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2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6858, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824214

RESUMO

Muntjac deer have experienced drastic karyotype changes during their speciation, making it an ideal model for studying mechanisms and functional consequences of mammalian chromosome evolution. Here we generated chromosome-level genomes for Hydropotes inermis (2n = 70), Muntiacus reevesi (2n = 46), female and male M. crinifrons (2n = 8/9) and a contig-level genome for M. gongshanensis (2n = 8/9). These high-quality genomes combined with Hi-C data allowed us to reveal the evolution of 3D chromatin architectures during mammalian chromosome evolution. We find that the chromosome fusion events of muntjac species did not alter the A/B compartment structure and topologically associated domains near the fusion sites, but new chromatin interactions were gradually established across the fusion sites. The recently borne neo-Y chromosome of M. crinifrons, which underwent male-specific inversions, has dramatically restructured chromatin compartments, recapitulating the early evolution of canonical mammalian Y chromosomes. We also reveal that a complex structure containing unique centromeric satellite, truncated telomeric and palindrome repeats might have mediated muntjacs' recurrent chromosome fusions. These results provide insights into the recurrent chromosome tandem fusion in muntjacs, early evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes, and reveal how chromosome rearrangements can reshape the 3D chromatin regulatory conformations during species evolution.

4.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 192, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) that have been widely used for their health-promoting effects. However, little is known about overall flavonoid metabolism and the interactive effects between flavonoids and the gut microbiota. The flavonoid-rich bamboo and the giant panda provide an ideal system to bridge this gap. RESULTS: Here, integrating metabolomic and metagenomic approaches, and in vitro culture experiment, we identified 97 flavonoids in bamboo and most of them have not been identified previously; the utilization of more than 70% flavonoid monomers was attributed to gut microbiota; the variation of flavonoid in bamboo leaves and shoots shaped the seasonal microbial fluctuation. The greater the flavonoid content in the diet was, the lower microbial diversity and virulence factor, but the more cellulose-degrading species. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows an unprecedented landscape of beneficial PSMs in a non-model mammal and reveals that PSMs remodel the gut microbiota conferring host adaptation to diet transition in an ecological context, providing a novel insight into host-microbe interaction. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ursidae , Animais , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Metagenoma , Metagenômica
5.
Pathogens ; 10(6)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200165

RESUMO

Nematode infections transmitted to humans by the consumption of wild or cultured eels are increasingly being reported. In the present study, 120 Asian swamp eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew), individuals collected from China were examined for parasite infections, and 78 larval nematodes were isolated. Morphological and molecular characteristics, including sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene regions, were employed to identify these nematodes at the lowest taxonomic level possible. Asian swamp eel was infected with two zoonotic parasite taxa: Gnathostoma spinigerum advanced third-stage larvae, with 6.67% prevalence and mean intensity = 1.25, and Eustrongylides sp. fourth-stage larvae, with 26.67% prevalence and mean intensity = 2.13. These findings evidence the need to enhance public hygiene and food safety awareness toward eel consumption.

6.
Bone Joint Res ; 10(5): 328-339, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024119

RESUMO

AIMS: Non-coding microRNA (miRNA) in extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may promote neuronal repair after spinal cord injury (SCI). In this paper we report on the effects of MSC-EV-microRNA-381 (miR-381) in a rodent model of SCI. METHODS: In the current study, the luciferase assay confirmed a binding site of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) and Wnt family member 5A (WNT5A). Then we detected expression of miR-381, BRD4, and WNT5A in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells treated with MSC-isolated EVs and measured neuron apoptosis in culture by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. A rat model of SCI was established to detect the in vivo effect of miR-381 and MSC-EVs on SCI. RESULTS: We confirmed an interaction between miR-381 and BRD4, and showed that miR-381 overexpression inhibited the expression of BRD4 in DRG cells as well as the apoptosis of DRG cells through WNT5A via activation of Ras homologous A (RhoA)/Rho-kinase activity. Moreover, treatment of MSC-EVs rescued neuron apoptosis and promoted the recovery of SCI through inhibition of the BRD4/WNT5A axis. CONCLUSION: Taken altogether, miR-381 derived from MSC-EVs can promote the recovery of SCI through BRD4/WNT5A axis, providing a new perspective on SCI treatment. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2021;10(5):328-339.

7.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(2): 531-544, 2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960966

RESUMO

Antagonistic coevolution between host and parasite drives species evolution. However, most of the studies only focus on parasitism adaptation and do not explore the coevolution mechanisms from the perspective of both host and parasite. Here, through the de novo sequencing and assembly of the genomes of giant panda roundworm, red panda roundworm, and lion roundworm parasitic on tiger, we investigated the genomic mechanisms of coevolution between nonmodel mammals and their parasitic roundworms and those of roundworm parasitism in general. The genome-wide phylogeny revealed that these parasitic roundworms have not phylogenetically coevolved with their hosts. The CTSZ and prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit beta (P4HB) immunoregulatory proteins played a central role in protein interaction between mammals and parasitic roundworms. The gene tree comparison identified that seven pairs of interactive proteins had consistent phylogenetic topology, suggesting their coevolution during host-parasite interaction. These coevolutionary proteins were particularly relevant to immune response. In addition, we found that the roundworms of both pandas exhibited higher proportions of metallopeptidase genes, and some positively selected genes were highly related to their larvae's fast development. Our findings provide novel insights into the genetic mechanisms of coevolution between nonmodel mammals and parasites and offer the valuable genomic resources for scientific ascariasis prevention in both pandas.


Assuntos
Ascaridoidea/genética , Coevolução Biológica , Genoma Helmíntico , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Tigres/parasitologia , Ursidae/parasitologia , Animais , Filogenia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Seleção Genética , Tigres/genética , Tigres/metabolismo , Ursidae/genética , Ursidae/metabolismo
8.
Sci China Life Sci ; 64(1): 88-95, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617829

RESUMO

Gut microbiota plays a critical role in host physiology and health. The coevolution between the host and its gut microbes facilitates animal adaptation to its specific ecological niche. Multiple factors such as host diet and phylogeny modulate the structure and function of gut microbiota. However, the relative contribution of each factor in shaping the structure of gut microbiota remains unclear. The giant (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red (Ailurus styani) pandas belong to different families of order Carnivora. They have evolved as obligate bamboo-feeders and can be used as a model system for studying the gut microbiome convergent evolution. Here, we compare the structure and function of gut microbiota of the two pandas with their carnivorous relatives using 16S rRNA and metagenome sequencing. We found that both panda species share more similarities in their gut microbiota structure with each other than each species shares with its carnivorous relatives. This indicates that the specialized herbivorous diet rather than host phylogeny is the dominant driver of gut microbiome convergence within Arctoidea. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the symbiotic gut microbiota of both pandas possesses a high level of starch and sucrose metabolism and vitamin B12 biosynthesis. These findings suggest a diet-driven convergence of gut microbiomes and provide new insight into host-microbiota coevolution of these endangered species.


Assuntos
Ailuridae/genética , Carnívoros/genética , Dieta , Evolução Molecular , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Variação Genética , Ursidae/genética , Ailuridae/classificação , Ailuridae/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bambusa/fisiologia , Carnívoros/classificação , Carnívoros/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Metagenômica/métodos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Ursidae/classificação , Ursidae/microbiologia
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(51): 32493-32498, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288697

RESUMO

Attraction to feces in wild mammalian species is extremely rare. Here we introduce the horse manure rolling (HMR) behavior of wild giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Pandas not only frequently sniffed and wallowed in fresh horse manure, but also actively rubbed the fecal matter all over their bodies. The frequency of HMR events was highly correlated with an ambient temperature lower than 15 °C. BCP/BCPO (beta-caryophyllene/caryophyllene oxide) in fresh horse manure was found to drive HMR behavior and attenuated the cold sensitivity of mice by directly targeting and inhibiting transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8), an archetypical cold-activated ion channel of mammals. Therefore, horse manure containing BCP/BCPO likely bestows the wild giant pandas with cold tolerance at low ambient temperatures. Together, our study described an unusual behavior, identified BCP/BCPO as chemical inhibitors of TRPM8 ion channel, and provided a plausible chemistry-auxiliary mechanism, in which animals might actively seek and utilize potential chemical resources from their habitat for temperature acclimatization.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Esterco , Canais de Cátion TRPM/genética , Ursidae , Animais , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Esterco/análise , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Filogenia , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/análise , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo , Temperatura
11.
Mol Biochem Parasitol ; 228: 1-5, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658178

RESUMO

Eimeria spp., the causative agents of coccidiosis, are the most common protozoan pathogens of chickens. Infection with these parasites can result in poor development or death of animals leading to a devastating economic impact on poultry production. The establishment of transfection protocols for genetic manipulation of Eimeria species and stable expression of genes would help advance the biology of these parasites as well as establish these organisms as novel vaccine delivery vehicles. Here, we report the selection of the first stable transgenic E. necatrix population, EnHA1, consitutively expressing the EYFP reporter following transfection of the 2nd generation merozoites with a linear DNA fragment harboring the EYFP reporter gene, the HA1 gene from the avian influenza virus H9N2 and the TgDHFR-TS selectable marker, which confers resistance to pyrimethamine. Transfected merozoites were inoculated into chickens via the cloacal route, and feces from 18 h to 72 h post inoculation were collected and subjected to subsequent serial passages, FACS sorting and pyrimethamine selection. A gradual increase in the number of EYFP-expressing sporulated oocysts was noticed with more than 90% EYFP + oocysts obtained after five passages. Immunofluorescence assay confirmed successful expression of the HA1 antigen in the EnHA1 population. The ability to genetically manipulate E. necatrix merozoites and express heterologous genes in this parasite will pave the way for possible use of this organism as a vaccine-delivery vehicle.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/genética , Merozoítos/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Transfecção/métodos , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Galinhas , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eimeria/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Merozoítos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Merozoítos/metabolismo , Oocistos/genética , Oocistos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oocistos/metabolismo
12.
Int J Surg ; 61: 11-16, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to introduce a novel percutaneous technique for the treatment of pelvic ring injuries using a percutaneous anterior pelvic bridge (PAPB) with K-wire. METHODS: From December 2010 to November 2016, a prospective study of 86 patients with anterior pelvic ring fracture (42 utilizing PAPB with K-wire and 44 utilizing PAPB). Patient data was retrieved from electronic charts. Radiological results were assessed based on the Matta criteria system to evaluate the quality of the reduction and time to union. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the Majeed scoring system. Postoperative complications were also recorded. RESULTS: Age, sex, cause of injury, type of fracture, functional recovery, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, union time, Majeed scoring and complications did not differ significantly between the two groups. The quality of the reduction and pain scoring differed between groups (all p-values < 0.05). Group A got better reduction and less pain scoring. CONCLUSIONS: The novel percutaneous technique with hybrid fixation using PAPB with K-wire is a successful alternative for the treatment of pelvic ring injuries, which results in better quality of reduction and less pain scoring outcomes comparing to PAPB. May the PAPB + K-wire could provide more stability.


Assuntos
Fios Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Ossos Pélvicos/lesões , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Consolidação da Fratura , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/etiologia , Ossos Pélvicos/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci China Life Sci ; 62(2): 168-178, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588567

RESUMO

Multifaceted approaches are required to monitor wildlife populations and improve conservation efforts. In the last decade, increasing evidence suggests that metagenomic analysis offers valuable perspectives and tools for identifying microbial communities and functions. It has become clear that gut microbiome plays a critical role in health, nutrition, and physiology of wildlife, including numerous endangered animals in the wild and in captivity. In this review, we first introduce the human microbiome and metagenomics, highlighting the importance of microbiome for host fitness. Then, for the first time, we propose the concept of conservation metagenomics, an emerging subdiscipline of conservation biology, which aims to understand the roles of the microbiota in evolution and conservation of endangered animals. We define what conservation metagenomics is along with current approaches, main scientific issues and significant implications in the study of host evolution, physiology, nutrition, ecology and conservation. We also discuss future research directions of conservation metagenomics. Although there is still a long way to go, conservation metagenomics has already shown a significant potential for improving the conservation and management of wildlife.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Metagenômica , Microbiota/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Coevolução Biológica , Humanos , Microbiota/genética
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 258: 30-37, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105975

RESUMO

Coccidiosis is a serious threat to the poultry industry, resulting in substantial economic losses worldwide. The effective development of alternative treatments for coccidiosis that does not involve chemotherapy drugs and does not result in antibiotic resistance relies on gaining a clearer understanding of the interaction between host intestinal microbiota and enteric coccidia. Here, we established an Eimeria tenella infection model in chickens and subsequently monitored the changes in the overall intestinal microbiome using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that the gut (i.e. fecal) microbiota of infected chicken differed from that of uninfected naïve animals. Levels of non-pathogenic bacteria, including Lactobacillus and Faecalibacterium declined, whereas those of pathogenic bacteria, including Clostridium, Lysinibacillus, and Escherichia, increased over time in response to E. tenella infection. Similar dynamic changes of the fecal microbiota were observed in both Arbor Acres broilers and White Leghorn chickens, indicating that the perturbation of the microbiota was directly induced by E. tenella infection. Our findings could be used to further elucidate the serious damage to host health caused by coccidia infection, leading to the development of new effective treatment options for coccidiosis.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Eimeria tenella/patogenicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Oocistos/fisiologia , Animais , Ceco/parasitologia , Ceco/patologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria tenella/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
15.
Parasitol Res ; 117(3): 655-664, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396674

RESUMO

Molecular identification of Eimeria parasites infecting poultry and livestock has been commonly used for more than 20 years. An important step of the molecular identification technique is the rupturing of the oocyst wall for DNA extraction. Previously, DNA extraction methods included pre-treatment with sodium hypochlorite and osmotic shock with saturated salt solution. Here, we present a modification of this technique for a more sensitive and efficient identification of Eimeria spp. in field samples. The disruption extent of the oocyst walls, yield of DNA extraction, and identification of species-specific DNA sequences by PCR were used to evaluate this optimized method. Incubation of oocysts in sodium hypochlorite for 1.5 h at 4 °C followed by treatment with a saturated salt solution for 1 h at 55 °C broke up the walls of most Eimeria tenella oocysts, as well as other coccidian species of chicken and rabbit, such as Eimeria intestinalis and even Cryptosporidium cuniculus. Notably, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the intervening transcribed sequence 1 (ITS-1) was successfully performed with genomic DNA extracted from just 50 oocysts using this optimized method. Our findings will greatly promote the development of molecular diagnosis methods of coccidiosis and simplify coccidian species identification and categorization as well as infection prevalence, providing a significant advancement in the development of techniques for coccidiosis control and prevention.


Assuntos
Coccídios/classificação , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccídios/genética , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/genética , Oocistos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Coelhos , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Vet Res ; 49(1): 20, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463305

RESUMO

Diarrhea remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally, with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) constituting a major causative pathogen. The development of alternative treatments for diarrhea that do not involve chemotherapeutic drugs or result in antibiotic resistance is critical. Considering that lysozyme is a naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide, in a previous study we developed a transgenic pig line that expresses recombinant human lysozyme (hLZ) in its milk. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of the consumption of this milk against ETEC infection in neonatal piglets. We found that consuming hLZ milk facilitated faster recovery from infection and decreased mortality and morbidity following an ETEC oral inoculation or infection acquired by contact-exposure. The protective effect of hLZ was associated with the enrichment of intestinal bacteria that improve gut health, such as Lactobacillus, and the enhancement of the mucosal IgA response to the ETEC-induced diarrhea. Our study revealed potential protective mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial activity of human lysozyme, validating the use of lysozyme as an effective preventive measure for diarrhea.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Enteropatias/veterinária , Leite/microbiologia , Muramidase/farmacologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Enteropatias/microbiologia , Enteropatias/prevenção & controle , Muramidase/administração & dosagem , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
17.
Infect Immun ; 86(5)2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29440368

RESUMO

Coccidiosis, caused by different species of Eimeria parasites, is an economically important disease of poultry and livestock worldwide. Here we report previously unknown alterations in the gut microbes and metabolism of BALB/c mice infected with Eimeria falciformis Specifically, we observed a significant shift in the abundance of cecal bacteria and disrupted metabolism in parasitized animals. The relative abundances of Lachnospiraceae bacterium NK4A136, Ruminiclostridium, Alistipes, and Lactobacillus declined in response to E. falciformis infection, whereas Escherichia, Shigella, Helicobacter, Klebsiella, and Bacteroides were increased. Carbohydrate and amino acid metabolites in the serum samples of infected mice were significantly altered compared to naïve controls. Levels of amino acids, including asparagine, histidine, l-cysteine, tryptophan, lysine, glycine, serine, alanine, proline, ornithine, methionine, and valine, decreased on day 7 postinfection before returning to baseline on day 14. In addition, increased levels of indolelactate and mannitol and a reduced amount of oxalic acid indicated impaired carbon metabolism upon parasitic infection. These data demonstrate that intestinal coccidial infection perturbs the microbiota and disrupts carbon and nitrogen metabolism.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/fisiopatologia , Eimeria/patogenicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
18.
Vet Res Commun ; 41(4): 263-277, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098532

RESUMO

The interactions between gastric microbiota, ovine host, and Haemonchus contortus portray the ovine gastric environment as a complex ecosystem, where all factors play a pertinent role in fine-tuning each other and in haemeostasis. We delineated the impact of early and late Haemonchus infection on abomasal and ruminal microbial community, as well as the ovine host. Twelve, parasite-naive lambs were divided into four groups, 7 days post-infection (dpi) and time-matched uninfected-control groups; 50 dpi and time-matched uninfected control groups were used for the experiment. Six sheep were inoculated with 5000 H. contortus infective larvae and followed for 7 or 50 days with their corresponding uninfected-control ones. Ovine abomasal tissues were collected for histological analysis and gastric fluids were collected for PH value measurements, microbial community isolation and Illumina MiSeq platform and bioinformatic analysis. Our results showed that Haemonchus infection increased the abomasal gastric pH (P = 0.05) and resulted in necrotizing and inflammatory changes that were more severe during acute infection. Furthermore, infection increased the abomasal bacterial load and decreased the ruminal microbiome. A 7-day infection of sheep with H. contortus significantly altered approximately 98% and 94% of genera in the abomasal and ruminal bacterial profile, respectively (P = 0.04-0.05). However, the approximate altered genera 50 days after infection in the ovine abomasal and ruminal microbiome were about 62% and 69%, correspondingly (P = 0.04-0.05) with increase in some bacteria and decrease in others. Overall, these results indicate that Haemonchus infection plays a crucial role in shaping stomach microbial community composition, and diversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Hemoncose/veterinária , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Microbiota/fisiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Abomaso/química , Abomaso/microbiologia , Abomaso/parasitologia , Abomaso/patologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Hemoncose/microbiologia , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/patologia , Haemonchus , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/parasitologia , Rúmen/patologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1110, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28955336

RESUMO

T cell-mediated immunity plays a prominent role in combating pathogens infection. Both the engagement of the T cell receptor with the peptide-bound major histocompatibility complex and a costimulatory signal are needed for the complete activation of the T cell. To determine whether host immune responses to vaccination could be improved by enhancing CD28-mediated costimulation and verify whether the boosted immune responses could protect the host against viral challenge, we produced a transgenic pig line expressing an extra copy of the CD28 gene controlled by its own promoter at the Rosa26 locus. As expected, in response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain vaccination, CD4+ T cells was remarkably increased in CD28 transgenic pigs and a similar response in CD8+ T cells was elicited after challenge. Importantly, because of increased T cell frequencies, the virus-neutralizing antibody against JXA-1 (a highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain), as well as interferon-γ secretion, were enhanced in transgenic pigs. These findings in our translational study provide a novel concept for farm animal breeding in disease resistance, in which we may use the transgenic technology to force overexpression of confirmed immunity-promoting molecules like CD28 and produce an animal with enhanced immune responses to vaccination and broad-spectrum resistance to infectious diseases.

20.
Int J Surg ; 40: 97-108, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28254422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficiency and safety between local infiltration analgesia and intrathecal morphine for pain control in total knee and hip arthroplasty. METHODS: We systemically searched electronic databases including Embase (1980-2016.7), Medline (1966-2016.7), PubMed (1966-2016.7), ScienceDirect (1985-2016.7), web of science (1950-2016.7) and Cochrane Library for relevant articles. All calculation was carried out by Stata 11.0. RESULTS: Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 242 patients met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed that there were significant differences in terms of postoperative pain scores at 24 h during rest (P = 0.008) and mobilization (P = 0.049) following total knee and hip arthroplasty. Significant difference was found regarding the incidence of nausea (P = 0.030), vomiting (P = 0.005), and pruritus (P = 0.000) between two groups. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of morphine equivalent consumption at postoperative 24 or 48 h. CONCLUSIONS: Local infiltration analgesia (LIA) provided superior analgesic effects within the first 24 h compared to intrathecal morphine (ITM) following total knee and hip arthroplasty. There were fewer adverse effects in LIA. Doses of morphine consumption were similar in the two groups.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Analgesia/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia
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