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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052958

RESUMO

Heterostructures composed of superconductor and ferroelectrics (SC/FE) are very important for manipulating the superconducting property and applications. However, growth of high-quality superconducting iron chalcogenide films is challenging because of their volatility and FE substrate with rough surface and large lattice mismatch. Here, we report a two-step growth approach to get high-quality FeSe0.5Te0.5 (FST) films on FE Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 with large lattice mismatch, which show superconductivity at only around 10 nm. Through a systematic study of structural and electric transport properties of samples with different thicknesses, a mechanism to grow high-quality FST is discovered. Moreover, electric-field-induced remarkable change of Tc (superconducting transition temperature) is demonstrated in a 20 nm FST film. This work paves the way to grow high-quality films which contain volatile element and have large lattice mismatch with the substrate. It is also helpful for manipulating the superconducting property in SC/FE heterostructures.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(4): 4616-4624, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903743

RESUMO

(K,Na)NbO3-based lead-free ferroelectric materials are highly desired in modern electronic applications and have long been considered as a strong candidate for replacing (Pb,Zr)TiO3, but most of them are deficient in large remnant polarization and decent thermal stability. Here, a unique lead-free 0.95(K0.49Na0.49Li0.02)(Nb0.8Ta0.2)O3-0.05CaZrO3 with 2 wt % MnO2 addition (KNNLT-CZ-M) ferroelectric film with special nanocomposite structures grown on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-coated SrTiO3(001) substrate is demonstrated. The KNNLT-CZ-M films display excellent ferroelectricity with a large twice remnant polarization of 64.91 µC/cm2, a superior thermal stability of ferroelectricity from -196 to 300 °C, and a high Curie temperature of 400 °C. These robust performances could be attributed to the densely arranged self-assembled nanocolumns (∼10 nm in diameter) in the films, which can vertically strain the matrix and enhance its b/a ratio. The formation of the nanocolumns critically depends on the CaZrO3 component. Our results may help the design of a new type of lead-free ferroelectric films and promote their potential applications in microelectronic devices.

3.
J Vis Exp ; (153)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789319

RESUMO

Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a well-documented risk factor for glaucoma. Here we describe a novel, effective method for consistently inducing stable IOP elevation in mice that mimics the post-operative complication of using silicone oil (SO) as a tamponade agent in human vitreoretinal surgery. In this protocol, SO is injected into the anterior chamber of the mouse eye to block the pupil and prevent inflow of aqueous humor. The posterior chamber accumulates aqueous humor and this in turn increases the IOP of the posterior segment. A single SO injection produces reliable, sufficient, and stable IOP elevation, which induces significant glaucomatous neurodegeneration. This model is a true replicate of secondary glaucoma in the eye clinic. To further mimic the clinical setting, SO can be removed from the anterior chamber to reopen the drainage pathway and allow inflow of aqueous humor, which is drained through the trabecular meshwork (TM) at the angle of the anterior chamber. Because IOP quickly returns to normal, the model can be used to test the effect of lowering IOP on glaucomatous retinal ganglion cells. This method is straightforward, does not require special equipment or repeat procedures, closely simulates clinical situations, and may be applicable to diverse animal species. However, minor modifications may be required.

4.
Restor Neurol Neurosci ; 37(6): 545-552, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Permanent loss of vital functions after central nervous system (CNS) injury occurs in part because axons in the adult mammalian CNS do not regenerate after injury. PTEN was identified as a prominent intrinsic inhibitor of CNS axon regeneration about 10 years ago. The PTEN negatively regulated PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, which has been intensively explored in diverse models of axon injury and diseases and its mechanism for axon regeneration is becoming clearer. OBJECTIVE: It is timely to summarize current knowledge about the PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway and discuss future directions of translational regenerative research for neural injury and neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: Using mouse optic nerve crush as an in vivo retinal ganglion cell axon injury model, we have conducted an extensive molecular dissection of the PI3K-AKT-mTORC1/mTORC2 pathway to illuminate the cross-regulating mechanisms in axon regeneration. RESULTS: AKT is the nodal point that coordinates both positive (PI3K-PDK1-pAKT-T308) and negative (PI3K-mTORC2-pAKT-S473) signals to regulate adult CNS axon regeneration through two parallel pathways, activating mTORC1 and inhibiting GSK3ß. However, mTORC1/S6K1-mediated feedback inhibition after PTEN deletion prevents potent AKT activation. CONCLUSIONS: A key permissive signal from an unidentified AKT-independent pathway is required for stimulating the neuron-intrinsic growth machinery. Future studies into this complex neuron-intrinsic balancing mechanism involving necessary and permissive signals for axon regeneration is likely to lead to safe and effective regenerative strategies for CNS repair.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 58(22): 15401-15409, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674179

RESUMO

A new iron-base superconductor SmFFeAs is synthesized via solid-state metathesis reaction by using SmFCl and LiFeAs as precursors. The compound crystallized in the tetragonal ZrCuSiAs-type structure with the space group P4/nmm and lattice parameters of a = 3.9399(0) Å and c = 8.5034(1) Å. The superconducting diamagnetic transition occurs at 56 K for the parent compound, which confirmed by the resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. The appearance of superconductivity without extrinsic doping could be ascribed to the self-doping owing to the mixed valence of Sm ions. The as-synthesized SmFFeAs serves as a new self-doped parent compound for oxygen-free high-critical-temperature (high-Tc) superconductors.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(50): 47091-47097, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736291

RESUMO

Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is important for increasing the information storage density in the perpendicular magnetic recording media, and for rare-earth-transition-metal alloys with bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy that generate great research interest due to their abundant interesting phenomena, such as fast domain wall motion and skyrmion. Here, we deposit amorphous GdFe ferrimagnetic films on Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 ferroelectric substrate and investigate the effect of electric-field-induced piezostrain on its bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The anomalous Hall effect and polar Kerr image measurements suggest an enhanced bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by electric field, which originates from a positive magnetoelastic anisotropy due to the positive magnetostriction coefficient of the GdFe film and the electric-field-induced tensile strain along the z axis in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 ferroelectric substrate. Our results enrich the electrical control of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and are useful for designing spintronic devices based on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

7.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(12): 1900310, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380169

RESUMO

Recent achievements in semiconductor surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates have greatly expanded the application of SERS technique in various fields. However, exploring novel ultra-sensitive semiconductor SERS materials is a high-priority task. Here, a new semiconductor SERS-active substrate, Ta2O5, is developed and an important strategy, the "coupled resonance" effect, is presented, to optimize the SERS performance of semiconductor materials by energy band engineering. The optimized Mo-doped Ta2O5 substrate exhibits a remarkable SERS sensitivity with an enhancement factor of 2.2 × 107 and a very low detection limit of 9 × 10-9 m for methyl violet (MV) molecules, demonstrating one of the highest sensitivities among those reported for semiconductor SERS substrates. This remarkable enhancement can be attributed to the synergistic resonance enhancement of three components under 532 nm laser excitation: i) MV molecular resonance, ii) photoinduced charge transfer resonance between MV molecules and Ta2O5 nanorods, and iii) electromagnetic enhancement around the "gap" and "tip" of anisotropic Ta2O5 nanorods. Furthermore, it is discovered that the concomitant photoinduced degradation of the probed molecules in the time-scale of SERS detection is a non-negligible factor that limits the SERS performance of semiconductors with photocatalytic activity.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(28): 25569-25577, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264829

RESUMO

Electric-field control of magnetism (EFCM) is very important for the exploration of high-density, fast, and nonvolatile random-access memory with ultralow energy consumption. Here, we report the electric-field-induced ferroelectric phase transitions in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.82Ti0.18O3 (PMN-0.18PT) and symmetry breaking of EFCM behaviors for corresponding directions in multiferroic heterostructures composed of amorphous ferromagnetic Co40Fe40B20 (CoFeB) and PMN-0.18PT. We uncover a new mechanism behind the unusual phenomena, involving coupling between CoFeB and PMN-0.18PT via complex cooperation of electric-field-induced ferroelectric phase transitions, competition of different ferroelectric domains, and internal electric field in PMN-0.18PT. The deterministic EFCM with reversible and nonvolatile nature opens up a new avenue for exploring EFCM in multiferroic heterostructures and is also significant for applications.

9.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(11)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146444

RESUMO

This study investigated the strength and toughness of reactive powder concrete (RPC) made with various steel fiber lengths and concrete strengths. The results indicated that among RPC samples with strength of 150 MPa, RPC reinforced with long steel fibers had the highest compressive strength, peak strength, and toughness. Among the RPC samples with strength of 270 MPa, RPC reinforced with short steel fibers had the highest compressive strength, and peak strength, while RPC reinforced with medium-length steel fibers had the highest toughness. As a result of the higher bond adhesion between fibers and ultra-high-strength RPC matrix, long steel fibers were more effective for the reinforcement of RPC with strength of 150 MPa, while short steel fibers were more effective for the reinforcement of RPC with strength of 270 MPa.

10.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(6): 1953-1966, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060051

RESUMO

Purpose: Increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one of the earliest subcellular changes in neuro-ophthalmic diseases. In this study, we investigated the expression of key molecules in the ER stress pathways following nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION), the most common acute optic neuropathy in adults over 50, and assessed the impact of chemical chaperon 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) in vivo. Methods: We induced AION using photochemical thrombosis in adult mice and performed histologic analyses of key molecules in the ER stress pathway in the retina and optic nerve. We also assessed the effects of daily intraperitoneal injections of 4-PBA after AION. Results: In the retina at baseline, there was low proapoptotic transcriptional regulator C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and high prosurvival chaperon glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). One day after AION, there was significantly increased CHOP and reduced GRP78 expressions in the ganglion cell layer. In the optic nerve at baseline, there was little CHOP and high GRP78 expression. One day after AION, there was significantly increased CHOP and no change in GRP78 expression. Treatment immediately after AION using daily intraperitoneal injection of chemical chaperone 4-PBA for 19 days significantly rescued Brn3A+ RGCs and Olig2+ optic nerve oligodendrocytes. Conclusions: We showed for the first time that acute AION resulted in increased ER stress and differential expression of ER stress markers CHOP and GRP78 in the retina and optic nerve. Rescue of RGCs and oligodendrocytes with 4-PBA provides support for ER stress reduction as possible treatment for AION.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Disco Óptico/patologia , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica/patologia , Fenilbutiratos/farmacologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/biossíntese , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Chaperonas Moleculares , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Disco Óptico/metabolismo , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica/tratamento farmacológico , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica/genética , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/biossíntese , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/genética
11.
Elife ; 82019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090540

RESUMO

Understanding the molecular mechanism of glaucoma and development of neuroprotectants is significantly hindered by the lack of a reliable animal model that accurately recapitulates human glaucoma. Here, we sought to develop a mouse model for the secondary glaucoma that is often observed in humans after silicone oil (SO) blocks the pupil or migrates into the anterior chamber following vitreoretinal surgery. We observed significant intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation after intracameral injection of SO, and that SO removal allows IOP to return quickly to normal. This simple, inducible and reversible mouse ocular hypertension model shows dynamic changes of visual function that correlate with progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and axon degeneration. It may be applicable with only minor modifications to a range of animal species in which it will generate stable, robust IOP elevation and significant neurodegeneration that will facilitate selection of neuroprotectants and investigating the pathogenesis of ocular hypertension-induced glaucoma.

12.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(8)2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003418

RESUMO

The effects of Ca/Si ratio, aluminum and magnesium on the carbonation behavior of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) were investigated by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The results showed that the Ca/Si ratio, Al/Si ratio and Mg/Si ratio had a significant influence on the structure, carbonation products and carbonation resistance of C-(M)-(A)-S-H. The mean chain length of silicate chains in C-S-H increased as the Ca/Si ratio decreased. Aluminum uptake in C-S-H increased the content of bridging silicate tetrahedron (Q2). A cross-linked structure (Q3) appeared when magnesium uptake in C-S-H. The carbonation product of C-S-H was vaterite if the Ca/Si ratio was lower than 0.87. The carbonation products of C-S-H were vaterite and calcite if the Ca/Si ratio was higher than 1.02. C-M-S-H had more polymerized units, stronger bond strength and better carbonation resistance than C-S-H.

13.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(3): 203, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814515

RESUMO

Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) acts as a brake for the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT-mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, the deletion of which promotes potent central nervous system (CNS) axon regeneration. Previously, we demonstrated that AKT activation is sufficient to promote CNS axon regeneration to a lesser extent than PTEN deletion. It is still questionable whether AKT is entirely responsible for the regenerative effect of PTEN deletion on CNS axons. Here, we show that blocking AKT or its downstream effectors, mTORC1 and GSK3ß, significantly reduces PTEN deletion-induced mouse optic nerve regeneration, indicating the necessary role of AKT-dependent signaling. However, AKT is only marginally activated in PTEN-null mice due to mTORC1-mediated feedback inhibition. That combining PTEN deletion with AKT overexpression or GSK3ß deletion achieves significantly more potent axonal regeneration suggests an AKT-independent pathway for axon regeneration. Elucidating the AKT-independent pathway is required to develop effective strategies for CNS axon regeneration.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 243, 2019 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651541

RESUMO

Electrically switchable magnetization is considered a milestone in the development of ultralow power spintronic devices, and it has been a long sought-after goal for electric-field control of magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junctions with ultralow power consumption. Here, through integrating spintronics and multiferroics, we investigate MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions on ferroelectric substrate with a high tunnel magnetoresistance ratio of 235%. A giant, reversible and nonvolatile electric-field manipulation of magnetoresistance to about 55% is realized at room temperature without the assistance of a magnetic field. Through strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling, the electric field modifies the magnetic anisotropy of the free layer leading to its magnetization rotation so that the relative magnetization configuration of the magnetic tunnel junction can be efficiently modulated. Our findings offer significant fundamental insight into information storage using electric writing and magnetic reading and represent a crucial step towards low-power spintronic devices.

18.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 558, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158848

RESUMO

In the nearly 10 years since PTEN was identified as a prominent intrinsic inhibitor of CNS axon regeneration, the PTEN negatively regulated PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway has been intensively explored in diverse models of axon injury and diseases and its mechanism for axon regeneration is becoming clearer. It is therefore timely to summarize current knowledge and discuss future directions of translational regenerative research for neural injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Using mouse optic nerve crush as an in vivo retinal ganglion cell axon injury model, we have conducted an extensive molecular dissection of the PI3K-AKT pathway to illuminate the cross-regulating mechanisms in axon regeneration. AKT is the nodal point that coordinates both positive and negative signals to regulate adult CNS axon regeneration through two parallel pathways, activating mTORC1 and inhibiting GSK3ßß. Activation of mTORC1 or its effector S6K1 alone can only slightly promote axon regeneration, whereas blocking mTORC1 significantly prevent axon regeneration, suggesting the necessary role of mTORC1 in axon regeneration. However, mTORC1/S6K1-mediated feedback inhibition prevents potent AKT activation, which suggests a key permissive signal from an unidentified AKT-independent pathway is required for stimulating the neuron-intrinsic growth machinery. Future studies into this complex neuron-intrinsic balancing mechanism involving necessary and permissive signals for axon regeneration is likely to lead eventually to safe and effective regenerative strategies for CNS repair.

19.
Faraday Discuss ; 208(0): 555-573, 2018 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851419

RESUMO

Comprehensive identification of the phases and atomic configurations of bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts are critical in understanding structure-property relationships in catalysis. However, control of the structure, whilst retaining the same composition, is challenging. Here, the same carbon supported Pt3Sn catalyst is annealed under air, Ar and H2 resulting in variation of the extent of alloying of the two components. The atmosphere-induced extent of alloying is characterised using a variety of methods including TEM, XRD, XPS, XANES and EXAFS and is defined as the fraction of Sn present as Sn0 (XPS and XANES) or the ratio of the calculated composition of the bimetallic particle to the nominal composition according to the stoichiometric ratio of the preparation (TEM, XRD and EXAFS). The values obtained depend on the structural method used, but the trend air < Ar < H2 annealed samples is consistent. These results are then used to provide insights regarding the electrocatalytic activity of Pt3Sn catalysts for CO, methanol, ethanol and 1-butanol oxidation and the roles of alloyed Sn and SnO2.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(21): 18029-18035, 2018 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29745233

RESUMO

Epitaxy and misfit strain imposed by underlying substrates have been intensively used to tailor the microstructure and electronic properties of oxide films, but this approach is largely restricted by commercially limited substrates. In contrast to the conventional epitaxial misfit strains with a positive Poisson's constant, we show here a tunable Poisson's ratio with anomalous values from negative, zero, to positive. This permits effective control over the out-of-plane lattice parameters that strongly correlate the magnetic and transport properties in perovskite mixed-valence La1- xSr xMnO3 thin films. Our results provide an unconventional approach to better modulation and understanding of elastic-mediated microstructures and physical properties of oxide films by engineering the Poisson's ratios.

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