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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0095821, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643446

RESUMO

The strict anaerobe Clostridium ljungdahlii can ferment CO or H2/CO2 via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to acetate, ethanol, and 2,3-butanediol. This ability has attracted considerable interest, since it can be used for syngas fermentation to produce biofuels and biochemicals. However, the key enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of the strain has not been characterized, and its physiological electron donor is unclear. In this study, we purified the enzyme 46-fold with a benzyl viologen reduction activity of 41.2 U/mg from C. ljungdahlii cells grown on CO. It is composed of two subunits, MetF (31.5 kDa) and MetV (23.5 kDa), and has an apparent molecular mass of 62.2 kDa. The brownish yellow protein contains 0.73 flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and 7.4 Fe, in agreement with the prediction that MetF binds one flavin and MetV binds two [4Fe4S] clusters. It cannot use NAD(P)H as its electron donor or catalyze an electron-bifurcating reaction in combination with ferredoxin as an electron acceptor. The reduced recombinant ferredoxin, flavodoxin, and thioredoxin of C. ljungdahlii can serve as electron donors with specific activities of 91.2, 22.1, and 7.4 U/mg, respectively. The apparent Km values for reduced ferredoxin and flavodoxin were around 1.46 µM and 0.73 µM, respectively. Subunit composition and phylogenetic analysis showed that the enzyme from C. ljungdahlii belongs to MetFV-type MTHFR, which is a heterodimer, and uses reduced ferredoxin as its electron donor. Based on these results, we discuss the energy metabolism of C. ljungdahlii when it grows on CO or H2 plus CO2. IMPORTANCE Syngas, a mixture of CO, CO2, and H2, is the main component of steel mill waste gas and also can be generated by the gasification of biomass and urban domestic waste. Its fermentation to biofuels and biocommodities has attracted attention due to the economic and environmental benefits of this process. Clostridium ljungdahlii is one of the superior acetogens used in the technology. However, the biochemical mechanism of its gas fermentation via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway is not completely clear. In this study, the key enzyme, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), was characterized and found to be a non-electron-bifurcating heterodimer with reduced ferredoxin as its electron donor, representing another example of MetFV-type MTHFR. The findings will form the basis for a deeper understanding of the energy metabolism of syngas fermentation by C. ljungdahlii, which is valuable for developing metabolic engineering strains and efficient syngas fermentation technologies.

2.
Front Oncol ; 11: 747718, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631585

RESUMO

For centuries, cancer has been a lingering dark cloud floating on people's heads. With rapid population growth and aging worldwide, cancer incidence and mortality are growing rapidly. Despite major advances in oncotherapy including surgery, radiation and chemical therapy, as well as immunotherapy and targeted therapy, cancer is expected be the leading cause of premature death in this century. Nowadays, natural compounds with potential anticancer effects have become an indispensable natural treasure for discovering clinically useful agents and made remarkable achievements in cancer chemotherapy. In this regards, OSW-1, which was isolated from the bulbs of Ornithogalum saundersiae in 1992, has exhibited powerful anticancer activities in various cancers. However, after almost three decades, OSW-1 is still far from becoming a real anticancer agent for its anticancer mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, in this review we summarize the available evidence on the anticancer effects and mechanisms of OSW-1 in vitro and in vivo, and some insights for researchers who are interested in OSW-1 as a potential anticancer drug. We conclude that OSW-1 is a potential candidate for anticancer drugs and deserves further study.

3.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(11): 963, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667159

RESUMO

Psoriasis is an auto-inflammatory skin disease characterized by abnormal activation of epidermal keratinocytes, aberrant neovascularization, and dysregulation of immune cells. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that mainly function in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Recently, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that expression of microRNAs is dysregulated in psoriasis patients and microRNAs play key roles in psoriasis pathogenesis. Downregulation of miR-193b-3p has been identified to be associated with psoriasis development. However, the precise functions and action mechanisms of miR-193b-3p in psoriasis pathogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we confirmed the downregulation of miR-193b-3p in psoriasis patients, psoriasis-like inflammatory cellular models, and an imiquimod (IMQ) -induced mouse model. A negative correlation was found between miR-193b-3p level and patient Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score. Furthermore, miR-193b-3p suppressed proliferation, inflammatory-factor secretion, and the STAT3 and NF-κB signaling pathways in keratinocytes. Importantly, intradermal injection of agomiR-193b-3p blocked, whereas antagomiR-193b-3p augmented, the psoriasis-like inflammation in the IMQ-induced mouse model. Bioinformatics analysis and the dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-193b-3p targets ERBB4 3' untranslated region (UTR). In addition, ERBB4 induced proliferation, inflammatory-factor production, and the STAT3 and NF-κB pathways in keratinocytes. Most importantly, forced expression of ERBB4 could attenuate the effects of miR-193b-3p in keratinocytes, indicating that miR-193b-3p inhibits keratinocyte activation by directly targeting ERBB4. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that the miR-193b-3p-ERBB4 axis underlies the hyperproliferation and aberrant inflammatory-factor secretion of psoriatic keratinocytes, providing a novel, microRNA-related causal mechanism and a potential therapeutic target in psoriasis.

4.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 709679, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589471

RESUMO

To accelerate serious skin burn wound healing in a convenient manner, an interpenetrating network of hydrogel consisting of gellan gum and polyacrylamide was synthesized by chemical crosslinking and Mg2+ ion immersion techniques. The prepared Mg2+@PAM/GG hydrogel was characterized by morphology, water vapor loss, swelling ratio, rheological properties, tensile mechanical, biocompatibility, and flow cytometry study. The results show that Mg2+@PAM/GG hydrogel's mechanical strength could be enhanced by the dual network structure and physical crosslinking agent Mg2+ ions. In addition, the tension strength of Mg2+@PAM/GG hydrogel is obviously increased from 86 to 392 kPa, the elongation at break increased from 84 to 231%, and crosslinking density N increased from 4.3 to 7.2 mol/m3 compared with pure GG hydrogel. The cumulative release curve of Mg2+ ions shows that the multiple release mechanism of Mg2+ ions belong to non-Fick's diffusion. Meanwhile, in vitro experiments show that Mg2+@PAM/GG double network hydrogel has favorable proliferation and an NF-κB pathway inhibition property for fibroblast cells. Finally, the healing effect of the Mg2+@PAM/GG was evaluated in a rat full-thickness burn model. The animal study demonstrates that Mg2+@PAM/GG could accelerate the healing efficiency in case of the sustained-released Mg2+ ions in wound beds. Considering this excellent performance, this convenient prepared hydrogel has great potential as a commercial application for skin full-thickness burn healing materials.

5.
Front Oncol ; 11: 716830, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540687

RESUMO

I-BET151 is an inhibitor of bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins that selectively inhibits BET family members (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT). Over the past ten years, many studies have demonstrated the potential of I-BET151 in cancer treatment. Specifically, I-BET151 causes cell cycle arrest and inhibits tumor cell proliferation in some hematological malignancies and solid tumors, such as breast cancer, glioma, melanoma, neuroblastoma, and ovarian cancer. The anticancer activity of I-BET151 is related to its effects on NF-κB, Notch, and Hedgehog signal transduction pathway, tumor microenvironment (TME) and telomere elongation. Remarkably, the combination of I-BET151 with select anticancer drugs can partially alleviate the occurrence of drug resistance in chemotherapy. Especially, the combination of forskolin, ISX9, CHIR99021, I-BET151 and DAPT allows GBM cells to be reprogrammed into neurons, and this process does not experience an intermediate pluripotent state. The research on the anticancer mechanism of I-BET151 will lead to new treatment strategies for clinical cancer.

6.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(8): 903-917, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590555

RESUMO

Enteral nutrition plays an irreplaceable role in the nutritional treatment of critically ill patients. In order to help clinical medical staff to manage the common complications during the implementations of enteral nutrition for critically ill patients, the consensus writing team carried out literature retrieval, literature quality evaluation, evidence synthesis. Several topics such as diarrhea, aspiration, high gastric residual volume, abdominal distension, etc. were assessed by evidence-based methodology and Delphi method. After two rounds of expert investigations, Expert consensus on prevention and management of enteral nutrition therapy complications for critically ill patients in China (2021 edition) developed, and provided guidance for clinical medical staff.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Nutrição Enteral , China , Consenso , Diarreia , Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Humanos
7.
Cancer Cell Int ; 21(1): 492, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toosendanin (TSN) is a triterpenoid compound mainly used as an ascaris repellant. Recent studies have shown that it possesses antitumor effects in many types of tumor cells. However, the effects of TSN on glioma cells have rarely been reported. METHODS: Different assays were performed to investigate the effects of TSN on the different glioma cell lines including U87MG and LN18. The assays included colony formation, wound healing, and transwell assays. Furthermore, Hoechst 33342 staining, flow cytometry, and western blotting analysis were performed to investigate the apoptotic activities of TSN. Finally, the results were confirmed using a xenograft tumor model that comprised of nude mice. RESULTS: In vitro, the CCK-8 and colony formation assays showed that TSN effectively inhibited glioma cell proliferation. Moreover, the inhibitory effects on glioma cell migration and invasion were demonstrated through the wound healing and transwell assays, respectively. Hoechst 33342 staining, flow cytometry, and western blotting assays demonstrated the significant effect of TSN in the apoptosis induction of glioma cells. Furthermore, the anti-glioma effect of TSN was exerted through the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways as demonstrated by western blotting analysis. In addition, the effects of TSN on glioma cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, migration, and invasion were reversed by 740Y-P, a PI3K activator. Finally, the mouse xenograft model confirmed the suppressive effect of TSN on tumor growth in vivo. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that TSN is a promising chemotherapeutic drug for patients with glioma.

8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(1): e0092421, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378958

RESUMO

Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain S33 can catabolize nicotine via a hybrid of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. Most of the enzymes involved in this biochemical pathway have been identified and characterized, except for the one catalyzing the oxidation of 6-hydroxy-3-succinoyl-semialdehyde-pyridine to 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine. Based on a previous genomic and transcriptomic analysis, an open reading frame (ORF) annotated to encode aldehyde dehydrogenase (Ald) in the nicotine-degrading cluster was predicted to be responsible for this step. In this study, we heterologously expressed the enzyme and identified its function by biochemical assay and mass spectrum analysis. It was found that Ald catalyzes the NAD-specific dehydrogenation of 6-hydroxy-3-succinoyl-semialdehyde-pyridine to 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine. With the nonhydroxylated analog 3-succinoyl-semialdehyde-pyridine (SAP) as a substrate, Ald had a specific activity of 10.05 U/mg at pH 9.0 and apparent Km values of around 58.68 µM and 0.41 mM for SAP and NAD+, respectively. Induction at low temperature and purification and storage in low-salt buffers were helpful to prevent its aggregation and precipitation. Disruption of the ald gene caused a lower growth rate and biomass of strain S33 on nicotine but not on 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine. Ald has a broad range of substrates, including benzaldehyde, furfural, and acetaldehyde. Recombinant Escherichia coli cells harboring the ald gene can efficiently convert furfural to 2-furoic acid at a specific rate of 0.032 mmol min-1 g dry cells-1, extending the application of Ald in the catalysis of bio-based furan compounds. These findings provide new insights into the biochemical mechanism of the nicotine-degrading hybrid pathway and the possible application of Ald in industrial biocatalysis. IMPORTANCE Nicotine is one of the major toxic N-heterocyclic aromatic alkaloids produced in tobacco plants. Manufacturing tobacco and smoking may lead to some environmental and public health problems. Microorganisms can degrade nicotine by various biochemical pathways, but the biochemical mechanism for nicotine degradation has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we identified an aldehyde dehydrogenase responsible for the oxidation of 6-hydroxy-3-succinoyl-semialdehyde-pyridine to 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine; this was the only uncharacterized enzyme in the hybrid of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways in Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33. Similar to the known aldehyde dehydrogenase, the NAD-specific homodimeric enzyme presents a broad substrate range with high activity in alkaline and low-salt-containing buffers. It can catalyze not only the aldehyde from nicotine degradation but also those of benzaldehyde, furfural, and acetaldehyde. It was found that recombinant Escherichia coli cells harboring the ald gene could efficiently convert furfural to valuable 2-furoic acid, demonstrating its potential application for enzymatic catalysis.

9.
Xenobiotica ; 51(10): 1101-1109, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382487

RESUMO

miR-199a-5p is an important regulator of many biological processes. However, whether and how CYP enzymes are regulated by miR-199a-5p are unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the potential role of mmu-miR-199a-5p in regulating CYP2 enzymes.Regulatory effects of mmu-miR-199a-5p on CYP expression were assessed in mouse AML-12 hepatocytes. The metabolic activity of CYP2B10 was probed using cyclophosphamide (CPA) as a specific substrate. The regulatory mechanism was investigated using combined luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation.Of several important drug-metabolizing CYPs, mmu-miR-199a-5p significantly increased the mRNA levels of Cyp2a10, Cyp2c29, and Cyp2j5 in AML-12 cells with Cyp2a10 altered the most. Consistently, mmu-miR-199a-5p enhanced the expression of CYP2B10 protein and cellular metabolism of CPA. Based on database analysis, Cyp2b10 was not a direct target gene of mmu-miR-199a-5p. Thus, a mediator is necessary for the miRNA regulation of CYP2B10. We found that E4BP4 repressed Cyp2b10 transcription and expression through specific binding to a D-box element in the gene promoter. Moreover, mmu-miR-199a-5p inhibited the expression of E4bp4 at the posttranscriptional level by directly targeting the 59-65 nt segment in its 3'-UTR.In conclusion, mmu-miR-199a-5p positively regulates CYP2B10 expression through inhibiting its repressor E4BP4. Our findings may provide an increased understanding of the complex regulatory pathways for CYP2B10.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , MicroRNAs , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Hepatócitos , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro
10.
Cancer Biol Ther ; 22(7-9): 440-454, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382916

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is a fatal gynecologic tumor, and conventional treatment is mainly limited by chemoresistance. The mechanism contributing to chemoresistance in ovarian cancer has yet to be established. This study aimed to investigate the specific role of circ_C20orf11 in regulating chemoresistance to cisplatin (DDP)in ovarian cancer. We first established two DDP-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines. Then, we identified the effect of circ_C20orf11 on specific cellular characteristics (proliferation, apoptosis, DDP resistance) via a series of experiments. The binding sites between circ_C20orf11 and miR-527 and between miR-527 and YWHAZ were predicted using a bioinformatics tool and confirmed with a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from DDP-resistant cell lines were identified, and the effect of EVs on macrophage polarization was examined. circ_C20orf11 was upregulated in ovarian cancer. Increased circ_C20orf11 expression enhanced DDP resistance and cell proliferation and reduced cell apoptosis in DDP-resistant cell lines after DDP treatment by sponging miR-527 and promoting YWHAZ expression. In addition, we found that DDP-resistant cell-derived EVs can induce macrophage M2 polarization, whereas silencing of circ_C20orf11 inhibited EV-induced macrophage M2 polarization. Consistent with these results, silencing of circ_C20orf11 enhanced sensitivity to DDP in vivo. Importantly, we proved that circ_C20orf11 expression was upregulated in EVs extracted from the serum of DDP-resistant patients. Our study demonstrated that silencing circ_C20orf11 sensitizes ovarian cancer to DDP by promoting miR-527/YWHAZ signaling and EV-mediated macrophage M2 polarization.

11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4969, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404787

RESUMO

Multimeric cytoskeletal protein complexes orchestrate normal cellular function. However, protein-complex distributions in stressed, heterogeneous cell populations remain unknown. Cell staining and proximity-based methods have limited selectivity and/or sensitivity for endogenous multimeric protein-complex quantification from single cells. We introduce micro-arrayed, differential detergent fractionation to simultaneously detect protein complexes in hundreds of individual cells. Fractionation occurs by 60 s size-exclusion electrophoresis with protein complex-stabilizing buffer that minimizes depolymerization. Proteins are measured with a ~5-hour immunoassay. Co-detection of cytoskeletal protein complexes in U2OS cells treated with filamentous actin (F-actin) destabilizing Latrunculin A detects a unique subpopulation (~2%) exhibiting downregulated F-actin, but upregulated microtubules. Thus, some cells may upregulate other cytoskeletal complexes to counteract the stress of Latrunculin A treatment. We also sought to understand the effect of non-chemical stress on cellular heterogeneity of F-actin. We find heat shock may dysregulate filamentous and globular actin correlation. In this work, our assay overcomes selectivity limitations to biochemically quantify single-cell protein complexes perturbed with diverse stimuli.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Heterogeneidade Genética , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Humanos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Tiazolidinas/farmacologia
12.
Yi Chuan ; 43(8): 775-791, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413017

RESUMO

The genome architectural protein CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) not only mediates long-distance chromatin interactions between distal enhancers and target promoters, but also functions as an important insulator-binding factor to block improper enhancer activation of non-target promoters, and is thus of great significance to transcriptional regulation of developmental genes. The Hox (Homeobox) gene family plays an important role in the development of the brain, bones, and limbs. The spatiotemporal colinear expression of the HOXD cluster along the proximal-distal axis of limbs is regulated by two clusters of enhancers known as super-enhancers located in the flanking regulatory regions. We focused on the HOXD cluster to explore the architectural role of CTCF in transcriptional regulation of developmental genes. The HOXD cluster contains 9 paralogous genes intermixed with a series of CBS (CTCF-binding site) elements. Using the CRISPR DNA-fragment editing system, we generated a series of single-cell HEK293T clones with deletion of increasing numbers of reverse CBS elements. RNA-seq experiments revealed decreased levels of HOXD gene expression. In addition, chromosome conformation capture experiments revealed increased long-distance chromatin interactions between HOXD and the upstream enhancer cluster and corresponding decreased interactions between HOXD and the downstream enhancer cluster. Thus, tandem reverse CTCF sites function as insulators to maintain HOXD regulatory balance between the upstream and downstream enhancer clusters. This study has interesting implications on the precise gene expression control of the Hox family during animal development.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Animais , Cromatina/genética , DNA , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
13.
Stat Sci ; 36(1): 89-108, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34305304

RESUMO

The rise of network data in many different domains has offered researchers new insight into the problem of modeling complex systems and propelled the development of numerous innovative statistical methodologies and computational tools. In this paper, we primarily focus on two types of biological networks, gene networks and brain networks, where statistical network modeling has found both fruitful and challenging applications. Unlike other network examples such as social networks where network edges can be directly observed, both gene and brain networks require careful estimation of edges using covariates as a first step. We provide a discussion on existing statistical and computational methods for edge esitimation and subsequent statistical inference problems in these two types of biological networks.

14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(10): 2807-2818, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061963

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cancer share a variety of risk factors and pathophysiological features. It is becoming increasingly accepted that the 2 diseases are related, and that T2DM increases the risk of certain malignancies. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes recent advancements in the elucidation of functions of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) messenger RNA (mRNA)-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) in T2DM and cancer. METHODS: A PubMed review of the literature was conducted, and search terms included IGF2BP2, IMP2, or p62 in combination with cancer or T2DM. Additional sources were identified through manual searches of reference lists. The increased risk of multiple malignancies and cancer-associated mortality in patients with T2DM is believed to be driven by insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, chronic inflammation, and dysregulation of adipokines and sex hormones. Furthermore, IGF-2 is oncogenic, and its loss-of-function splice variant is protective against T2DM, which highlights the pivotal role of this growth factor in the pathogenesis of these 2 diseases. IGF-2 mRNA-binding proteins, particularly IGF2BP2, are also involved in T2DM and cancer, and single-nucleotide variations (formerly single-nucleotide polymorphisms) of IGF2BP2 are associated with both diseases. Deletion of the IGF2BP2 gene in mice improves their glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and mice with transgenic p62, a splice variant of IGF2BP2, are prone to diet-induced fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting the biological significance of IGF2BP2 in T2DM and cancer. CONCLUSION: Accumulating evidence has revealed that IGF2BP2 mediates the pathogenesis of T2DM and cancer by regulating glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and tumorigenesis. This review provides insight into the potential involvement of this RNA binding protein in the link between T2DM and cancer.

15.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 2906-2914, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167441

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a very important role in the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This study focuses on the effects of miR-9 on the regulation of AML cells and their related signaling pathways. We found that the expression of miR-9 was significantly decreased in four AML cell lines (THP-1, HL-60, TF-1 and KG-1) compared with the human normal bone marrow cells (HS-5). Moreover, miR-9 overexpression inhibited HL-60 cell proliferation ability, and promoted apoptosis. However, interfering with miR-9 expression promoted the proliferation of HL-6 cells and inhibited apoptosis. Western blotting results subsequently showed that overexpression of miR-9 could elevate the expression of MAT1, LATS1, and LATS2 in HL-60 cells, and inhibit the expression of YAP, while the interference with miR-9 had the opposite result. Taken together, miR-9 may act as a tumor suppressor by activating the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway of AML cells, which in this way supply ideas for the clinical remedy of AML patients.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(23): 26861-26869, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080412

RESUMO

Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging membrane-based evaporation technology with great promise for the desalination and separation industries. However, its widespread application still depends on substantial development to increase the distillation flux, reduce the energy consumption, and extend the lifespan of the membrane. Herein, we report for the first time the integration of multiple functions, that is, energy-saving, flux-enhancing, and anti-fouling properties, into a single membrane. Such a membrane was fabricated by coating the top surface of a poly(vinylidene fluoride)-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) nanofibrous mat with photothermal and hydrophobic graphitic carbon spheres and subsequently coating the bottom surface with a hydrophilic polydopamine layer, yielding a novel Janus photothermal membrane (JPTM). Owing to the high photothermal efficiency and accelerated mass transport across the membrane, the JPTM demonstrated an excellent desalination performance when assembled into a solar-driven MD system, with a distillation flux of 1.29 kg m-2 h-1, which is 10 times higher than that of the conventional un-modified PVDF-HFP membrane, requiring only 1 kW m-2 solar illumination as the energy input.

17.
Redox Biol ; 45: 102033, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119876

RESUMO

S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) is hydrolyzed by SAH hydrolase (SAHH) to homocysteine and adenosine. Increased plasma SAH levels were associated with disturbed renal function in patients with diabetes. However, the role and mechanism of SAHH in diabetic nephropathy is still unknown. In the present study, we found that inhibition of SAHH by using its inhibitor adenosine dialdehyde (ADA) accumulates intracellular or plasma SAH levels and increases high glucose-induced podocyte injury and aggravates STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy, which is associated with Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. Inhibition or knockout of NLRP3 attenuates SAHH inhibition-aggravated podocyte injury and diabetic nephropathy. Additionally, SAHH inhibition increases thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP)-mediated oxidative stress and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but these effects were not observed in TXNIP knockout mice. Mechanistically, SAHH inhibition increased TXNIP by inhibiting histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and reduced trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 and its enrichment at promoter of early growth response 1 (EGR1). Moreover, EGR1 is activated and enriched at promoters of TXNIP by SAHH inhibition and is essential for SAHH inhibition-induced TXNIP expression. Inhibition of EGR1 protected against SAHH inhibition-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and oxidative stress and diabetic nephropathy. Finally, the harmful effects of SAHH inhibition on inflammation and oxidative stress and diabetic nephropathy were also observed in heterozygote SAHH knockout mice. These findings suggest that EZH2/EGR1/TXNIP/NLRP3 signaling cascade contributes to SAHH inhibition-aggravated diabetic nephropathy. Our study firstly provides a novel insight into the role and mechanism of SAHH inhibition in diabetic nephropathy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Proteínas NLR , Estresse Oxidativo , Tiorredoxinas/genética
18.
Microbiol Res ; 250: 126801, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139525

RESUMO

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens X030 (BaX030) has broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against the fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii. To improve its antibacterial effect, BaX030 was subjected to compound mutagenesis of atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) and nitrosoguanidine (NTG). The results showed that, compared with the original strain, the production of macrolactin A and oxydifficidin in mutated strain N-11 increased to 39 % and 268 %, respectively. The re-sequencing analysis suggested that there were SNPs and InDels in the gene clusters focused on the sucrose utilization pathway, glycolysis pathway and fatty acid synthesis pathway. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that strain N-11 became thin and long. The qRT-PCR results indicated that the expression of immune factors in the liver or kidney tissue of grass carp increased after feeding with N-11. H&E staining and protection experiments also showed that the mortality and surface symptoms of grass carp infected by the two pathogens were significantly reduced. The study identified a probiotic strain with potential application value in aquaculture production and provided a new strategy for the discovery of new strains with higher antibacterial biological activity.

19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112446, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175823

RESUMO

Lipophilic shellfish toxins (LSTs) can cause human illness and therefore represent a serious threat to public health. Shellfish are the main dietary source of LSTs, but very few studies have appraised dietary exposure to LSTs through shellfish consumption in China. We measured levels of multiple LSTs in shellfish samples sold in the principal wholesale seafood market in the southern coastal city of Shenzhen, and we estimated the potential for acute and chronic LST exposure of the Shenzhen population via ingestion of shellfish. LST contamination data were obtained from a total of 14 species of 188 commercial samples. Eleven individual LSTs, namely okadaic acid (OA), dinophysis toxin-1 and -2 (DTX1 and DTX2), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), yessotoxin and homo yessotoxin (YTX and hYTX), azaspiracid-1, -2 and -3 (AZA1, AZA2, AZA3), spirolides (SPXs), and gymnodimine (GYM), were determined using liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). More than two thirds of samples showed undetectable LSTs, while the detection rates (the proportion of samples with detectable LSTs) of individual LSTs ranged from 0% to 45.7%. Most shellfish samples had lower levels of LST contamination than the corresponding limits of detection (LODs), while some samples had levels of hYTX and GYM that exceeded the limits of quantification (LOQs). Overall, levels of LSTs in the 188 samples were below the regulatory limits set by most countries. Acute and chronic exposures of LST were estimated by a point-estimate modeling method that combined sample contamination data with consumption data from dietary survey of Shenzhen residents and consumption figures proposed by EFSA, the European Food Safety Authority. Seasonal variations in LST concentrations were noted in some instances. Overall, the estimated acute exposure to LSTs based on consumption of large-size shellfish portions and the maximum LSTs contamination level were below the provisional acute reference doses (ARfDs) proposed by the EFSA. Chronic exposure estimates based on mean and 99th percentile consumption of shellfish by Shenzhen residents and mean LSTs contamination levels in the collected samples were from 2452 to 74 times lower than those associated with estimated acute exposure levels.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Dinoflagelados/química , Humanos , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 656615, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109195

RESUMO

Sleep plays an important role in immune function. However, the effects of very-short-term sleep deprivation on the early recovery of immune function after sepsis remain unclear. This study was conducted in the intensive care unit to investigate the effects of 2 consecutive days of sleep deprivation (SD) on lymphocyte recovery over the following few days in septic patients who were recovering from a critical illness. The patients' self-reports of sleep quality was assessed using the Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire at 0 and 24 h after inclusion. The demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were collected and compared between the good sleep group and poor sleep group. We found that 2 consecutive days of SD decreased the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and ALC recovery at 3 days after SD. Furthermore, post-septic poor sleep decreased the plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) immediately after 2 consecutive days of SD. The ANP levels at 24 h after inclusion were positively correlated with ALC recovery, the number of CD3+ T cells, or the number of CD3+ CD4+ cells in the peripheral blood on day 5 after inclusion. Our data suggested that very-short-term poor sleep quality could slow down lymphocyte recovery over the following few days in septic patients who were recovering from a critical illness. Our results underscore the significance of very-short-term SD on serious negative effects on the immune function. Therefore, it is suggested that continuous SD or several short-term SD with short intervals should be avoided in septic patients.

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