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1.
Front Immunol ; 8: 158, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28270814

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized antigen-presenting cells that play crucial roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Previous studies suggested that Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists could be used as potential adjuvants, as activation of TLRs can boost DC-induced immune responses. TLR2 agonists have been shown to enhance DC-mediated immune responses. However, classical TLR2 agonists such as Pam3CSK4 are not stable enough in vivo, which limits their clinical applications. In this study, a novel structurally stable TLR2 agonist named SUP3 was designed. Functional analysis showed that SUP3 induced much stronger antitumor response than Pam3CSK4 by promoting cytotoxic T lymphocytes activation in vivo. This effect was achieved through the following mechanisms: SUP3 strongly enhanced the ability of antigen cross-presentation by DCs and subsequent T cell activation. SUP3 upregulated the expression of costimulatory molecules on DCs and increased antigen deposition in draining lymph nodes. More interestingly, SUP3 induced less amount of pro-inflammatory cytokine production in vivo compared to other TLR agonists such as lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, SUP3 could serve as a novel promising immune adjuvant in vaccine development and immune modulations.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(22): 12225-12231, 2016 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27801579

RESUMO

The spatial distribution of chemical compounds and concentration of reactive mercury (RM), defined as the sum of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and <3 µm particulate bound mercury (PBM), are poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to understand the chemistry, concentration, and spatial and temporal distribution of GOM at adjacent locations (12 km apart) with a difference in elevation of ∼1000 m. Atmospheric GOM measurements were made with passive and active samplers using membranes, and at one location, a Tekran mercury measurement system was used. The chemistry of GOM varied across time and location. On the basis of data collected, chemistry at the low elevation site adjacent to a highway was primarily influenced by pollutants generated by mobile sources (GOM = nitrogen and sulfur-based compounds), and the high elevation site (GOM = halogen-based compounds) was affected by long-range transport in the free troposphere over the marine boundary layer into Nevada. Data collected at these two locations demonstrate that different GOM compounds exist depending on the oxidants present in the air. Measurements of GOM made by the KCl denuder in the Tekran instrument located at the low elevation site were lower than that measured using membranes by 1.7-13 times. Accurate measurements of atmospheric concentrations and chemistry of RM are necessary for proper assessment of environmental impacts, and field measurements are essential for atmospheric models, which in turn influence policy decisions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Atmosfera/química , Mercúrio , Compostos de Mercúrio
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(10): 6102-8, 2015 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25877790

RESUMO

Quantifying the concentration of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and identifying the chemical compounds in the atmosphere are important for developing accurate local, regional, and global biogeochemical cycles. The major hypothesis driving this work was that relative humidity affects collection of GOM on KCl-coated denuders and nylon membranes, both currently being applied to measure GOM. Using a laboratory manifold system and ambient air, GOM capture efficiency on 3 different collection surfaces, including KCl-coated denuders, nylon membranes, and cation-exchange membranes, was investigated at relative humidity ranging from 25 to 75%. Recovery of permeated HgBr2 on KCl-coated denuders declined by 4-60% during spikes of relative humidity (25 to 75%). When spikes were turned off GOM recoveries returned to 60 ± 19% of permeated levels. In some cases, KCl-coated denuders were gradually passivated over time after additional humidity was applied. In this study, GOM recovery on nylon membranes decreased with high humidity and ozone concentrations. However, additional humidity enhanced GOM recovery on cation-exchange membranes. In addition, reduction and oxidation of elemental mercury during experiments was observed. The findings in this study can help to explain field observations in previous studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Gases/análise , Membranas Artificiais , Mercúrio/análise , Cátions , Monitoramento Ambiental , Umidade , Nylons , Oxirredução , Ozônio , Cloreto de Potássio
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(1): 432-41, 2015 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25485926

RESUMO

To understand gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) sources to the Western US, data were collected with passive samplers for ambient GOM concentrations and dry deposition at 10 sites from the coast of the Pacific Ocean to Great Basin National Park. Tests were done to better understand the samplers and the materials used. Measured dry deposition of GOM was significantly higher at sites >2000 m elevation relative to those below due to high GOM concentrations and atmospheric turbulence. At these high elevation sites, GOM dry deposition was higher in spring due to long-range transport from Asia (air parcels from the free troposphere) and some high GOM dry deposition events were related to regional emissions. Dry deposition of GOM at two sites was calculated using the passive sampler data and a multiple-resistance model. A previously developed relationship between the sampling rate of the passive sampler and GOM concentrations was used to estimate dry deposition and a scaling factor of 3 was used to adjust GOM concentrations, due to underestimation by KCl-coated denuder measurements. With the scaling factor of 3, modeled deposition was in the range of results estimated from two different models settings. However, dry deposition did not correlate consistently with either model. The disagreement could be due to uncertainties associated with measurements and/or modeling, or different GOM compounds existing in the atmosphere. If the atmospheric GOM compounds are known, dry deposition velocities could be estimated more accurately. Lastly, we investigated the potential for use of a new sampling material for GOM and checked the efficiency of the passive sampler.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Compostos de Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Altitude , Atmosfera , California , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gases/análise , Nevada , Oxirredução , Oceano Pacífico , Estações do Ano , Incerteza
5.
PLoS Pathog ; 10(10): e1004422, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25275585

RESUMO

Viruses utilize host factors for their efficient proliferation. By evaluating the inhibitory effects of compounds in our library, we identified inhibitors of cyclophilin A (CypA), a known immunosuppressor with peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, can significantly attenuate EV71 proliferation. We demonstrated that CypA played an essential role in EV71 entry and that the RNA interference-mediated reduction of endogenous CypA expression led to decreased EV71 multiplication. We further revealed that CypA directly interacted with and modified the conformation of H-I loop of the VP1 protein in EV71 capsid, and thus regulated the uncoating process of EV71 entry step in a pH-dependent manner. Our results aid in the understanding of how host factors influence EV71 life cycle and provide new potential targets for developing antiviral agents against EV71 infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Capsídeo/metabolismo , Ciclofilina A/metabolismo , Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Enterovirus Humano A/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Enterovirus Humano A/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 16(3): 374-92, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24362622

RESUMO

Atmospheric mercury (Hg) temporal and spatial patterns must be measured accurately in order to adequately understand the role of this pathway as it relates to Hg toxicity and exposure of humans and wildlife to Hg. It is also important to understand the distribution of the different chemical forms (elemental, oxidized, or particle bound) and specific compounds in air (e.g., HgCl2, HgBr2, HgO, Hg(NO3)2, and HgSO4). However, the current automated and passive sampling methods of measurement have limitations and artifacts impacting our ability to achieve this task. Both abiotic and biotic systems have been developed to measure the total gaseous Hg and oxidized Hg compounds (concentration and deposition). This study reviews and compares the performance of previously and currently applied passive sampling systems. Computable fluid dynamic modeling was conducted to gain additional understanding of a gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) passive sampler. Case studies during which passive samplers were used are also presented to demonstrate the ability of passive samplers to capture atmospheric Hg variation. A network using passive samplers would be useful for monitoring global Hg trends due to the limits of the current automated method.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Atmosfera/química , Oxirredução
8.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 15(12): 2321-8, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24190422

RESUMO

Wet deposition is an important atmospheric mercury (Hg) pathway between air and terrestrial ecosystems. It is measured at numerous locations in the United States (U. S.) as part of the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN). The annual Hg wet deposition flux in 2009 at four locations in the northeastern U. S. (MDN sites MD08, VT99, NY20, and NY43) ranged from 6.4 to 13.4 µg per m(2) year which is higher than modeled reactive Hg (RM) dry deposition for this region. The highest ambient RM concentrations were seen at MD08, which is closest to significant anthropogenic sources; however, the volume-weighted mean Hg concentrations in precipitation were similar at these four sites. Mass based scavenging ratios (SC) of RM ranged from 1700 to 4500. Differences in SCs were likely a result of differences in meteorological conditions, the forms of RM in the atmosphere, vertical concentration variations, and measurement uncertainties, including precipitation depth and RM concentrations. RM SCs were higher than those reported for other soluble species. Multiple linear regression suggests that gaseous oxidized Hg is responsible for the majority of the scavenged RM.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Gases/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Maryland , New York , Vermont
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(13): 7307-16, 2013 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23651121

RESUMO

The chemical compounds that make up gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) in the atmosphere, and the reactions responsible for their formation, are not well understood. The limitations and uncertainties associated with the current method applied to measure these compounds, the KCl-coated denuder, are not known due to lack of calibration and testing. This study systematically compared the uptake of specific GOM compounds by KCl-coated denuders with that collected using nylon and cation exchange membranes in the laboratory and field. In addition, a new method for identifying different GOM compounds using thermal desorption is presented. Different GOM compounds (HgCl2, HgBr2, and HgO) were found to have different affinities for the denuder surface and the denuder underestimated each of these compounds. Membranes measured 1.3 to 3.7 times higher GOM than denuders in laboratory and field experiments. Cation exchange membranes had the highest collection efficiency. Thermodesorption profiles for the release of GOM compounds from the nylon membrane were different for HgO versus HgBr2 and HgCl2. Application of the new field method for collection and identification of GOM compounds demonstrated these vary as a function of location and time of year. Understanding the chemistry of GOM across space and time has important implications for those developing policy regarding this environmental contaminant.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Brometos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Cloreto de Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Mercúrio/análise , Óxidos/análise , Adsorção , Resinas de Troca de Cátion/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Membranas Artificiais , Nylons/química , Oxirredução , Cloreto de Potássio/química
10.
PLoS One ; 8(3): e59322, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23536871

RESUMO

The Adirondacks of New York State, USA is a region that is sensitive to atmospheric mercury (Hg) deposition. In this study, we estimated atmospheric Hg deposition to the Adirondacks using a new scheme that combined numerical modeling and limited experimental data. The majority of the land cover in the Adirondacks is forested with 47% of the total area deciduous, 20% coniferous and 10% mixed. We used litterfall plus throughfall deposition as the total atmospheric Hg deposition to coniferous and deciduous forests during the leaf-on period, and wet Hg deposition plus modeled atmospheric dry Hg deposition as the total Hg deposition to the deciduous forest during the leaf-off period and for the non-forested areas year-around. To estimate atmospheric dry Hg deposition we used the Big Leaf model. The average atmospheric Hg deposition to the Adirondacks was estimated as 17.4 [Formula: see text]g m[Formula: see text] yr[Formula: see text] with a range of -3.7-46.0 [Formula: see text]g m[Formula: see text] yr[Formula: see text]. Atmospheric Hg dry deposition (370 kg yr[Formula: see text]) was found to be more important than wet deposition (210 kg yr[Formula: see text]) to the entire Adirondacks (2.4 million ha). The spatial pattern showed a large variation in atmospheric Hg deposition with scattered areas in the eastern Adirondacks having total Hg deposition greater than 30 µg m(-2) yr(-1), while the southwestern and the northern areas received Hg deposition ranging from 25-30 µg m(-2) yr(-1).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Algoritmos , Geografia , New York , Estações do Ano , Árvores
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(13): 7285-94, 2013 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23425102

RESUMO

The Reno Atmospheric Mercury Intercomparison Experiment (RAMIX) was carried out from 22 August to 16 September, 2011 in Reno, NV to evaluate the performance of new and existing methods to measure atmospheric mercury (Hg). Measurements were made using a common sampling manifold to which controlled concentrations of Hg species, including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and HgBr2 (a surrogate gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) compound), and potential interferents were added. We present an analysis of Hg measurements made using the University of Washington's Detector for Oxidized Hg Species (DOHGS), focusing on tests of GEM and HgBr2 spike recovery, the potential for interference from ozone (O3) and water vapor (WV), and temporal variability of ambient reactive mercury (RM). The mean GEM and HgBr2 spike recoveries measured with the DOHGS were 95% and 66%, respectively. The DOHGS responded linearly to HgBr2. We found no evidence that elevated O3 interfered in the DOHGS RM measurements. A reduction in RM collection and retention efficiencies at very high ambient WV mixing ratios is possible. Comparisons between the DOHGS and participating Hg instruments demonstrate good agreement for GEM and large discrepancies for RM. The results suggest that existing GOM measurements are biased low.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Brometos/análise , Compostos de Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Nevada , Oxirredução , Ozônio/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Água/análise
12.
Chemosphere ; 92(4): 360-7, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23422172

RESUMO

In the spring of 2008, a 260MWe coal-fired power plant (CFPP) located in Rochester, New York was closed over a 4month period. Using a 2-years data record, the impacts of the shutdown of the CFPP on nearby ambient concentrations of three Hg species were quantified. The arithmetic average ambient concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particulate mercury (PBM) during December 2007-November 2009 were 1.6ngm(-3), 5.1pgm(-3), and 8.9pgm(-3), respectively. The median concentrations of GEM, GOM, and PBM significantly decreased by 12%, 73%, and 50% after the CFPP closed (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.001). Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA PMF v4.1) identified six factors including O3-rich, traffic, gas phase oxidation, wood combustion, nucleation, and CFPP. When the CFPP was closed, median concentrations of GEM, GOM, and PBM apportioned to the CFPP factor significantly decreased by 25%, 74%, and 67%, respectively, compared to those measured when the CFPP was still in operation (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.001). Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis showed the greatest reduction in all three Hg species was associated with northwesterly winds pointing toward the CFPP. These changes were clearly attributable to the closure of the CFPP.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gases/química , Oxirredução , Material Particulado/química , Centrais Elétricas
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(13): 7295-306, 2013 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23305532

RESUMO

From August 22 to September 16, 2012, atmospheric mercury (Hg) was measured from a common manifold in the field during the Reno Atmospheric Mercury Intercomparison eXperiment. Data were collected using Tekran systems, laser induced fluorescence, and evolving new methods. The latter included the University of Washington-Detector for Oxidized Mercury, the University of Houston Mercury instrument, and a filter-based system under development by the University of Nevada-Reno. Good transmission of total Hg was found for the manifold. However, despite application of standard protocols and rigorous quality control, systematic differences in operationally defined forms of Hg were measured by the sampling systems. Concentrations of reactive Hg (RM) measured with new methods were at times 2-to-3-fold higher than that measured by Tekran system. The low RM recovery by the latter can be attributed to lack of collection as the system is currently configured. Concentrations measured by all instruments were influenced by their sampling location in-the-manifold and the instrument analytical configuration. On the basis of collective assessment of the data, we hypothesize that reactions forming RM were occurring in the manifold. Results provide a new framework for improved understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of Hg.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Brometos/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/química , Compostos de Mercúrio/análise , Nevada , Ozônio/análise
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 448: 96-106, 2013 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22959656

RESUMO

Tekran® Hg speciation systems were used at a rural site (Huntington Forest, NY; HF) and a suburban site (Rochester, NY; ROC) to measure gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and fine particulate-bound mercury (PBM2.5) concentrations for two years (December 2007 to November 2009). Ancillary data were also available from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Status and Trends Network. Seasonal GEM concentrations were similar at both sites and influenced by factors such as the planet boundary layer (PBL) height and mercury emissions from snow, soil, and point sources. In some seasons, O3 was negatively correlated with GEM at ROC and positively correlated with GEM at HF. At HF, O3 was correlated with GOM and was typically higher in the afternoon. The cause of this pattern may be photochemical reactions during the day, and the GOM diel pattern may also be due to deposition which is enhanced by dew formation during the night and early morning. PBM2.5 concentrations were higher in winter at both sites. This is indicative of local wood combustion for space heating in winter, increased sorption to particles at lower temperatures, and lower PBL in the winter. At the suburban site, 2 of 12 events with enhanced GEM/CO ratios were poorly correlated with SO2/GOM, implying that these two events were due either to long range transport or regional metallurgical industries in Canada.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Modelos Lineares , Mercúrio/química , Modelos Teóricos , New York , Oxirredução , Periodicidade , Estações do Ano
15.
J Environ Monit ; 14(11): 2976-82, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23001454

RESUMO

Two modified passive samplers were evaluated at multiple field locations. The sampling rate (SR) of the modified polyurethane foam (PUF)-disk passive sampler for total gaseous mercury (TGM) using gold-coated quartz fiber filters (GcQFF) and gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) using ion-exchange membranes (IEM) were 6.4 ± 1.4 and 15.3 ± 0.3 m(3) day(-1), respectively. The relative percent difference between TGM and GOM concentrations measured by a Tekran system and the passive samplers averaged 19 ± 14 and 13 ± 12% and ranged between 4-44 and 1.5-41%, respectively. The GcQFF and IEM substrates were also evaluated as collection media for surrogate surface dry deposition measurements. Mercury (Hg) concentration and dry deposition gradients were observed using these samplers at an urban/industrial site and compared to a rural/remote site. The Hg dry deposition rates measured by the surrogate surfaces were always higher than those calculated by a widely used inferential modeling method (1.3-50 fold). The Hg dry deposition measured at urban and suburban sites were comparable to those calculated from model. However, they were very different at a rural site, probably due to the low concentrations. Both methods are relatively low cost and will aid in understanding spatial distributions of Hg ambient air concentrations and dry deposition.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Atmosfera/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Mercúrio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Análise Espacial
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 46(12): 6621-9, 2012 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22642875

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) in wet deposition in the United States is measured as part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program--Hg Deposition Network (MDN). This study focused on compiling and assessing data collected since 2003 at two sites in Nevada, and at one in Nevada and three in Idaho where data were collected over shorter time intervals. At all locations the highest volume weighted concentrations and deposition were observed in the summer, a time of low precipitation, but high gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) concentrations. Detailed assessment of high Hg wet deposition events showed variability across the region and higher deposition at the higher elevation sites. Potential Source Contribution Function analyses showed no specific point sources associated with the high Hg wet deposition events, but air masses derived predominantly from the southwest. Although this region has potential local and regional sources of GOM, detailed back trajectory analyses, the environmental setting of Nevada, results from other studies in Nevada, and GEOS-Chem modeling results point toward a free troposphere contribution to mercury in wet deposition input to this area of the western United States.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Estados Unidos
17.
Chemosphere ; 87(5): 579-85, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22316589

RESUMO

Total gaseous mercury (Hg) (TGM), gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM), and particulate-bound Hg (PBM) concentrations and dry depositions were measured at an urban site in central Taiwan. The concentrations were 6.14±3.91 ng m(-3), 332±153, and 71.1±46.1 pg m(-3), respectively. These results demonstrate high Hg pollution at the ground level in Taiwan. A back trajectory plot shows the sources of the high TGM concentration were in the low atmosphere (<500 m) and approximately 50% of the air masses coming from upper troposphere (>500 m) were associated with low TGM concentrations. This finding implies that Hg is trapped in the low atmosphere and comes from local Hg emission sources. The conditional probability function (CPF) reveals that the plumes of high TGM concentrations come from the south and northwest of the site. The plume from the south comes from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However, no significant Hg point source is located to the northwest of the site; therefore, the plumes from the northwest are hypothesized to be related to the combustion of agricultural waste. Dry deposition fluxes of Hg measured at this site considerably exceeded those measured in North America. Overall, this area is regarded as a highly Hg contaminated area because of local Hg emission sources.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Atmosfera/química , Mercúrio/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Taiwan
18.
Chemosphere ; 84(11): 1694-9, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21620435

RESUMO

Three mercury (Hg) species (gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and fine particulate-bound mercury (PBM(2.5))) were measured in the stack of a small scale wood combustion chamber at 400°C, in the stack of an advanced wood boiler, and in two areas influenced by wood combustion. The low temperature process (lab-scale) emitted mostly GEM (∼99% when burning wood pellets and ∼95% when burning unprocessed wood). The high temperature wood boiler emitted a greater proportion of oxidized Hg (approximately 65%) than the low temperature system. In field measurements, mean PBM(2.5) concentrations at the rural and urban sites in winter were statistically significantly higher than in warmer seasons and were well correlated with Delta-C concentrations, a wood combustion indictor measured by an aethalometer (UV-absorbable carbon minus black carbon). Overall the results suggest that wood combustion may be an important source of oxidized mercury (mostly in the particulate phase) in northern climates in winter.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Calefação , Mercúrio/análise , Biomassa , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gases/química , Oxirredução , Material Particulado/química , Temperatura
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 409(7): 1320-7, 2011 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21257194

RESUMO

In this project, several surrogate surfaces designed to directly measure Hg dry deposition were investigated. Static water surrogate surfaces (SWSS) containing deionized (DI), acidified water, or salt solutions, and a knife-edge surrogate surface (KSS) using quartz fiber filters (QFF), KCl-coated QFF and gold-coated QFF were evaluated as a means to directly measure mercury (Hg) dry deposition. The SWSS was hypothesized to collect deposited elemental mercury (Hg°), reactive gaseous/oxidized mercury (RGM), and mercury associated with particulate matter (Hg(p)) while the QFF, KCl-coated QFF, and gold-coated QFF on the KSS were hypothesized to collect Hg(p), RGM+Hg(p), and Hg°+RGM+Hg(p), respectively. The Hg flux measured by the DI water was significantly smaller than that captured by the acidified water, probably because Hg° was oxidized to Hg²+ which stabilized the deposited Hg and decreased mass transfer resistance. Acidified BrCl, which efficiently oxidizes Hg°, captured significantly more Hg than other solutions. However, of all collection media, gold-coated QFFs captured 6 to 100 times greater Hg mass than the other surfaces, probably because there is no surface resistance for Hg° deposition to gold surfaces. In addition, the Hg° concentration is usually 100-1000 times higher than RGM and Hg(p). For all other media, co-located samples were not significantly different, and the combination of daytime plus nighttime results were comparable to 24-h samples, implying that Hg°, RGM and Hg(p) were not released after they deposited nor did the surfaces reach equilibrium with the atmosphere. Based on measured Hg ambient air concentrations and fluxes, dry deposition velocities of RGM and Hg° to DI water and other surfaces were 5.6±5.4 and 0.005-0.68 cm s⁻¹ in this study, respectively. These results suggest surrogate surfaces can be used to measure Hg dry deposition; however, extrapolating the results to natural surface can be challenging.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Movimentos do Ar , Atmosfera/química , Água Doce/química , Modelos Químicos
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 44(22): 8435-40, 2010 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20979360

RESUMO

The impact of Canadian forest fires in Quebec on May 31, 2010 on PM(2.5), carbonaceous species, and atmospheric mercury species was observed at three rural sites in northern New York. The results were compared with previous studies during a 2002 Quebec forest fire episode. MODIS satellite images showed transport of forest fire smoke from southern Quebec, Canada to northern New York on May 31, 2010. Back-trajectories were consistent with this regional transport. During the forest fire event, as much as an 18-fold increase in PM(2.5) concentration was observed. The concentrations of episode-related OC, EC, BC, UVBC, and their difference (Delta-C), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particle-bound mercury (PBM) were also significantly higher than those under normal conditions, suggesting a high impact of Canadian forest fire emissions on air quality in northern New York. PBM, RGM, and Delta-C are all emitted from forest fires. The correlation coefficient between Delta-C and other carbonaceous species may serve as an indicator of forest fire smoke. Given the marked changes in PBM, it may serve as a more useful tracer of forest fires over distances of several hundred kilometers relative to GEM. However, the Delta-C concentration changes are more readily measured.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , Fogo , Mercúrio/análise , Árvores , Atmosfera/química , Canadá , Monitoramento Ambiental , New York , Material Particulado/análise , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto
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