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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(47): 19865-19872, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761937

RESUMO

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries constitute promising next-generation energy storage devices due to the ultrahigh theoretical energy density of 2600 Wh kg-1. However, the multiphase sulfur redox reactions with sophisticated homogeneous and heterogeneous electrochemical processes are sluggish in kinetics, thus requiring targeted and high-efficient electrocatalysts. Herein, a semi-immobilized molecular electrocatalyst is designed to tailor the characters of the sulfur redox reactions in working Li-S batteries. Specifically, porphyrin active sites are covalently grafted onto conductive and flexible polypyrrole linkers on graphene current collectors. The electrocatalyst with the semi-immobilized active sites exhibits homogeneous and heterogeneous functions simultaneously, performing enhanced redox kinetics and a regulated phase transition mode. The efficiency of the semi-immobilizing strategy is further verified in practical Li-S batteries that realize superior rate performances and long lifespan as well as a 343 Wh kg-1 high-energy-density Li-S pouch cell. This contribution not only proposes an efficient semi-immobilizing electrocatalyst design strategy to promote the Li-S battery performances but also inspires electrocatalyst development facing analogous multiphase electrochemical energy processes.

2.
Chin Med ; 16(1): 121, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compound kushen injection (CKI), a Chinese patent drug, is widely used in the treatment of various cancers, especially neoplasms of the digestive system. However, the underlying mechanism of CKI in pancreatic cancer (PC) treatment has not been totally elucidated. METHODS: Here, to overcome the limitation of conventional network pharmacology methods with a weak combination with clinical information, this study proposes a network pharmacology approach of integrated bioinformatics that applies a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to conventional network pharmacology, and then integrates molecular docking technology and biological experiments to verify the results of this network pharmacology analysis. RESULTS: The WGCNA analysis revealed 2 gene modules closely associated with classification, staging and survival status of PC. Further CytoHubba analysis revealed 10 hub genes (NCAPG, BUB1, CDK1, TPX2, DLGAP5, INAVA, MST1R, TMPRSS4, TMEM92 and SFN) associated with the development of PC, and survival analysis found 5 genes (TSPOAP1, ADGRG6, GPR87, FAM111B and MMP28) associated with the prognosis and survival of PC. By integrating these results into the conventional network pharmacology study of CKI treating PC, we found that the mechanism of CKI for PC treatment was related to cell cycle, JAK-STAT, ErbB, PI3K-Akt and mTOR signalling pathways. Finally, we found that CDK1, JAK1, EGFR, MAPK1 and MAPK3 served as core genes regulated by CKI in PC treatment, and were further verified by molecular docking, cell proliferation assay, RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study suggests that the optimized network pharmacology approach is suitable to explore the molecular mechanism of CKI in the treatment of PC, which provides a reference for further investigating biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of PC and even the clinical rational application of CKI.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2103910, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784102

RESUMO

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is identified as one of the most promising next-generation energy storage systems due to its ultra-high theoretical energy density up to 2600 Wh kg-1 . However, Li metal anode suffers from dramatic volume change during cycling, continuous corrosion by polysulfide electrolyte, and dendrite formation, rendering limited cycling lifespan. Considering Li metal anode as a double-edged sword that contributes to ultrahigh energy density as well as limited cycling lifespan, it is necessary to evaluate Li-based alloy as anode materials to substitute Li metal for high-performance Li-S batteries. In this contribution, the authors systematically evaluate the potential and feasibility of using Li metal or Li-based alloys to construct Li-S batteries with an actual energy density of 500 Wh kg-1 . A quantitative analysis method is proposed by evaluating the required amount of electrolyte for a targeted energy density. Based on a three-level (ideal material level, practical electrode level, and pouch cell level) analysis, highly lithiated lithium-magnesium (Li-Mg) alloy is capable to achieve 500 Wh kg-1 Li-S batteries besides Li metal. Accordingly, research on Li-Mg and other Li-based alloys are reviewed to inspire a promising pathway to realize high-energy-density and long-cycling Li-S batteries.

4.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 725275, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722630

RESUMO

TGF-ß-centered epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process involved in radiation-induced pulmonary injury (RIPI) and pulmonary fibrosis. PIEZO1, a mechanosensitive calcium channel, is expressed in myeloid cell and has been found to play an important role in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Whether PIEZO1 is related with radiation-induced EMT remains elusive. Herein, we found that PIEZO1 is functional in rat primary type II epithelial cells and RLE-6TN cells. After irradiation, PIEZO1 expression was increased in rat lung alveolar type II epithelial cells and RLE-6TN cell line, which was accompanied with EMT changes evidenced by increased TGF-ß1, N-cadherin, Vimentin, Fibronectin, and α-SMA expression and decreased E-cadherin expression. Addition of exogenous TGF-ß1 further enhanced these phenomena in vitro. Knockdown of PIEZO1 partly reverses radiation-induced EMT in vitro. Mechanistically, we found that activation of PIEZO1 could upregulate TGF-ß1 expression and promote EMT through Ca2+/HIF-1α signaling. Knockdown of HIF-1α partly reverses enhanced TGF-ß1 expression caused by radiation. Meanwhile, the expression of PIEZO1 was up-regulated after TGF-ß1 co-culture, and the mechanism could be traced to the inhibition of transcription factor C/EBPß expression by TGF-ß1. Irradiation also caused a decrease in C/EBPß expression in RLE-6TN cells. Dual luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) confirmed that C/EBPß represses PIEZO1 expression by binding to the PIEZO1 promoter. Furthermore, overexpression of C/EBPß by using the synonymous mutation to C/EBPß siRNA could reverse siRNA-induced upregulation of PIEZO1. In summary, our research suggests a critical role of PIEZO1 signaling in radiation-induced EMT by forming positive feedback with TGF-ß1.

5.
Adv Mater ; : e2105962, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610186

RESUMO

Reversible lithium (Li) plating/stripping is essential for building practical high-energy-density batteries based on Li metal chemistry, which unfortunately remains a severe challenge. In this contribution, it is demonstrated that through the rational regulation of strong Li+ -anion coordination structures in a highly compatible low-polarity solvent, 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran, the Li plating/stripping assisted by a nucleation modulation procedure delivers a remarkably high average Coulombic efficiency under rather demanding conditions (99.7% and 99.5% under 1.0 mA cm-2 , 3.0 mAh cm-2 and 3.0 mA cm-2 , 3.0 mAh cm-2 , respectively). The exceedingly reversible cycling obtained herein is fundamentally correlated with the flattened Li deposition and minimized solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) generation/reconstruction in the customized condition, which notably restrains the growth rates of both dead Li0 (0.0120 mAh per cycle) and SEI-Li+ (0.0191 mAh per cycle) during consecutive cycles. Benefiting from the efficient Li plating/stripping manner, the assembled anode-free Cu|LiFePO4 (2.7 mAh cm-2 ) coin and pouch cells exhibit impressive capacity retention of 43.8% and 41.6% after 150 cycles, respectively, albeit with no optimization on the test conditions. This work provides guidelines into the targeted interfacial design of high-efficiency working Li anodes, aiming to pave the way for the practical deployment of high-energy-density Li metal batteries.

6.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 725274, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568428

RESUMO

Pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction plays an important role in ionizing radiation (IR)-induced lung injury. Whether pulmonary endothelial cell ferroptosis occurs after IR and what are the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that 15-Gy IR induced ferroptosis characterized by lethal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, mitochondria shrinkage, and decreased glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and SLC7A11 expression in pulmonary endothelial cells. The phenomena could be mimicked by Yoda1, a specific activator of mechanosensitive calcium channel PIEZO1. PIEZO1 protein expression was upregulated by IR in vivo and in vitro. The increased PIEZO1 expression after IR was accompanied with increased calcium influx and increased calpain activity. The effects of radiation on lung endothelial cell ferroptosis was partly reversed by inhibition of PIEZO1 activity using the selective inhibitor GsMTx4 or inhibition of downstreaming Ca2+/calpain signaling using PD151746. Both IR and activation of PIEZO1 led to increased degradation of VE-cadherin, while PD151746 blocked these effects. VE-cadherin knockdown by specific siRNA causes ferroptosis-like phenomena with increased ROS and lipid peroxidation in the lung endothelial cells. Overexpression of VE-cadherin partly recused the ferroptosis caused by IR or PIEZO1 activation as supported by decreased ROS production, lipid peroxidation and mitochondria shrinkage compared to IR or PIEZO1 activation alone. In summary, our study reveals a previously unrecognized role of PIEZO1 in modulating ferroptosis, providing a new target for future mitigation of radiation-induced lung injury.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(42): 22683-22687, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399018

RESUMO

High-energy-density lithium (Li) metal batteries are severely hindered by the dendritic Li deposition dictated by non-uniform solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). Despite its unique advantages in improving the uniformity of Li deposition, the current anion-derived SEI is unsatisfactory under practical conditions. Herein regulating the electrolyte structure of anions by anion receptors was proposed to construct stable anion-derived SEI. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane (TPFPB) anion acceptors with electron-deficient boron atoms interact with bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide anions (FSI- ) and decrease the reduction stability of FSI- . Furthermore, the type of aggregate cluster of FSI- in electrolyte changes, FSI- interacting with more Li ions in the presence of TPFPB. Therefore, the decomposition of FSI- to form Li2 S is promoted, improving the stability of anion-derived SEI. In working Li | LiNi0.5 Co0.2 Mn0.3 O2 batteries under practical conditions, the anion-derived SEI with TPFPB undergoes 194 cycles compared with 98 cycles of routine anion-derived SEI. This work inspires a fresh ground to construct stable anion-derived SEI by manipulating the electrolyte structure of anions.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(42): 22990-22995, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414652

RESUMO

High-energy-density lithium (Li) metal batteries suffer from a short lifespan owing to apparently ceaseless inactive Li accumulation, which is accompanied by the consumption of electrolyte and active Li reservoir, seriously deteriorating the cyclability of batteries. Herein, a triiodide/iodide (I3 - /I- ) redox couple initiated by stannic iodide (SnI4 ) is demonstrated to reclaim inactive Li. The reduction of I3 - converts inactive Li into soluble LiI, which then diffuses to the cathode side. The oxidation of LiI by the delithiated cathode transforms cathode into the lithiation state and regenerates I3 - , reclaiming Li ion from inactive Li. The regenerated I3 - engages the further redox reactions. Furthermore, the formation of Sn mitigates the corrosion of I3 - on active Li reservoir sacrificially. In working Li | LiNi0.5 Co0.2 Mn0.3 O2 batteries, the accumulated inactive Li is significantly reclaimed by the reversible I3 - /I- redox couple, improving the lifespan of batteries by twice. This work initiates a creative solution to reclaim inactive Li for prolonging the lifespan of practical Li metal batteries.

10.
Biomaterials ; 273: 120854, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932703

RESUMO

The development of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is severely limited by short half-life of singlet oxygen (1O2) and the hypoxic microenvironment. In this work, a plasma membrane targeted photodynamic O2 economizer (designated as P-POE) is developed to improve the subcellular delivery of photosensitizers and alleviate the tumor hypoxia for enhanced PDT effect. After self-assembly into nanomicelles, P-POE has a relatively high stability and a favorable photochemical performance, which are conducive to boosting the 1O2 production. Besides, the plasma membrane anchoring of P-POE contributes to enhancing the preferential retention and cellular accumulation of photosensitizers on tumor tissues and cells. More importantly, P-POE-induced mitochondrial respiratory depression is demonstrated to reduce the O2 consumption of tumor cells to relieve the hypoxia. Consequently, P-POE still exhibits a robust PDT effect against hypoxic tumors, which greatly inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer with low adverse reactions. This innovative combination of subcellular targeting and hypoxic alleviation would advance the development of individualized drug delivery systems for photodynamic therapy against hypoxic tumors.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Fotoquimioterapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular , Humanos , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Oxigênio , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico
11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(23): 13007-13012, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793052

RESUMO

Uncontrolled Li plating in graphite electrodes endangers battery life and safety, driving tremendous efforts aiming to eliminate Li plating. Herein we systematically investigate the boundary of Li plating in graphite electrode for safe lithium-ion batteries. The cell exhibits superior safety performance than that with Li dendrites by defining the endurable amount of uniform Li plating in graphite anode. The presence of "dead Li" can be eliminated owing to the uniform distribution of Li plating, and the average Coulombic efficiency for deposited Li during reversible plating/stripping process is decoupled as high as about 99.5 %. Attributing to the limited Li plating with superior Coulombic efficiency, the LiNi0.5 Mn0.3 Co0.2 O2 | graphite cell achieves a high capacity retention of 80.2 % over 500 cycles. This work sheds a different light on further improving the fast-charging capability, low-temperature performance, and energy density of practical lithium-ion batteries.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(28): 15503-15509, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913574

RESUMO

The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is regarded as a promising secondary battery. However, constant parasitic reactions between the Li anode and soluble polysulfide (PS) intermediates significantly deteriorate the working Li anode. The rational design to inhibit the parasitic reactions is plagued by the inability to understand and regulate the electrolyte structure of PSs. Herein, the electrolyte structure of PSs with anti-reductive solvent shells was unveiled by molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance. The reduction resistance of the solvent shell is proven to be a key reason for the decreased reactivity of PSs towards Li. With isopropyl ether (DIPE) as a cosolvent, DIPE molecules tend to distribute in the outer solvent shell due to poor solvating power. Furthermore, DIPE is more stable than conventional ether solvents against Li metal. The reactivity of PSs is suppressed by encapsulating PSs into anti-reductive solvent shells. Consequently, the cycling performance of working Li-S batteries was significantly improved and a pouch cell of 300 Wh kg-1 was demonstrated. The fundamental understanding in this work provides an unprecedented ground to understand the electrolyte structure of PSs and the rational electrolyte design in Li-S batteries.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(20): 11442-11447, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655631

RESUMO

Lithium (Li) metal anodes hold great promise for next-generation high-energy-density batteries, while the insufficient fundamental understanding of the complex solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is the major obstacle for the full demonstration of their potential in working batteries. The characteristics of SEI highly depend on the inner solvation structure of lithium ions (Li+ ). Herein, we clarify the critical significance of cosolvent properties on both Li+ solvation structure and the SEI formation on working Li metal anodes. Non-solvating and low-dielectricity (NL) cosolvents intrinsically enhance the interaction between anion and Li+ by affording a low dielectric environment. The abundant positively charged anion-cation aggregates generated as the introduction of NL cosolvents are preferentially brought to the negatively charged Li anode surface, inducing an anion-derived inorganic-rich SEI. A solvent diagram is further built to illustrate that a solvent with both proper relative binding energy toward Li+ and dielectric constant is suitable as NL cosolvent.

14.
Adv Mater ; 33(13): e2007298, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586230

RESUMO

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are considered as promising next-generation energy storage devices due to their ultrahigh theoretical energy density, where soluble lithium polysulfides are crucial in the Li-S electrochemistry as intrinsic redox mediators. However, the poor mediation capability of the intrinsic polysulfide mediators leads to sluggish redox kinetics, further rendering limited rate performances, low discharge capacity, and rapid capacity decay. Here, an organodiselenide, diphenyl diselenide (DPDSe), is proposed to accelerate the sulfur redox kinetics as a redox comediator. DPDSe spontaneously reacts with lithium polysulfides to generate lithium phenylseleno polysulfides (LiPhSePSs) with improved redox mediation capability. The as-generated LiPhSePSs afford faster sulfur redox kinetics and increase the deposition dimension of lithium sulfide. Consequently, the DPDSe comediator endows Li-S batteries with superb rate performance of 817 mAh g-1 at 2 C and remarkable cycling stability with limited anode excess. Moreover, Li-S pouch cells with the DPDSe comediator achieve an actual initial energy density of 301 Wh kg-1 and 30 stable cycles. This work demonstrates a novel redox comediation strategy with an effective organodiselenide comediator to facilitate the sulfur redox kinetics under pouch cell conditions and inspires further exploration in mediating Li-S kinetics for practical high-energy-density batteries.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(15): 8521-8525, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496038

RESUMO

Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) has been widely employed to describe the new phase formed between anode and electrolyte in working batteries. Significant advances have been achieved on the structure and composition of SEI as well as on the possible ion transport mechanism. However, the nucleation and growth mechanism of SEI catches little attention, which requires the establishment of isothermal electrochemical crystallization theory. Herein we explore the virgin territory of electrochemically crystallized SEI. By using potentiostatic method to regulate the decomposition of anions, an anion-derived SEI forms on graphite surface at atomic scale. After fitting the cur-rent-time transients with Laviron theory and Avrami formula, we conclude that the formation of anion-derived interface is surface reaction controlled and obeys the two-dimensional (2D) progressive nucleation and growth model. Atomic force microscope (AFM) images emphasize the conclusion, which reveals the mystery of isothermal electrochemical crystallization of SEI.

16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(7): 3402-3406, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107707

RESUMO

Lithium-ion batteries with routine carbonate electrolytes cannot exhibit satisfactory fast-charging performance and lithium plating is widely observed at low temperatures. Herein we demonstrate that a localized high-concentration electrolyte consisting of 1.5 M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in dimethoxyethane with bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) ether as the diluent, enables fast-charging of working batteries. A uniform and robust solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) can be achieved on graphite surface through the preferential decomposition of anions. The established SEI can significantly inhibit ether solvent co-intercalation into graphite and achieve highly reversible Li+ intercalation/de-intercalation. The graphite | Li cells exhibit fast-charging potential (340 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C and 220 mAh g-1 at 4 C), excellent cycling stability (ca. 85.5 % initial capacity retention for 200 cycles at 4 C), and impressive low-temperature performance.

17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(8): 4090-4097, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976693

RESUMO

The performance of Li-ion batteries (LIBs) is highly dependent on their interfacial chemistry, which is regulated by electrolytes. Conventional electrolyte typically contains polar solvents to dissociate Li salts. Herein we report a weakly solvating electrolyte (WSE) that consists of a pure non-polar solvent, which leads to a peculiar solvation structure where ion pairs and aggregates prevail under a low salt concentration of 1.0 M. Importantly, WSE forms unique anion-derived interphases on graphite electrodes that exhibit fast-charging and long-term cycling characteristics. First-principles calculations unravel a general principle that the competitive coordination between anions and solvents to Li ions is the origin of different interfacial chemistries. By bridging the gap between solution thermodynamics and interfacial chemistry in batteries, this work opens a brand-new way towards precise electrolyte engineering for energy storage devices with desired properties.

18.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110327, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277104

RESUMO

Stroke is associated with high mortality and extremely high disability rate. Regulating ferroptosis seems to be a promising way to treat ischemic stroke. After stroke, vasogenic edema exerts a mechanical force on surrounding structures, which could activate the mechanosensitive PIEZO1 channel. Our previous research has found that brain cortex PIEZO1 expression was increased in the rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and PIEZO1 regulated oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) injury in neurons through the calcium signaling. Considering recent studies has identified HIF1α as an essential protein in PIEZO1/calcium signaling, ferroptosis regulation and cerebral ischemia, we herein hypothesize that PIEZO1 might be involved in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury through ferroptosis regulation.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Ferroptose , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Animais , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média , Ratos
19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(8): 4215-4220, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325102

RESUMO

The persistent efforts to reveal the formation and evolution mechanisms of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) are of fundamental significance for the rational regulation. In this work, through combined theoretical and experimental model investigations, we elucidate that the electric double layer (EDL) chemistry at the electrode/electrolyte interface beyond the thermodynamic stability of electrolyte components predominately controls the competitive reduction reactions during SEI construction on Li metal anode. Specifically, the negatively-charged surface of Li metal will prompt substantial cation enrichment and anion deficiency within the EDL. Necessarily, only the species participating in the solvation shell of cations could be electrostatically accumulated in proximity of Li metal surface and thereafter be preferentially reduced during sustained dynamic cycling. Incorporating multi-valent cation additives to more effectively drag the favorable anionic SEI enablers into EDL is validated as a promising strategy to upgrade the Li protection performance. The conclusions drawn herein afford deeper understandings to bridge the EDL principle, cation solvation, and SEI formation, shedding fresh light on the targeted regulation of reactive alkali metal interfaces.

20.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236625

RESUMO

Self-delivery of photosensitizer and immune modulator to tumor site is highly recommendable to improve the photodynamic immunotherapy yet remains challenging. Herein, self-delivery photoimmune stimulators (designated as iPSs) are developed for photodynamic sensitized tumor immunotherapy. Carrier-free iPSs are constructed by optimizing the noncovalent interactions between the pure drugs of chlorine e6 (Ce6) and NLG919, which avoid the excipients-raised toxicity and immunogenicity. Intravenously administrated iPSs prefer to passively accumulate on tumor tissues for a robust photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the induction of immunogenetic cell death (ICD) cascade to activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and initiate antitumor immune response. Meanwhile, the concomitant delivery of NLG919 inhibits the activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1) to reverse the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Ultimately, the photodynamic sensitized immunotherapy with iPSs efficiently inhibit the primary and distant tumor growth with a low system toxicity, which would shed light on the development of self-delivery nanomedicine for clinical transformation in tumor precision therapy.

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