2·01) or the DBP LI, MS and HI groups (HR 1·38, 1·40, 1·71, respectively) had higher risks of HTN (P < 0·05). This study suggests that BP monitoring is necessary to prevent HTN in the Chinese population.

17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257908, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587205

RESUMO

In response to various stimuli, naïve macrophages usually polarize to M1 (classically activated) or M2 (alternatively activated) cells with distinct biological functions. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) is involved in M1 macrophage polarization at an early stage. Here, we show for the first time that NOS1 is dispensable for M2 macrophage polarization for the first time. Further, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) regulated by NOS1 signaling in M1-polarized macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were characterized by transcriptome analysis of wild-type (WT) and NOS1 knockout mouse macrophages. Thousands of affected genes were detected 2 h post LPS challenge, and this wide-ranging effect became greater with a longer stimulation time (8 h post LPS). NOS1 deficiency caused dysregulated expression of hundreds of LPS-responsive genes. Most DEGs were enriched in biological processes related to transcription and regulation of the immune and inflammatory response. At 2 h post-LPS, the toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathway were the major pathways affected, whereas the main pathways affected at 8 h post-LPS were Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, FoxO, and AMPK signaling pathway. Identified DEGs were validated by real-time quantitative PCR and interacted in a complicated signaling pathway network. Collectively, our data show that NOS1 is dispensable for M2 macrophage polarization and reveal novel insights in the role of NOS1 signaling at different stages of M1 macrophage polarization through distinct TLR4 plasma membrane-localized and endosome-internalized signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/citologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/genética , Animais , Polaridade Celular , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(12): 3563-3575, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536020

RESUMO

The flagellin epitope flg22, a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), binds to the receptor-like kinase FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2), and triggers Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane (PM). The flg22-induced increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) (FICA) play a crucial role in plant innate immunity. It's well established that the receptor FLS2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst undergo sensitivity adaptation after flg22 stimulation, referred to as desensitization and resensitization, to prevent over responses to pathogens. However, whether FICA also mount adaptation mechanisms to ensure appropriate and efficient responses against pathogens remains poorly understood. Here, we analysed systematically [Ca2+ ]i increases upon two successive flg22 treatments, recorded and characterized rapid desensitization but slow resensitization of FICA in Arabidopsis thaliana. Pharmacological analyses showed that the rapid desensitization might be synergistically regulated by ligand-induced FLS2 endocytosis as well as the PM depolarization. The resensitization of FICA might require de novo FLS2 protein synthesis. FICA resensitization appeared significantly slower than FLS2 protein recovery, suggesting additional regulatory mechanisms of other components, such as flg22-related Ca2+ permeable channels. Taken together, we have carefully defined the FICA sensitivity adaptation, which will facilitate further molecular and genetic dissection of the Ca2+ -mediated adaptive mechanisms in PAMP-triggered immunity.

19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1663, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV stigma is a common barrier to HIV prevention, testing, and treatment adherence, especially for low- and middle-income countries such as Myanmar. However, there was no validated Myanmar version of a stigma scale. Therefore, we adapted the English version of the 40-item Berger's HIV stigma scale and the 7-item Indian HIV stigma scale into a 47-item Myanmar HIV stigma scale and then evaluated the scale's psychometric properties. METHOD: From January 2020 to May 2020, using random sampling methods, 216 eligible Myanmar people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) were contacted from a closed Facebook group that included more than 10,000 PLWHA. A sample of 156 Myanmar PLWHA completed the online self-reported survey. RESULTS: A six-factor structure for the scale was determined through exploratory factor analysis, explaining 68.23% of the total variance. After deleting 12 items, the 35-item HIV stigma scale achieved Cronbach 's α of 0.72 to 0.95. Construct validity of the scale was demonstrated by significant association with self-reported depression and social support levels (r = 0.60, and - 0.77, p < 0.01). In Rasch analysis, the scale achieved person reliability of 3.40 and 1.53 and a separation index of 0.92 and 0.70. The infit and outfit mean squares for each item ranged from 0.68 to 1.40. No differential item functioning across gender or educational level was found. CONCLUSIONS: The psychometric properties of the 35-item Myanmar version of the HIV stigma scale support it as a measure of stigma among PLWHA in Myanmar. This instrument could help healthcare providers to better understand how stigma operates in PLWHA and to develop tailored stigma-reduction interventions in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Mianmar , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574493

RESUMO

This study conceptualized the multidimensional construct of parental involvement, including cognitive involvement, behavioral involvement, and personal involvement, and examined the mediating effects of student's mental health and mathematics self-efficacy. Questionnaires were administered to 2866 early adolescents and their parents in China; structural equation modeling and bias-corrected bootstrap methods were used. The results show that different dimensions of parental involvement had different effects on mathematics achievement. Additionally, results indicate that the influences of the multidimensional construct of parental involvement on mathematics achievement were either partially or completely mediated by student's mental health and mathematics self-efficacy. The findings also offer insight into possible interventions designed to explore how parental involvement promotes students' mathematics achievement through their children's mental health and mathematics self-efficacy.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Autoeficácia , Logro , Adolescente , Criança , China , Humanos , Matemática
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