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1.
Dose Response ; 19(4): 15593258211057768, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887716

RESUMO

Background: Brain exposure to ionizing radiation during the radiotherapy of brain tumor or metastasis of peripheral cancer cells to the brain has resulted in cognitive dysfunction by reducing neurogenesis in hippocampus. The water extract of Lycium barbarum berry (Lyc), containing water-soluble Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and flavonoids, can protect the neuronal injury by reducing oxidative stress and suppressing neuroinflammation. Reseach Design: To demonstrate the long-term radioprotective effect of Lyc, we evaluated the neurobehavioral alterations and the numbers of NeuN, calbindin (CB), and parvalbumin (PV) immunopositive hippocampal neurons in BALB/c mice after acute 5.5 Gy radiation with/without oral administration of Lyc at the dosage of 10 g/kg daily for 4 weeks. Results: The results showed that Lyc could improve irradiation-induced animal weight loss, depressive behaviors, spatial memory impairment, and hippocampal neuron loss. Immunohistochemistry study demonstrated that the loss of NeuN-immunopositive neuron in the hilus of the dentate gyrus, CB-immunopositive neuron in CA1 strata radiatum, lacunosum moleculare and oriens, and PV-positive neuron in CA1 stratum pyramidum and stratum granulosum of the dentate gyrus after irradiation were significantly improved by Lyc treatment. Conclusion: The neuroprotective effect of Lyc on those hippocampal neurons may benefit the configuration of learning related neuronal networks and then improve radiation induced neurobehavioral changes such as cognitive impairment and depression. It suggests that Lycium barbarum berry may be an alternative food supplement to prevent radiation-induced neuron loss and neuropsychological disorders.

2.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944078

RESUMO

Population aging is occurring rapidly worldwide, challenging the global economy and healthcare services. Brain aging is a significant contributor to various age-related neurological and neuropsychological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Several extrinsic factors, such as exposure to ionizing radiation, can accelerate senescence. Multiple human and animal studies have reported that exposure to ionizing radiation can have varied effects on organ aging and lead to the prolongation or shortening of life span depending on the radiation dose or dose rate. This paper reviews the effects of radiation on the aging of different types of brain cells, including neurons, microglia, astrocytes, and cerebral endothelial cells. Further, the relevant molecular mechanisms are discussed. Overall, this review highlights how radiation-induced senescence in different cell types may lead to brain aging, which could result in the development of various neurological and neuropsychological disorders. Therefore, treatment targeting radiation-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation may prevent radiation-induced brain aging and the neurological and neuropsychological disorders it may cause.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Senescência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos da radiação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação
3.
Cell Prolif ; 54(12): e13143, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672397

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a type of non-coding RNA, are single-stranded circularized molecules characterized by high abundance, evolutionary conservation and cell development- and tissue-specific expression. A large body of studies has found that circRNAs exert a wide variety of functions in diverse biological processes, including cell cycle. The cell cycle is controlled by the coordinated activation and deactivation of cell cycle regulators. CircRNAs exert mutifunctional roles by regulating gene expression via various mechanisms. However, the functional relevance of circRNAs and cell cycle regulation largely remains to be elucidated. Herein, we briefly describe the biogenesis and mechanistic models of circRNAs and summarize their functions and mechanisms in the regulation of critical cell cycle modulators, including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Moreover, we highlight the participation of circRNAs in cell cycle-related signalling pathways and the clinical value of circRNAs as promising biomarkers or therapeutic targets in diseases related to cell cycle disorder.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , RNA Circular/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos
4.
Zootaxa ; 4970(1): 182188, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186900

RESUMO

In this paper, we described an example of gynandromorphy in a katydid, Ducetia japonica. Its color is brown, while normal individuals are green. Its left maxilla is smaller, and left maxillary palpus is shorter. Left forewing as male is shorter than right one as female. Hindwing is also shorter in left. Cercus, epiproct and subgenital plate are left in male and right in female.


Assuntos
Ortópteros/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
5.
Curr Med Chem ; 28(10): 1970-1986, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520676

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is a common treatment for brain and spinal cord tumors and also a risk factor for neuropathological changes in the brain leading to different neurological and neuropsychological disorders. Astroglial connexins are involved in brain inflammation, development of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), depressive, epilepsy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and are affected by radiation exposure. Therefore, it is speculated that radiation-induced changes of astroglial connexins may be related to the brain neuropathology and development of neurological and neuropsychological disorders. In this paper, we review the functional expression and regulation of astroglial connexins expressed between astrocytes and different types of brain cells (including oligodendrocytes, microglia, neurons and endothelial cells). The roles of these connexins in the development of AD, depressive, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and brain inflammation have also been summarized. The radiation-induced astroglial connexins changes and development of different neurological and neuropsychological disorders are then discussed. Based on currently available data, we propose that radiation-induced astroglial connexins changes may be involved in the genesis of different neurological and neuropsychological disorders which depends on the age, brain regions, and radiation doses/dose rates. The abnormal astroglial connexins may be novel therapeutic targets for the prevention of radiation-induced cognitive impairment, neurological and neuropsychological disorders.


Assuntos
Astrócitos , Conexinas , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Exposição à Radiação , Células Endoteliais , Humanos
6.
Seizure ; 84: 122-128, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348235

RESUMO

The astroglial network connected through gap junctions assembling from connexins physiologically balances the concentrations of ions and neurotransmitters around neurons. Astrocytic dysfunction has been associated with many neurological disorders including epilepsy. Dissociated gap junctions result in the increased activity of connexin hemichannels which triggers brain pathophysiological changes. Previous studies in patients and animal models of epilepsy indicate that the reduced gap junction coupling from assembled connexin hemichannels in the astrocytes may play an important role in epileptogenesis. This abnormal cell-to-cell communication is now emerging as an important feature of brain pathologies and being considered as a novel therapeutic target for controlling epileptogenesis. In particular, candidate drugs with ability of inhibition of connexin hemichannel activity and enhancement of gap junction formation in astrocytes should be explored to prevent epileptogenesis and control epilepsy.


Assuntos
Astrócitos , Conexinas , Animais , Comunicação Celular , Junções Comunicantes , Humanos , Neurônios
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(7): 3112-3120, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608883

RESUMO

In this study, 127 light-duty gasoline cars and 10 light-duty gasoline trucks with different emission standards were selected to explore the influences of different conditions and vehicle parameters on the emission characteristics of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), and methane (CH4) using a portable emission measurement system based on a chassis dynamometer under acceleration simulation mode. The results showed that the gaseous pollutants of light-duty gasoline vehicles displayed a relatively lower emission rate under the idle condition, which accounted for only 22.9% and 25.8% of the emission rate at the accelerated condition and constant speed condition, respectively. The pollutant emission characteristics were closely related to the working conditions. The emission rates of CO2 and NOx in the accelerated condition were less than those at the constant speed condition, while the emission rates of CO, HC, and CH4 in the accelerated condition were higher than those at the constant speed condition. In the constant low-speed condition, the emission factors of CO2, CO, NOx, HC, and CH4 were 383.20, 2.98, 1.60, 0.14, and 0.03 g·km-1 for light-duty gasoline cars, respectively, and 360.66, 2.64, 1.61, 0.0055, and 0.0027 g·km-1 for light-duty gasoline trucks, respectively. Tighter emission standards have caused significant reductions in emissions. The emission factors of CO, NOx, HC, and CH4 could be decreased by 87.5%, 97.3%, 97.9%, and 86.4%, respectively, from China Ⅰ to China Ⅴ. A non-linear relationship was found between the age, odometer, vehicle weight, and vehicular emissions. In addition, the engine displacement was positively correlated with vehicular emissions.

8.
Neurosci Res ; 145: 46-53, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145270

RESUMO

The radioprotective effect of herb epimedium (or yin yang huo) extract (5 g/kg, oral administration daily for 4 weeks) on neurogenesis and cognition after acute radiation exposure with 5.5 Gy was evaluated in Balb/c mice by behavioral tests and immunohistochemical study. The results indicated that epimedium extract could improve animal weight loss, locomotor activity and spatial learning and memory which are similar to pre-irradiation intraperitoneal injection (100 mg/kg) of amifostine phosphate, a well- known radioprotective drug. Immunohistochemical study showed that epimedium extract prevented the loss of proliferation cells, newly generated neurons, and interneurons in the hilus, in particular, the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. It suggests that herb epimedium may be a promising radio-neuro-protective drug to prevent radiation-induced neuropsychological disorders.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos da radiação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Giro Denteado/efeitos dos fármacos , Giro Denteado/efeitos da radiação , Epimedium/química , Interneurônios , Masculino , Memória , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Aprendizagem Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem Espacial/efeitos da radiação , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória Espacial/efeitos da radiação
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598683

RESUMO

With rapidly increased construction of nuclear power plants worldwide to reduce energy shortage and subsequent environment contamination, routine use of radiotherapy and radiodiagnosis equipment in the clinical medicine, the research on the health effect of radiation exposure has become a very important area to explore. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) may be an ideal candidate therapy as it usually produces fewer side effects even with long-term administration. In this paper, we reviewed current therapeutic approaches to prevent radiation-induced brain neuropathological and functional changes. Neuroprotective effects of TCM in different brain injury models have been briefly summarized. We then reviewed the neuroprotective and radioprotective effect of TCM in different radiation exposure models and discussed the potential molecular mechanism(s) of the neuroprotective and radioprotective effect of TCM. The conclusions and future research directions were made in the last part of the paper.

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