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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 231: 115692, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888840

RESUMO

Protein-loaded starch microspheres were prepared by water-in-water (w/w) emulsion method. The effects of the molecular weight of starch and protein used, concentration of solutes in both dispersed and continuous phases and starch to protein mass ratio on the yield, loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency were measured. These parameters were significantly higher in Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-loaded microspheres than in lysozyme-loaded microspheres. An increase in the molecular weight of starch, solute concentration in dispersed and continuous phases increased the yield. The encapsulation efficiency was significantly improved when the starch to BSA mass ratio was increased. When the starch to BSA mass ratio was 15:1, the encapsulation efficiency reached about 100 % with a loading capacity of 7.3 g/100 g. This method is more effective when both core (protein) and shell (starch) materials with high molecular weight are used. This approach is environmentally friendly and the processing parameters can be easily optimized.

2.
J Membr Biol ; 253(1): 43-55, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820013

RESUMO

Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is a major atherogenic lipid that stimulates an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) and the release of cytokines under inflammasome activation. However, the potential receptors of LPC in macrophages are poorly understood. Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily, which is crucially involved in transducing environmental irritant stimuli into nociceptor activity, are potential receptors of LPC. In this study, we investigated whether LPC can induce the activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a member of the TRP superfamily. The functional expression of TRPA1 was first detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blotting and calcium imaging in human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1)-derived macrophages. The mechanism by which LPC induces the activation of macrophages through TRPA1 was verified by cytoplasmic and mitochondrial calcium imaging, mtROS detection, a JC-1 assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the CCK-8 assay and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxic assay. LPC induced the activation of THP-1-derived macrophages via calcium influx, and this activation was suppressed by potent and selective inhibitors of TRPA1. These results indicated that TRPA1 can mediate mtROS generation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, the secretion of IL-1ß and cytotoxicity through cellular and mitochondrial Ca2+ influx in LPC-treated THP-1-derived macrophages. Therefore, the inhibition of TRPA1 may protect THP-1-derived macrophages against LPC-induced injury.

3.
Genes Brain Behav ; : e12625, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730264

RESUMO

Temperature sensing is an important adaptive mechanism for warm-blooded animals such as humans. ThermoTRP ion channels are activated by distinct but overlapping physiological temperatures. Our previous research demonstrated that sorting nexin 11 (SNX11) regulates lysosomal degradation of plasma membrane TRPV3, one of ThermoTRP ion channel proteins. Here, we found that SNX11, a vesicular trafficking protein, modulates mouse behaviour in response to temperature changes. Snx11-knockout mice exhibit a stronger preference for mild temperatures along with enhanced sensitivity to harmful heat. Mechanistically, keratinocytes from Snx11-knockout mice exhibit a larger temperature-gated TRPV3 membrane current and have enhanced thermoTRPV3 expression in the plasma membrane compared to wild-type keratinocytes. Additionally, Snx11-knockout mice show higher endogenous TRPV3 protein levels in skin tissues than wild-type mice do. Therefore, our results indicate that SNX11 may regulate thermal perception via alteration of functional thermoTRPV3 on the plasma membrane of thermally sensitive cells, which is the first link between vesicular trafficking and thermal transduction.

4.
Stem Cell Res ; 40: 101571, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520889

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder with complex etiologies. In this study, urine cells were collected from a 16-year-old male with ASD and reprogrammed with the human SKOM transcription factors. The patient has a heterozygous C > T mutation of FCGR1B gene that was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The pluripotency was verified by gene expression and capacity of differentiation towards the three germ layers. This kind of iPSC will be valuable for further understanding the pathogenesis of ASD and help to develop drugs for treating ASD.

5.
Biol Reprod ; 101(2): 457-465, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162612

RESUMO

Zona pellucida (ZP), which enwraps the oocyte during folliculogenesis, initially forms in the primary follicle and plays an important role in female fertility. Here, we investigated a mouse strain ("mutant mice" for short) carrying two types of ZP defects in folliculogenesis, i.e., ZP thinned (but intact) and ZP cracked, caused by targeted mutation in the Zp1 gene. Using this mutant mouse strain and wild-type mouse as control, we studied the effects of the ZP defects on the development of oocytes and granulosa cells during folliculogenesis. For each ZP defect, we examined the morphology of transzonal projections and apoptosis of granulosa cells in the corresponding growing follicles, as well as the morphology of corresponding ovulated eggs and their abilities to develop into viable individuals. Our results suggested that ZP integrity rather than thickness or porosity is crucial for preventing the ectopia of granulosa cells, maintaining adequate routine bilateral signaling between oocyte and surrounding granulosa cells, and thus for ensuring the survival of granulosa cells and the establishment of the full developmental competence of oocytes. This is the first study to elucidate the effects of different degrees of ZP defects caused by the same gene mutation, on the apoptosis of granulosa cells and developmental competence of oocytes, and to explore the potential mechanisms underlying these effects.

6.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 19(9): 5435-5440, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961693

RESUMO

Vitamin D plays a major role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and affects bone metabolism. There is currently limited detailed knowledge about the vitamin D endocrine system in human bone cells. Here, we investigated the direct effects of 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α, 25-(OH)2D3 or 'VD3') on osteogenesis of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs). We also studied the impact of VD3 on intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in osteogenic cells. The results of alizarin red staining and alkaline phosphatase activity tests showed that VD3 could not induce osteogenic differentiation in HUCMSCs. However, addition of VD3 to the osteogenic differentiationinducing medium could promote HUCMSC to differentiate into osteoblasts. Calcium imaging showed that the addition of VD3 increased intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in osteogenic HUCMSCs. Thus, we concluded that adding VD3 increased intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in osteogenic HUCMSCs and promoted their osteogenesis.

7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 17(1): 206, 2017 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recently discovered tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] cultivar can generate tender shoots in winter. We performed comparative proteomics to analyze the differentially accumulated proteins between winter and spring tender shoots of this clonal cultivar to reveal the physiological basis of its evergrowing character during winter. RESULTS: We extracted proteins from the winter and spring tender shoots (newly formed two leaves and a bud) of the evergrowing tea cultivar "Dongcha11" respectively. Thirty-three differentially accumulated high-confidence proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF / TOF MS). Among these, 24 proteins had increased abundance while nine showed were decreased abundance in winter tender shoots as compared with the spring tender shoots. We categorized the differentially accumulated proteins into eight critical biological processes based on protein function annotation including photosynthesis, cell structure, protein synthesis & destination, transporters, metabolism of sugars and polysaccharides, secondary metabolism, disease/defense and proteins with unknown functions. Proteins with increased abundance in winter tender shoots were mainly related to the processes of photosynthesis, cytoskeleton and protein synthesis, whereas those with decreased abundance were correlated to metabolism and the secondary metabolism of polyphenolic flavonoids. Biochemical analysis showed that the total contents of soluble sugar and amino acid were higher in winter tender shoots while tea polyphenols were lower as compared with spring tender shoots. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that the simultaneous increase in the abundance of photosynthesis-related proteins rubisco, plastocyanin, and ATP synthase delta chain, metabolism-related proteins eIF4 and protease subunits, and the cytoskeleton-structure associated proteins phosphatidylinositol transfer protein and profilin may be because of the adaptation of the evergrowing tea cultivar "Dongcha11" to low temperature and light conditions. Histone H4, Histone H2A.1, putative In2.1 protein and protein lin-28 homologs may also regulate the development of winter shoots and their response to adverse conditions.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Proteômica/métodos , Camellia sinensis/fisiologia , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Luz , Espectrometria de Massas , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
8.
Brain Behav ; 7(10): e00768, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29075556

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Decision making as a complex cognitive process involves assessing risk, reward, and costs. Typically, it has been studied in nonsocial contexts. We have developed a novel laboratory model used with rodents to detect food-foraging decision-making strategies in different social settings. However, the brain regions that mediate these behaviors are not well identified. Substantial evidence shows that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) participates in evaluation of social information and in decision making. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effect of bilateral lesions in the ACC on established behaviors. Kainic acid (KA) was administered bilaterally to induce ACC lesions, and saline microinjection into the ACC was used in the sham group. RESULTS: In contrast to the sham-lesioned animals, when faced with the choice of foraging under a social context, rats with ACC lesions preferred foraging for the less desirable food. Moreover, in these situations, the total amount of food foraged by the ACC-lesioned group was less than the amount foraged by the sham group. Notably, neither social interactions nor social agonistic behaviors were affected by ACC lesions. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the ACC is a key region underlying neural processing of social decision-making, specifically tending to compete for foraging high predictive reward food.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo , Comportamento Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Ácido Caínico/farmacologia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Sci Rep ; 7: 40796, 2017 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28094298

RESUMO

A new two-dimensional (2D) carbon crystal, different from graphene, has been prepared from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene, consisting of 4-carbon and 6-carbon rings in 1:1 ratio, named 4-6 carbophene by authors, in which all carbon atoms possess sp2 hybrid orbitals with some distortion, forming an extensive conjugated π-bonding planar structure. The angles between the three σ-bonds of the carbon sp2 orbitals are roughly 120°, 90°, and 150°. Each of the three non-adjacent sides of a 6C-ring is shared with a 4C-ring; and each of the two opposite sides of a 4C-ring is shared with a 6C-ring. Dodecagonal holes with a diameter of approximate 5.8 Å are regularly located throughout the 2D carbon crystal. Even though the bond energies in 4-6 carbophene are weaker than those in the graphene, the new planar crystal is quite stable in ambient conditions. The 4-6 carbophene can be synthetized from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene or other benzene derivatives through dehydration and polymerization reactions, and may possess several possible patterns that form a family of 2D carbon crystals. A possible side reaction involving 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene is also discussed, which may produce a carbon-oxygen two dimensional crystal.

10.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2015: 8038-41, 2015 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26738158

RESUMO

The number of the apoplectic people is increasing while population aging is quickening its own pace. The precise measurement of walking speed is very important to the rehabilitation guidance of the apoplectic people. The precision of traditional measuring methods on speed such as stopwatch is relatively low, and high precision measurement instruments because of the high cost cannot be used widely. What's more, these methods have difficulty in measuring the walking speed of the apoplectic people accurately. UHF RFID tag has the advantages of small volume, low price, long reading distance etc, and as a wearable sensor, it is suitable to measure walking speed accurately for the apoplectic people. In order to measure the human walking speed, this paper uses four reader antennas with a certain distance to reads the signal strength of RFID tag. Because RFID tag has different RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) in different distances away from the reader, researches on the changes of RSSI with time have been done by this paper to calculate walking speed. The verification results show that the precise measurement of walking speed can be realized by signal processing method with Gaussian Fitting-Kalman Filter. Depending on the variance of walking speed, doctors can predict the rehabilitation training result of the apoplectic people and give the appropriate rehabilitation guidance.


Assuntos
Velocidade de Caminhada , Humanos , Dispositivo de Identificação por Radiofrequência , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
N Engl J Med ; 370(13): 1220-6, 2014 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24670168

RESUMO

The human zona pellucida is composed of four glycoproteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4) and has an important role in reproduction. Here we describe a form of infertility with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, characterized by abnormal eggs that lack a zona pellucida. We identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in ZP1 in six family members. In vitro studies showed that defective ZP1 proteins and normal ZP3 proteins colocalized throughout the cells and were not expressed at the cell surface, suggesting that the aberrant ZP1 results in the sequestration of ZP3 in the cytoplasm, thereby preventing the formation of the zona pellucida around the oocyte.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Ovo/genética , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Genes Recessivos , Infertilidade Feminina/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Óvulo/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Adulto , China , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Proteínas do Ovo/química , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/patologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/química , Óvulo/patologia , Linhagem , Receptores de Superfície Celular/química , Glicoproteínas da Zona Pelúcida
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