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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(1): 110-117, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645059

RESUMO

Near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) combined with band screening method and modeling algorithm can be used to achieve the rapid and non-destructive detection of the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) production process. This paper focused on the ginkgo leaf macroporous resin purification process, which is the key technology of Yinshen Tongluo Capsules, in order to achieve the rapid determination of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in effluent. The abnormal spectrum was eliminated by Mahalanobis distance algorithm, and the data set was divided by the sample set partitioning method based on joint X-Y distances(SPXY). The key information bands were selected by synergy interval partial least squares(siPLS); based on that, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling(CARS), successive projections algorithm(SPA) and Monte Carlo uninformative variable(MC-UVE) were used to select wavelengths to obtain less but more critical variable data. With selected key variables as input, the quantitative analysis model was established by genetic algorithm joint extreme learning machine(GA-ELM) algorithm. The performance of the model was compared with that of partial least squares regression(PLSR). The results showed that the combination with siPLS-CARS-GA-ELM could achieve the optimal model performance with the minimum number of variables. The calibration set correlation coefficient R_c and the validation set correlation coefficient R_p of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were all above 0.98. The root mean square error of calibration(RMSEC), the root mean square error of prediction(RMSEP) and the relative standard errors of prediction(RSEP) were 0.030 0, 0.029 2 and 8.88%, 0.041 4, 0.034 8 and 8.46%, 0.029 3, 0.027 1 and 10.10%, respectively. Compared with the PLSR me-thod, the performance of the GA-ELM model was greatly improved, which proved that NIRS combined with GA-ELM method has a great potential for rapid determination of effective components of TCM.

2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(4): 792-800, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645083

RESUMO

By preparing 10 batches of substance benchmarks freeze-drying powder( lyophilized powder),the methodology of the characteristic spectrum and the content of index component for substance benchmarks of Qingwei San was established. The characteristic peaks and the similarity range of the characteristic spectrum,the contents and the transfer rate range of isoferulic acid,palmatine and paeonol,and the paste-forming rate range were determined to define key quality attributes of substance benchmarks of Qingwei San. In the10 batches of substance benchmarks of Qingwei San,the similarity of characteristic spectrum was higher than 0. 90. In further comparison of the characteristic peak information,a total of 16 characteristic peaks were identified,including 5 characteristic peaks from Cimicifugae Rhizoma,5 characteristic peaks from Coptidis Rhizoma,2 characteristic peaks from Angelicae Sinensis Radix and 4 characteristic peaks from Moutan Cortex. The content of isoferulic acid was 0. 10%-0. 18%,with the average transfer rate of 49. 82%±4. 02%. The content of palmatine was 0. 17%-0. 31%,with the average transfer rate of 15. 84% ±2. 39%. The content of paeonol was 0. 41%-0. 75%,with the average transfer rate of 23. 41%±3. 23%. The paste-forming rate of the 10 batches of substance benchmarks were controlled at 27%-33%,with the transfer rate between the theoretical paste-forming rate and the actual paste-forming rate was 86. 59%±3. 39%. In this study,the quality value transfer of substance benchmarks of Qingwei San was analyzed by the combination of characteristic spectrum,the content of index component and the paste-forming rate. A scientific and stable evaluation method was preliminarily established,so as to provide the basis for subsequent development and quality control of relevant preparations of Qingwei San.

3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(4): 801-809, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645084

RESUMO

By preparing 15 batches of substance benchmarks of Taohong Siwu Decoction, the methodology of the characteristic spectrums of substance benchmarks was established. The paste-forming rate range, the contents and the transfer rate range of the index components, hydroxy safflower yellow A, ferulic acid and paeoniflorin, the characteristic peaks and the similarity range of the characteristic spectrums of Taohong Siwu Decoction were determined to define key quality attributes of substance benchmarks of Taohong Siwu Decoction.In the 15 batches of substance benchmarks of Taohong Siwu Decoction, the similarity of characteristic spectrums was higher than 0.9. Furthermore, based on summarization of the characteristic peak information, there were 13 characteristic peaks in the whole decoction. Baishao had three characteristic peaks, Honghua had seven characteristic peaks, and Chuanxiong and Danggui had three characteristic peaks. The paste-forming rate of the 15 batches of substance benchmarks was controlled at 33.11%-40.62%. The content of hydroxy safflower yellow A was 0.129%-0.203%, with the average transfer rate of 16.596%±0.669%.The content of ferulic acid was 0.043%-0.055%, with the average transfer rate of 20.489%±1.772%.The content of paeoniflorin was 0.676%-0.943%, with the average transfer rate of 29.112%±3.273%.The quality value transfer of substance benchmarks of classical prescription Taohong Siwu Decoction was analyzed by the combination of characteristic spectrums, paste-forming rate and the content of index components. The established substance benchmark quality evaluation method was stable and feasible, and could provide a basis for quality control and subsequent development of relevant preparations of Taohong Siwu Decoction.

4.
Infection ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646505

RESUMO

Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (OGD) are a frequent symptom of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has been proposed that the neuroinvasive potential of the novel SARS-CoV-2 could be due to olfactory bulb invasion, conversely studies suggest it could be a good prognostic factor. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prognosis value of OGD in COVID-19. These symptoms were recorded on admission from a cohort study of 5868 patients with confirmed or highly suspected COVID-19 infection included in the multicenter international HOPE Registry (NCT04334291). There was statistical relation in multivariate analysis for OGD in gender, more frequent in female 12.41% vs 8.67% in male, related to age, more frequent under 65 years, presence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoke, renal insufficiency, lung, heart, cancer and neurological disease. We did not find statistical differences in pregnant (p = 0.505), patient suffering cognitive (p = 0.484), liver (p = 0.1) or immune disease (p = 0.32). There was inverse relation (protective) between OGD and prone positioning (0.005) and death (< 0.0001), but no with ICU (0.165) or mechanical ventilation (0.292). On univariable logistic regression, OGD was found to be inversely related to death in COVID-19 patients. The odds ratio was 0.26 (0.15-0.44) (p < 0.001) and Z was - 5.05. The presence of anosmia is fundamental in the diagnosis of SARS.CoV-2 infection, but also could be important in classifying patients and in therapeutic decisions. Even more knowing that it is an early symptom of the disease. Knowing that other situations as being Afro-American or Latino-American, hypertension, renal insufficiency, or increase of C-reactive protein (CRP) imply a worse prognosis we can make a clinical score to estimate the vital prognosis of the patient. The exact pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 that causes olfactory and gustative disorders remains unknown but seems related to the prognosis. This point is fundamental, insomuch as could be a plausible way to find a treatment.

5.
Brain Res Bull ; 170: 174-186, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600886

RESUMO

Chronic cerebral ischemia leads to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) that exacerbates along with ischemia time and eventually develops into dementia. Recent advances in molecular neuroimaging contribute to understand its pathological characteristics. We previously traced the anisotropic diffusion of water molecules suggests that chronic cerebral ischemia leads to irreversible progressive damage to white matter integrity. However, the abnormalities of gray matter activity following chronic cerebral ischemia remains not entirely understood. In this study, in vivo hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was applied to longitudinally track the neurochemical metabolic disorder of gray matter associated with working memory, and optogenetics modulation of neurochemical metabolism was performed for targeted treatment of VCI. The results showed that the concentration of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the right hippocampus, left hippocampus, right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and mediodorsal thalamus was decreased as early as 7 days after chronic cerebral ischemia, subsequently gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) declined whereas myo-inositol (mI) and glutamate (Glu) increased at 14 days, as well as choline (Cho) lost at 28 days, concurrently the change of Glu and GABA in the mPFC and hippocampus was ischemia time-dependent manner within 1 month. Behaviorally, working memory and object recognition memory were impaired at 14 days, 28 days that significantly correlated with neurochemical metabolic disorders. Interestingly, using optogenetics modulation of PV neurons in the mPFC, the metabolic abnormalities of NAA and GABA in working memory neural circuit could be repaired after chronic cerebral ischemia, together with behavior improvements. These findings suggested that as early as 1∼4 weeks after chronic cerebral ischemia, the metabolism of NAA, Glu, mI and Cho was synchronously impaired in neural circuit of hippocampus-mediodorsal thalamus-mPFC, and the loss of GABA delayed in the hippocampus, and optogenetics modulation of parvalbumin (PV) neurons in the mPFC can improve the neurochemical metabolism of working memory neural circuit and enhance working memory.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 283: 254-261, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Motivational anhedonia has been observed in patients with a wide range of mental disorders. However, the similarity and uniqueness of this deficit across diagnostic groups has not been thoroughly investigated. METHOD: The study compared motivational deficits in 37 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), 32 with bipolar depression, 33 with manic bipolar disorder (BD), 30 with acute phase and 33 with stable phase schizophrenia, as well as 47 healthy controls. Participants were administered the Effort-Expenditure for Reward Task which measures allocation of effort between a high-effort and a low-effort task for monetary rewards at varying magnitudes and probabilities. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, BD manic, acute and stable phase schizophrenia patients were significantly less likely to choose the high-effort task in the high reward magnitude condition. BD manic and acute phase schizophrenia patients were significantly less likely to choose the high-effort task in the high probability condition. Acute and stable phase schizophrenia patients made less effort in the high estimated value condition. Bipolar manic patients made excessive effort in low estimated value but less effort in high estimated value. Contrary to expectations, both the unipolar and bipolar depression patients did not differ significantly from healthy controls in reward magnitude, probability, and estimated value conditions. Anhedonia and negative symptoms were associated with fewer high-effort task choices in schizophrenia patients. CONCLUSION: Motivation anhedonia showed distinct patterns across psychiatric patients: acute phase schizophrenia was the most severely affected, bipolar mania was similar to schizophrenia, but bipolar depression was similar to unipolar depression.

7.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608672

RESUMO

RAS-driven colorectal cancer relies on glucose metabolism to support uncontrolled growth. However, monotherapy with glycolysis inhibitors like 2-deoxy-D-glucose causes limited effectiveness. Recent studies suggest that anti-tumor effects of glycolysis inhibition could be improved by combination treatment with inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. In this study we investigated the effect of a combination of 2-deoxy-D-glucose with lovastatin (a known inhibitor of mevalonate pathway and oxidative phosphorylation) on growth of KRAS-mutant human colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116 and LoVo. A combination of lovastatin (>3.75 µM) and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (>1.25 mM) synergistically reduced cell viability, arrested cells in the G2/M phase, and induced apoptosis. The combined treatment also reduced cellular oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rate, resulting in decreased production of ATP and lower steady-state ATP levels. Energy depletion markedly activated AMPK, inhibited mTOR and RAS signaling pathways, eventually inducing autophagy, the cellular pro-survival process under metabolic stress, whereas inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine (6.25 µM) enhanced the cytotoxic effect of the combination of lovastatin and 2-deoxy-D-glucose. These in vitro experiment results were reproduced in a nude mouse xenograft model of HCT116 cells. Our findings suggest that concurrently targeting glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and autophagy may be a promising regimen for the management of RAS-driven colorectal cancers.

8.
J Ovarian Res ; 14(1): 22, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) caused by P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) in 46, XX patients is characterized by genital ambiguity, primary amenorrhea, absent or incomplete sexual maturation, infertility, skeletal malformations and so on. But few pregnancies have been reported from these female patients with PORD. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 29-year-old Chinese woman with PORD due to the compound heterozygous mutation (c.1370G > A/c.1196_1204del) in the P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene had suffered from primary amenorrhea and infertility. She had one cancelled cycle of ovulation induction due to low serum estradiol(E2), high progesterone(P) levels and thin endometrium, then in vitro fertilization (IVF) was recommended. At the first IVF cycle, 4 oocytes were retrieved and 4 viable embryos were cryopreserved due to thin endometrium associated with low E2 and prematurely elevated P after ovarian stimulation, even though oral dexamethasone were used to control adrenal P overproduction at the same time. When basal P fell to < 1.5 ng/ml after the therapy of oral dexamethasone, artificial endometrial preparation and frozen embryo transfer were performed, resulting in a twin pregnancy. She delivered a healthy boy and a healthy girl by caesarean section at 37 weeks and 2 days of gestation. After the literature search in PORD women, no spontaneous pregnancy has been reported and only two previous case reports of 3 successful pregnancies through IVF were summarized. CONCLUSIONS: It is the third report that successful pregnancy was achieved in a CAH woman caused by a compound heterozygous POR mutation, with primary amenorrhea and disorders of steroidogenesis. It seemed that disorders of steroidogenesis caused by PORD didn't impair the developmental potential of oocytes. IVF and frozen embryo transfer after adequate hormonal control and endometrial preparation should be an effective infertility treatment for PORD women.

9.
Clin Exp Med ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555436

RESUMO

There is limited information on the presenting characteristics, prognosis, and therapeutic approaches of young patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We sought to investigate the baseline characteristics, in-hospital treatment, and outcomes of a wide cohort < 65 years admitted for COVID-19. Using the international multicenter HOPE-COVID-19 registry, we evaluated the baseline characteristics, clinical presentation, therapeutic approach, and prognosis of patients < 65 years discharged (deceased or alive) after hospital admission for COVID-19, also compared with the elderly counterpart. Of the included 5746 patients, 2676 were < 65 and 3070 ≥ 65 years. All risk factors and several parameters suggestive of worse clinical presentation augmented through increasing age classes. In-hospital mortality rates were 6.8% and 32.1% in the younger and older cohort, respectively (p < 0.001). Among young patients, mortality, access to ICU and treatment with IMVwere positively correlated with age. Contrariwise, over 65 years of age this trend was broken so that only the association between age and mortality was persistent, while the rates of access to ICU and IMV started to decline. Younger patients also recognized specific predictors of case fatality, such as obesity and gender. Age negatively impacts on mortality, access to ICU and treatment with IMV in patients < 65 years. In elderly patients only case fatality rate keeps augmenting in a stepwise manner through increasing age categories, while therapeutic approaches become more conservative. Besides age, obesity, gender, history of cancer, and severe dyspnea, tachypnea, chest X-ray bilateral abnormalities, abnormal level of creatinine and leucocyte among admission parameters seem to play a central role in the outcome of patients younger than 65 years.

10.
Adv Mater ; : e2007298, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586230

RESUMO

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are considered as promising next-generation energy storage devices due to their ultrahigh theoretical energy density, where soluble lithium polysulfides are crucial in the Li-S electrochemistry as intrinsic redox mediators. However, the poor mediation capability of the intrinsic polysulfide mediators leads to sluggish redox kinetics, further rendering limited rate performances, low discharge capacity, and rapid capacity decay. Here, an organodiselenide, diphenyl diselenide (DPDSe), is proposed to accelerate the sulfur redox kinetics as a redox comediator. DPDSe spontaneously reacts with lithium polysulfides to generate lithium phenylseleno polysulfides (LiPhSePSs) with improved redox mediation capability. The as-generated LiPhSePSs afford faster sulfur redox kinetics and increase the deposition dimension of lithium sulfide. Consequently, the DPDSe comediator endows Li-S batteries with superb rate performance of 817 mAh g-1 at 2 C and remarkable cycling stability with limited anode excess. Moreover, Li-S pouch cells with the DPDSe comediator achieve an actual initial energy density of 301 Wh kg-1 and 30 stable cycles. This work demonstrates a novel redox comediation strategy with an effective organodiselenide comediator to facilitate the sulfur redox kinetics under pouch cell conditions and inspires further exploration in mediating Li-S kinetics for practical high-energy-density batteries.

11.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589518

RESUMO

Mutant KRAS tumors are associated with poor outcomes at least in part due to decreased therapeutic sensitivity. Here we show that KRAS mutations are associated with resistance to monotherapy and combination therapy with Poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) and immune checkpoint blockade with anti-PD-L1 antibodies. In mutant KRAS tumors, inhibition of KRAS signaling with MEK inhibitors (MEKi) triggered and amplified PARPi-induced DNA damage, cytosolic double-stranded DNA accumulation, STING pathway activation and CD8+ T cell recruitment. Moreover, MEKi decreased myeloid-derived suppressor cell infiltration in part by inhibiting IL-6 and GM-CSF production. Importantly, addition of MEKi to PARPi and anti-PD-L1 resulted in marked tumor inhibition in immunocompetent mutant KRAS tumor models. These studies provide the underlying mechanistic data to support evaluation of PARPi, MEKi, and anti-PD-L1 combination in clinical trials of mutant KRAS tumors.

12.
Small ; : e2007241, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590701

RESUMO

Artificial synaptic devices have potential for overcoming the bottleneck of von Neumann architecture and building artificial brain-like computers. Up to now, developing synaptic devices by utilizing biocompatible and biodegradable materials in electronic devices has been an interesting research direction due to the requirements of sustainable development. Here, a degradable photonic synaptic device is reported by combining biomaterials chlorophyll-a and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Several basic synaptic functions, including excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC), paired pulse facilitation (PPF), transition from short-term memory (STM) to long-term memory (LTM), and learning and forgetting behaviors, are successfully emulated through the chlorophyll-a/SWCNTs synaptic device. Furthermore, decent synaptic behaviors can still be achieved at a low drain voltage of -0.0001 V, which results in quite low energy consumption of 17.5 fJ per pulse. Finally, the degradability of this chlorophyll-a/SWCNTs transistor array is demonstrated, indicating that the device can be environmentally friendly. This work provides a new guide to the development of next-generation green and degradable neuromorphic computing electronics.

13.
J Rehabil Med ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of tai chi on metabolic control and body composition indicators in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of existing literature. METHODS: Electronic resource databases were searched to collect eligible studies. Two reviewers selected studies and independently evaluated methodological quality. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that tai chi had significant effects in improving metabolic indices, such as fasting blood glucose (mean difference (MD) = -1.04; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -1.42. 0.66; p < 0.01) and total cholesterol (MD = -0.50; 95% CI -0.86 to -0.13; p < 0.01) compared with conventional clinical therapy. Most indices did not support the use of tai chi over aerobic exercise, except for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (MD = -0.24; 95% CI -0.49 to 0.00; p < 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein (MD = 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.12; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Tai chi had better effects on metabolic control and body composition indicators than clinical conventional therapy, but the effects on HbA1c and high-density lipoprotein were only superior to aerobic exercise. The best time-window for tai chi intervention may differ with different metabolic indices.

14.
JMIR Med Inform ; 9(2): e23606, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac dysrhythmia is currently an extremely common disease. Severe arrhythmias often cause a series of complications, including congestive heart failure, fainting or syncope, stroke, and sudden death. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to predict incident arrhythmia prospectively within a 1-year period to provide early warning of impending arrhythmia. METHODS: Retrospective (1,033,856 individuals enrolled between October 1, 2016, and October 1, 2017) and prospective (1,040,767 individuals enrolled between October 1, 2017, and October 1, 2018) cohorts were constructed from integrated electronic health records in Maine, United States. An ensemble learning workflow was built through multiple machine learning algorithms. Differentiating features, including acute and chronic diseases, procedures, health status, laboratory tests, prescriptions, clinical utilization indicators, and socioeconomic determinants, were compiled for incident arrhythmia assessment. The predictive model was retrospectively trained and calibrated using an isotonic regression method and was prospectively validated. Model performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). RESULTS: The cardiac dysrhythmia case-finding algorithm (retrospective: AUROC 0.854; prospective: AUROC 0.827) stratified the population into 5 risk groups: 53.35% (555,233/1,040,767), 44.83% (466,594/1,040,767), 1.76% (18,290/1,040,767), 0.06% (623/1,040,767), and 0.003% (27/1,040,767) were in the very low-risk, low-risk, medium-risk, high-risk, and very high-risk groups, respectively; 51.85% (14/27) patients in the very high-risk subgroup were confirmed to have incident cardiac dysrhythmia within the subsequent 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Our case-finding algorithm is promising for prospectively predicting 1-year incident cardiac dysrhythmias in a general population, and we believe that our case-finding algorithm can serve as an early warning system to allow statewide population-level screening and surveillance to improve cardiac dysrhythmia care.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(15): 1907-1910, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491686

RESUMO

In this work, we presented a solid-state hybrid electrolyte dielectric film fabricated by a facile solution process, composed of ionic liquid and high-k polymers for leakage current reduction. With ions involved in the dielectric, the organic transistor can be operated under low voltage, and some essential synaptic behaviors were successfully simulated by the electrostatic coupling effect for building neuromorphic computing systems.

16.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(1): 99-108, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398178

RESUMO

Detection of endogenous signals and precise control of genetic circuits in the natural context are essential to understand biological processes. However, the tools to process endogenous information are limited. Here we developed a generalizable endogenous transcription-gated switch that releases single-guide RNAs in the presence of an endogenous promoter. When the endogenous transcription-gated switch is coupled with the highly sensitive CRISPR-activator-associated reporter we developed, we can reliably detect the activity of endogenous genes, including genes with very low expression (<0.001 relative to Gapdh; quantitative-PCR analysis). Notably, we could also monitor the transcriptional activity of typically long non-coding RNAs expressed at low levels in living cells using this approach. Together, our method provides a powerful platform to sense the activity of endogenous genetic elements underlying cellular functions.

17.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 48, 2021 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446647

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) have both common and distinct clinical features, that pose both conceptual challenges in terms of their diagnostic boundaries and practical difficulties in optimizing treatment. Multivariate machine learning techniques offer new avenues for exploring these boundaries based on clinical neuroanatomical features. Brain structural data were obtained at 3 T from a sample of 90 patients with BD, 189 patients with MDD, and 162 healthy individuals. We applied sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis (s-PLS-DA) to identify clinical and brain structural features that may discriminate between the two clinical groups, and heterogeneity through discriminative analysis (HYDRA) to detect patient subgroups with reference to healthy individuals. Two clinical dimensions differentiated BD from MDD (area under the curve: 0.76, P < 0.001); one dimension emphasized disease severity as well as irritability, agitation, anxiety and flight of ideas and the other emphasized mostly elevated mood. Brain structural features could not distinguish between the two disorders. HYDRA classified patients in two clusters that differed in global and regional cortical thickness, the distribution proportion of BD and MDD and positive family history of psychiatric disorders. Clinical features remain the most reliable discriminant attributed of BD and MDD depression. The brain structural findings suggests that biological partitions of patients with mood disorders are likely to lead to the identification of subgroups, that transcend current diagnostic divisions into BD and MDD and are more likely to be aligned with underlying genetic variation. These results set the foundation for future studies to enhance our understanding of brain-behavior relationships in mood disorders.

18.
Trials ; 22(1): 106, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is seriously affecting the physical and mental health of young people worldwide. Subthreshold depression, as an early stage of depression, is essential for early prevention and treatment of depression. Tai Chi, as a traditional Chinese mind-body therapy, may become an alternative intervention. However, the neurophysiological mechanism of Tai Chi for young people with subthreshold depression remains unclear, restricting its further promotion and application. Therefore, rigorous randomized clinical trials are needed to further observe the intervention effect of Tai Chi on young adults with subthreshold depression and explore the neurophysiological mechanism. METHOD/DESIGN: This report describes a two-arm, randomized, parallel controlled trial with allocation concealment and assessor blinding. A total of 64 eligible participants are randomly allocated to the Tai Chi group and the waiting list group in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the Tai Chi group receive 12 weeks of Tai Chi training, with a total of 36 times and each for 60 min. Specifically, the participants in the waiting list group are requested to maintain their routine lifestyle. In this study, the primary outcome measure is the mean change in scores on the PHQ-9 and HAMD-17 between baseline and 12 weeks; the secondary outcomes are the mean change in the scores on CES-D, CPSS, GAD-7, and PSQI. Besides, the saliva cortisol levels and fMRI are monitored to explore the mechanism of action of Tai Chi on subthreshold depression. DISCUSSION: The protocol uses a randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of Tai Chi for young adults with subthreshold depression and explore neurophysiological mechanisms. If the test results are positive, it can be verified that Tai Chi can promote the physical and mental health of young adults with subthreshold depression. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR1900028289 . Registered on 17 December 2019.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Tai Ji , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Acta Diabetol ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417039

RESUMO

AIMS: Mild Cognitive impairment (MCI) is common in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The impaired cognitive function had harmful effect on patients' diabetic conditions. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MCI in T2DM (T2DM-MCI) patients by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. METHODS: We carried out a literature search until June 1, 2020, for all observational studies in the following databases: Medline (PubMed), Web of Science, and Embase. Two independent reviewers initially screened the eligible articles. Then, a meta-analysis (random effects model) was conducted to estimate the prevalence of MCI in people with T2DM with STATA 16. RESULTS: A total of 1808 articles were first considered after reading title and abstract, 12 of which remained after reviewing the full text. The combined prevalence of MCI in T2DM patients was estimated to be 45.0% (95% CI=36.0, 54.0). There was no significant heterogeneity through meta-regression and sensitivity analysis. Overall, Europe (n=2, r=36.6%, 95% CI=26.3, 46.9, I2=82.3%) had a lower prevalence than Asia (n=10, r=46.4%, 95% CI=36.2, 56.6, I2=98%). The overall prevalence in female patients (n=14, r=46.9%, 95% CI=34, 59.8, I2=98.3%) was higher than that in male patients (n=14, r=38.8%, 95% CI=27, 50.7, I2=98%). Subgroup analysis based on age demonstrated a lower prevalence in patients older than 60 years (n=9, r=44.3%, 95% CI=33.1, 55.6, I2=98.3%) than patients younger than 60 years (n=3, r=46.4%, 95% CI=33.3, 59.5, I2=91.2%). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that the pooled estimated prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients is high worldwide, especially in China Asia. Primary care clinicians should pay more attention to the cognitive function of T2DM patients, as mild cognitive impairment is one of the risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.

20.
Plant Sci ; 303: 110795, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487367

RESUMO

Under natural field conditions, plants usually experience fluctuating light (FL) under moderate heat stress in summer. However, responses of photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) to such combined stresses are not well known. Furthermore, the role of water-water cycle (WWC) in photoprotection in FL under moderate heat stress is poorly understood. In this study, we examined chlorophyll fluorescence and P700 redox state in FL at 42 °C in two orchids, Dendrobium officinale (with high WWC activity) and Bletilla striata (with low WWC activity). After FL treatment at 42 °C, PSI activity maintained stable while PSII activity decreased significantly in these two orchids. In D. officinale, the WWC could rapidly consume the excess excitation energy in PSI and thus avoided an over-reduction of PSI upon any increase in illumination. Therefore, in D. officinale, WWC likely protected PSI in FL at 42 °C. In B. striata, heat-induced PSII photoinhibition down-regulated electron flow from PSII and thus prevented an over-reduction of PSI after transition from low to high light. Consequently, in B. striata moderate PSII photoinhibition could protected PSI in FL at 42 °C. We conclude that, in addition to cyclic electron flow, WWC and PSII photoinhibition-repair cycle are two important strategies for preventing PSI photoinhibition in FL under moderate heat stress.

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