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1.
Ground Water ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850384

RESUMO

Groundwater professionals require tools to evaluate a variety of technical issues related to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). These include the potential impact of PFAS precursors on groundwater plumes of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Numerical modeling results show that, by adjusting the mass loading rate, source zones with or without a precursor can produce similar PFAA plumes. However, if a precursor is present, it can impact PFAA plume concentrations and extend PFAA plume durations by decades. Additional research regarding in situ precursor transformation rates-and improvements in source area characterization-will further advance the predictive value of modeling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771497

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors can improve the prognosis of patients with advanced malignancy; however, only a small subset of advanced colorectal cancer patients in microsatellite-instability-high or mismatch-repair-deficient colorectal cancer can benefit from immunotherapy. Unfortunately, the mechanism behind this ineffectiveness is unclear. The tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in cancer immunity, and may contribute to the inhibition of immune checkpoint inhibitors and other novel immunotherapies in patients with advanced cancer. Herein, we demonstrate that the DNase I enzyme plays a pivotal role in the degradation of NETs, significantly dampening the resistance to anti-PD-1 blockade in a mouse colorectal cancer model by attenuating tumor growth. Remarkably, DNase I decreases tumor-associated neutrophils and the formation of MC38 tumor cell-induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation in vivo. Mechanistically, the inhibition of neutrophil extracellular traps with DNase I results in the reversal of anti-PD-1 blockade resistance through increasing CD8+ T cell infiltration and cytotoxicity. These findings signify a novel approach to targeting the tumor microenvironment using DNase I alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

3.
Front Surg ; 8: 744226, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805259

RESUMO

Aim: Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is the most common urogenital acquired fistula, and has remained a scourge and of public health importance. VVF can be repaired by transvaginal approach, transabdominal approach or transvesical approach, but the optimal management is still debated. Methods: To demonstrate a suprapubic transvesical approach to repair VVFs using a homemade laparoscopic single-port device. A retrospective review of the medical records of 42 consecutive patients who underwent fistula repair for VVF at our center from January 2012 to March 2018 was performed. VVFs were repaired by a suprapubic transvesical approach using a homemade laparoscopic single-port device. Clinical data, perioperative data and outcomes were collected. The primary outcome was VVF successful closure rate, and secondary outcome was perioperative complications. Results: The mean age of the patients was 44.6 (27-58) yr. The mean follow-up time was 65.6 (32-118) mo. The VVFs were successfully closed in 37 (88.1%) patients after the first surgery, and failure was observed in five patients. Initial failures of all the five patients were cured after a second repair. No major complication occurred as defined by Clavien-Dindo class 2 or greater. Conclusions: Suprapubic transvesical approach to repair VVFs using a homemade laparoscopic single-port device is a simple, effective, and feasible approach offering ideal results without major complications.

4.
Int J Oncol ; 59(6)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751413

RESUMO

Subsequently to the publication of the above article, an interested reader drew to the authors' attention that, on p. 1969, two pairs of panels shown for the DU145 data appeared to contain overlaps, such that they may have been derived from the same original source (specifically, relating to the shCon and the shSMC1A experiments). The authors have referred back to their original data, and realize that inadvertent errors were made during the assembly of these figures. The corrected version of Fig. 5, showing discrete representative images for the shCon and the shSMC1A experiments with the DU145 cell line, is shown on the next page. All the authors agree to this corrigendum. Note that the revisions made to this figure do not adversely affect the results reported in the paper, or the conclusions stated therein. The authors regret that Fig. 5 was not presented in its correct form in their paper, thank the Editor of International Journal of Oncology for granting them the opportunity to publish this corrigendum, and offer their apologies to the Editor and to the readers of the Journal. [the original article was published in International Journal of Oncology 49: 1963-1972, 2016; DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2016.3697].

5.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 747985, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733850

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is gradually emerging in the field of tumor treatment. However, because of the complexity of the tumor microenvironment (TME), some patients cannot benefit from immunotherapy. Therefore, we comprehensively analyzed the TME and gene mutations of ccRCC to identify a comprehensive index that could more accurately guide the immunotherapy of patients with ccRCC. We divided ccRCC patients into two groups based on immune infiltration activity. Next, we investigated the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and constructed a prognostic immune score using univariate Cox regression analysis, unsupervised cluster analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA) and validated its predictive power in both internal and total sets. Subsequently, the gene mutations in the groups were investigated, and patients suitable for immunotherapy were selected in combination with the immune score. The prognosis of the immune score-low group was significantly worse than that of the immune score-high group. The patients with BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) mutation had a poor prognosis. Thus, this study indicated that establishing an immune score model combined with BAP1 mutation can better predict the prognosis of patients, screen suitable ccRCC patients for immunotherapy, and select more appropriate drug combinations.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151820, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813808

RESUMO

Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is a novel CO2 utilization technology. Biocatalysts in this process may use electrons obtained from a photovoltaic system to reduce CO2 to chemicals and realize energy conversion from solar energy to chemical energy. The photoelectric material CuO/g-C3N4 was directly introduced into the MES system using mixed culture as biocatalyst in this study. CuO/g-C3N4 can effectively absorb light and presents satisfactory electron and hole separation ability. Photogenerated electrons from CuO/g-C3N4 enhanced the electron transfer rate and reduced cathodic charge transfer resistance. CuO/g-C3N4 mainly improved the electron supply of electroautotrophic microorganisms through direct electron transfer rather than indirect electron transfer via hydrogen. Photogenerated holes can combine electrons from anode and provide extra driving force to improve the MES performance. Furthermore, the CuO/g-C3N4 photocathode also improved the biocatalytic activity by increasing the total amount of biocatalyst and regulating cathodic microbial community composition. Acetate production rate in MES with the CuO/g-C3N4 photocathode was 2.6 times higher than that of the control group. This study provides a new strategy for semiconductor photocathodes to improve the MES performance with mixed culture.

8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 544, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share many demographic characteristics and severity of clinical symptoms, genetic risk factors, pathophysiological underpinnings, and brain structure and function. However, the differences in the spontaneous brain activity patterns between the two diseases remain unclear. Here this study aimed to compare the features of intrinsic brain activity in treatment-naive participants with SZ and OCD and to explore the relationship between spontaneous brain activity and the severity of symptoms. METHODS: In this study, 22 treatment-naive participants with SZ, 27 treatment-naive participants with OCD, and sixty healthy controls (HC) underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo) and degree of centrality (DC) were performed to examine the intrinsic brain activity of participants. Additionally, the relationships among spontaneous brain activity, the severity of symptoms, and the duration of illness were explored in SZ and OCD groups. RESULTS: Compared with SZ group and HC group, participants with OCD had significantly higher ALFF in the right angular gyrus and the left middle frontal gyrus/precentral gyrus and significantly lower ALFF in the left superior temporal gyrus/insula/rolandic operculum and the left postcentral gyrus, while there was no significant difference in ALFF between SZ group and HC group. Compared with HC group, lower ALFF in the right supramarginal gyrus/inferior parietal lobule and lower DC in the right lingual gyrus/calcarine fissure and surrounding cortex of the two patient groups, higher ReHo in OCD group and lower ReHo in SZ group in the right angular gyrus/middle occipital gyrus brain region were documented in the present study. DC in SZ group was significantly higher than that in HC group in the right inferior parietal lobule/angular gyrus, while there were no significant DC differences between OCD group and HC group. In addition, ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus were positively correlated with positive subscale score (r = 0.588, P = 0.013) and general psychopathology subscale score (r = 0.488, P = 0.047) respectively on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in SZ group. ALFF in the left superior temporal gyrus/insula/rolandic operculum of participants with OCD were positively correlated with compulsion subscale score (r = 0.463, P = 0.030) on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). The longer the illness duration in SZ group, the smaller the ALFF of the left superior temporal gyrus/insula/rolandic operculum (Rho = 0.-492, P = 0.020). The longer the illness duration in OCD group, the higher the ALFF of the right supramarginal gyrus/inferior parietal lobule (Rho = 0.392, P = 0.043) and the left postcentral gyrus (Rho = 0.385, P = 0.048), and the lower the DC of the right inferior parietal lobule/angular gyrus (Rho = - 0.518, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: SZ and OCD show some similarities in spontaneous brain activity in parietal and occipital lobes, but exhibit different patterns of spontaneous brain activity in frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital, and insula brain regions, which might imply different underlying neurobiological mechanisms in the two diseases. Compared with OCD, SZ implicates more significant abnormalities in the functional connections among brain regions.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic variants with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility, glucocorticoids (GCs) efficacy, and prognosis. METHODS: Our study was done in two stages. First, we performed the whole mitochondrial genome sequencing in 100 patients and 100 controls to initially screen potential mtDNA variants associated with disease and glucocorticoids efficacy. Then, we validated the results in an independent set of samples. In total, 605 SLE patients and 604 normal controls were included in our two-stage study. A two-stage efficacy study was conducted in 512 patients treated with GCs for 12 weeks. We also explored the association between mtDNA variants and SLE prognosis. RESULTS: In the combined sample, four mtDNA variants (A4833G, T5108C, G14569A, CA514-515-) were associated with SLE susceptibility (all P  BH<0.05). We confirmed that T16362C was related to GCs efficacy (P  BH=0.014). Significant associations were detected between T16362C and T16519C and the efficacy of GCs in females with SLE (P  BH<0.05). In the prognosis study, variants A4833G (P  BH=0.003) and G14569A (P  BH=9.744 × 1 0 -4) substantially increased SLE relapse risk. Female patients harbouring variants T5108C and T16362C were more prone to relapse (P  BH<0.05). Haplotype analysis showed that haplogroup G was linked with SLE susceptibility (P  BH=0.001) and prognosis (P  BH=0.013). Moreover, mtDNA variants-environment interactions were observed. CONCLUSION: We identified novel mtDNA genetic variants that were associated with SLE susceptibility, GCs efficacy, and prognosis. Interactions between mtDNA variants and environmental factors were related to SLE risk and GCs efficacy. Our findings provide important information for future understanding the occurrence and development of SLE.

10.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(42): 9163-9166, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642729

RESUMO

In this work, we disclose a new catalytic and highly chemoselective cross-Claisen condensation of esters. In the presence of TBSNTf2 as a non-metal Lewis acid, various esters can undergo cross-Claisen condensation to form ß-keto esters which are important building blocks. Compared with the traditional Claisen condensation, this process, employing silyl ketene acetals (SKAs) as carbonic nucleophiles to achieve cross-Claisen condensation, requires mild conditions and has good tolerance of functional groups.

11.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 29: e20210209, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the common type of cancer that leads to death; and is becoming a global concern. Due to the lack of efficient chemotherapeutic agents for patients with oral cancer, the prognosis remains poor. 6-shogaol, a bioactive compound of ginger, has a broad spectrum of bioactivities and has been widely used to relieve many diseases. However, its effects on human oral cancer have not yet been fully evaluated. In our study, we investigated the anticancer effects of 6-shogaol on the proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and underlying mechanisms within human OSCC cell lines. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the effect of 6-shogaol on the growth of OSCC cells by cell viability and soft agar colony formation assay. Migration and invasion assays were conducted to confirm the effect 6-shogaol on OSCC cell metastasis. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and the underlying mechanism on the antigrowth effect of 6-shogaol in OSCC cells was assessed using western blotting. RESULTS: In our results, 6-shogaol not only suppressed proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in OSCC cells, but also induced apoptosis by regulating the apoptosis-associated factors such as p53, Bax, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3. Migration and invasion of OSCC cells were inhibited following the regulation of E-cadherin and N-cadherin by 6-shogaol. Additionally, 6-shogaol treatment significantly inhibited the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: Therefore, our results may provide critical evidence that 6-shogaol can be a potential new therapeutic candidate for oral cancer.


Assuntos
Catecóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health ; 15(1): 60, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile phone addiction has become a social problem that affects the healthy growth of adolescents, and it may be correlated with coping style. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mobile phone addiction and coping style and the influencing factors for adolescents. METHODS: A meta-analysis was conducted by searching China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WANFANG DATA and Chongqing VIP Information Co., Ltd. (VIP), PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and PsycINFO. Stata 16.0 was used to analyse the overall effect and test the moderating effect. RESULTS: Thirty-three studies were included, involving a total of 20,349 subjects. There was no significant correlation between adolescents' mobile phone addiction and positive coping style (r = - 0.02, 95% CI = - 0.06 to 0.02, P > 0.05), but there was a moderate positive correlation between adolescents' mobile phone addiction and negative coping style (r = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.26 to 0.36, P < 0.001). The moderating effect analysis showed that the effect of dissertations on mobile phone addiction and positive coping style among adolescents was significantly larger than that of journal articles. The Smartphone Addiction Scale for College Students (SAS-C) showed the largest effect on mobile phone addiction and positive coping style among adolescents. The time of publication significantly positively moderated the relationship between mobile phone addiction and negative coping style among adolescents. The Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ) showed the largest effect on adolescents' mobile phone addiction and negative coping style. However, the correlation between adolescents' mobile phone addiction and coping style was not affected by age or gender. CONCLUSIONS: There was a close relationship between mobile phone addiction and coping style among adolescents. In the future, longitudinal research should be carried out to better investigate the dynamic changes in the relationship between mobile phone addiction and coping style.

13.
Oncol Lett ; 22(6): 811, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671425

RESUMO

As key regulators of apoptosis, BAD and defender against apoptotic cell death 1 (DAD1) are associated with cancer initiation and progression. Multiple studies have demonstrated that BAD and DAD1 serve critical roles in several types of cancer and perform various functions, such as participating in cellular apoptosis, invasion and chemosensitivity, as well as their role in diagnostic/prognostic judgement, etc. Investigating the detailed mechanisms of the cancerous effects of the two proteins will contribute to enriching the options for targeted therapy, and may improve clinical treatment of cancer. The present review summarizes research advances regarding the associations of BAD and DAD1 with cancer, and a hypothesis on the feasible relationship and interaction mechanism between the two proteins is proposed. Furthermore, the present review highlights the potential of the two proteins as therapeutic targets and valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.

14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108184, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601334

RESUMO

Trichinellosis is a foodborne zoonosis caused by Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) that not only causes considerable economic losses for the global pig breeding and food industries, but also seriously threats the health of human. Therefore, it is very necessary to develop an effective vaccine to prevent trichinellosis. In this study, the invasive Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) expressing fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) was served as a live bacterial vector to deliver DNA to the host to produce a novel oral DNA vaccine. Co-expressing T. spiralis SS1 and murine interleukin-4 (mIL-4) of DNA vaccine were constructed and subsequently delivered to intestinal epithelial cells via invasive L. plantarum. At 10 days after the third immunization, the experimental mice were challenged with 350 T. spiralis infective larvae. The results found that the mice orally vaccinated with invasive L. plantarum harboring pValac-SS1/pSIP409-FnBPA not only stimulated the production of anti-SS1-specific IgG, Th1/Th2 cell cytokines, and secreted(s) IgA but also decreased worm burden and intestinal damage. However, the mice inoculated with invasive L. plantarum co-expressing SS1 and mIL-4 (pValac-SS1-IL-4/pSIP409-FnBPA) induced the highest protective immune response against T. spiralis infection. The DNA vaccine delivered by invasive L. plantarum provides a novel idea for the prevention of T. spiralis infection.

15.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 716501, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490266

RESUMO

Background: Chemoresistance is the major cause of death in advanced prostate cancer (PCa), especially in metastatic PCa (mPCa). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the chemoresistance of PCa remain unclear. Understanding the reason behind the drug resistance would be helpful in developing new treatment approaches. Methods: The Cancer Genome Atlas, Gene Expression Omnibus datasets, and clinical samples were used to examine the correlation between growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45 beta (GADD45B) with clinical characteristics and prognosis. Lentiviral transfection was used to construct GADD45B overexpression cell lines. Hypoxic incubator, low serum medium, or docetaxel was used to build environmental stress model or chemotherapy cell model. The MTS assay and colony formation assay were used to test cell viability. Apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. The RNA and protein levels of related biomarkers were tested by Western blotting and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Bioinformatics analysis after RNA sequencing was performed to identify the possible mechanism of how GADD45B regulates chemotherapy resistance. Results: GADD45B was related to distant metastasis but not to Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen level, T stage, or lymph node metastasis and indicated a good prognosis. The level of GADD45B increased significantly in PCa cells that faced environmental stress. It was found that a high level of GADD45B significantly enhanced the chemosensitivity. Furthermore, high GADD45B promoted cell apoptosis via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Conclusion: GADD45B promoted chemosensitivity of prostate cancer through MAPK pathway. GADD45B could serve as a diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for mPCa or chemotherapy-resistant patients.

16.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 113, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence has indicated that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play a role in various diseases. However, the influence of circRNAs in nephritis remains unknown. METHODS: Microarray analysis and RT-qPCR were used to detect the expression of circRNA. Type I IFN were administrated to RMC and HEK293 cells to establish a nephritis cell model. CCK-8, MTT assay, and flow cytometry were used to assess cell proliferation, viability, and apoptosis of cells. Bioinformatics analysis and dual luciferase reporter assay detect the interaction of circ_0007059, miRNA-1278, and SHP-1. Glomerulonephritis was performed in a mouse model by administration of IFNα-expressing adenovirus. IHC staining showed the pathogenic changes. RESULTS: In the present study, the expression of circ_0007059 in type I interferon (IFN)-treated renal mesangial cells (RMCs), lupus nephritis (LN) specimens, and HEK293 cells was downregulated compared with that in normal healthy samples and untreated cells. Circ_0007059 overexpression resulted in increased cell proliferation, cell viability, apoptosis, and inflammation-associated factors (CXCL10, IFIT1, ISG15, and MX1) in RMCs and HEK293 cells. In addition, circ_0007059 overexpression significantly restored cell proliferation and viability and inhibited IFN-induced apoptosis. Further, the increased expression resulted in reduced inflammation and the downregulation of CXCL10, IFIT1, ISG15, and MX1 in RMCs and HEK293 cells. Circ_0007059 serves as a sponge for miR-1278 so that the latter can target the 3'-untranslated region of SHP-1. Overexpressed circ_0007059 inhibited miR-1278 expression and elevated SHP-1 expression, subsequently reducing STAT3 phosphorylation. Meanwhile, miR-1278 was upregulated and SHP-1 was downregulated in LN samples and IFN-treated cells. The restoration of miR-1278 counteracted the effect of circ_0007059 on viability, apoptosis, and inflammation as well as on SHP-1/STAT3 signaling in RMCs and HEK293 cells. We also investigated the role of SHP-1 overexpression in IFN-treated RMCs and HEK293 cells; SHP-1 overexpression resulted in a similar phenotype as that observed with circ_0007059 expression. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that circ_0007059 protects RMCs against apoptosis and inflammation during nephritis by attenuating miR-1278/SHP-1/STAT3 signaling.

17.
J Immunol ; 207(8): 2179-2191, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497150

RESUMO

Gut microbes play an important role in the development of host B cells. It has been controversial whether GALT is the development site of B cells in pigs. By investigating the relationship between gut microbes and the development of B cells in the GALT of piglets, we found, to our knowledge for the first time, that early B cells exist in the gut lamina propria (LP) in pigs at different ages. We further used Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) to treat piglets. The results showed that LGG promotes the development of the early B lineage, affects the composition of the Ig CDR3 repertoires of B cells, and promotes the production of IgA in the intestinal LP. Additionally, we found that the p40 protein derived from LGG can activate the EGFR/AKT and NF-κB signaling pathways, inducing porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) to secrete a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), which promotes IgA production in B cells. Finally, we identified ARF4 and DIF3 as candidates for p40 receptors on IPEC-J2 by GST pull-down, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis, and coimmunoprecipitation. In conclusion, LGG could promote early B cell differentiation and development in the intestinal LP in piglets and might contribute to promoting IgA production via secretion of p40, which interacts with the membrane receptors on IPEC-J2 and induces them to secrete APRIL. Our study will provide insight to aid in better utilization of probiotics to increase human health.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína Oncogênica v-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos , Membro 13 da Superfamília de Ligantes de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo
18.
Microb Pathog ; 160: 105204, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562554

RESUMO

H9N2 subtype, a low pathogenic avian influenza virus, is emerging as a major causative agent circulating poultry workplaces across China and other Asian countries. Increasing case number of interspecies transmissions to mammals reported recently provoked a great concern about its risks inducing global pandemics. In an attempt to understand the underlying mechanism of how the H9N2 virus disrupts the interspecies segregation to transmit to mammals. A mutant H9N2 strain was obtained by passaging the wildtype H9N2 A/chicken/Hong Kong/G9/1997 eight times from lung to lung in BALB/c mice. Our finding revealed that mice manifested severe clinical symptoms including losses of body weight, pathological damages in pulmonary sites and all died within two weeks after infected with the mutated H9N2, whereas all mice survived upon infected with wildtype strain in comparison, which suggested increased pathogenicity of the mutant strain. In addition, mice showed enhanced levels of proinflammatory cytokines in sera, including IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1ß compared to those subjected to wildtype viral infections. Sequence analysis showed that five amino acid substitutions occurred at PB2627, HA87, HA234, NP387 and M156, and a deletion mutation happened in the M gene (M157). Of these mutations, PB2 E627K played key roles in modulating lethality in mice. Taken together, the mutant H9N2 strain obtained by serial passaging of its wildtype in mice significantly increased its virulence leading to death of mice, which might be associated the accumulated mutations occurred on its genome.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Influenza Aviária , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , Galinhas , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mutação , Filogenia , Virulência
19.
Chem Sci ; 12(33): 11191-11196, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522316

RESUMO

Described here is the first organocatalytic asymmetric N-H insertion reaction of α-carbonyl sulfoxonium ylides. Without a metal catalyst, this reaction represents an attractive complement to the well-established carbene insertion reactions. As a stable surrogate of diazocarbonyl compounds, sulfoxonium ylides reacted with a range of aryl amines to provide efficient access to α-aryl glycines with excellent enantiocontrol in the presence of a suitable chiral phosphoric acid catalyst. The high stability and weak basicity of sulfoxonium ylides not only enable this protocol to be user-friendly and practically useful, but also preclude catalyst decomposition, which is crucial to the excellent amenability to electron-poor amine nucleophiles. Detailed mechanistic studies indicated that the initial protonation is reversible and the C-N bond formation is rate-determining.

20.
Cancer Biol Med ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic changes in the progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) and the reason why these cancers resist existing therapies. METHODS: We employed our CRPC cell line microarray and other CRPC or NEPC datasets to screen the target gene NEIL3. Lentiviral transfection and RNA interference were used to construct overexpression and knockdown cell lines. Cell and animal models of radiotherapy were established by using a medical electron linear accelerator. Flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis or cell cycle progression. Western blot and qPCR were used to detect changes in the protein and RNA levels. RESULTS: TCGA and clinical patient datasets indicated that NEIL3 was downregulated in CRPC and NEPC cell lines, and NEIL3 was correlated with a high Gleason score but a good prognosis. Further functional studies demonstrated that NEIL3 had no effect on the proliferation and migration of PCa cells. However, cell and animal radiotherapy models revealed that NEIL3 could facilitate the radiotherapy sensitivity of PCa cells, while loss of NEIL3 activated radiotherapy resistance. Mechanistically, we found that NEIL3 negatively regulated the expression of ATR, and higher NEIL3 expression repressed the ATR/CHK1 pathway, thus regulating the cell cycle. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that NEIL3 may serve as a diagnostic or therapeutic target for therapy-resistant patients.

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