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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 367-376, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851879

RESUMO

The dimorphic fungus Talaromyces marneffei (TM) is a common cause of HIV-associated opportunistic infections in Southeast Asia. Cotrimoxazole (CTX) inhibits folic acid synthesis which is important for the survival of many bacteria, protozoa, and fungi and has been used to prevent several opportunistic infections among HIV/AIDS patients. We question whether CTX is effective in preventing TM infection. To investigate this question, we conducted an 11-year (2005-2016) retrospective observational cohort study of all patients on the Chinese national antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in Guangxi, a province with high HIV and TM burden in China. Survival analysis was conducted to investigate TM cumulative incidence, and Cox regression and propensity score matching (PSM) were used to evaluate the effect of CTX on TM incidence. Of the 3359 eligible individuals contributing 10,504.66 person-years of follow-up, 81.81% received CTX within 6 months after ART initiation, and 4.73% developed TM infection, contributing 15.14/1,000 person-year TM incidence rate. CTX patients had a significantly lower incidence of TM infection than non-CTX patients (4.11% vs. 7.53%; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.50, 95% CI 0.35-0.73). CTX reduced TM incidence in all CD4+ cell subgroups (<50 cells/µL, 50-99 cells/µL, 100-199 cells/µL), with the highest reduction observed in patients with a baseline CD4+ cell count <50 cells/µL in both Cox regression and the PSM analyses. In conclusion, in addition to preventing other HIV-associated opportunistic infections, CTX prophylaxis has the potential to prevent TM infection in HIV/AIDS patients receiving ART.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7816, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127157

RESUMO

Previous studies investigating HIV-infected patients suggested a direct link between underweight and the mortality rate of AIDS. However, there was a lack of evidence showing the optimal range of initial body mass index (BMI) patients maintain during antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to evaluate associations of the BMI values pre-ART and during the entire ART duration with mortality among HIV-positive individuals. In total, 5101 HIV/AIDS patients, including 1439 (28.2%) underweight, 3047 (59.7%) normal-weight, 548 (10.7%) overweight and 67 (1.3%) obese patients, were included in this cohort. The cumulative mortality of underweight, normal-weight, and overweight were 2.4/100 person-years (95% CI 1.9-2.9), 1.1/100 person-years (95% CI 0.9-1.3), and 0.5/100 person-years (95% CI 0.1-0.9), respectively. Cumulative mortality was lower in both the normal-weight and overweight populations than in the underweight population, with an adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of 0.5 (95% CI 0.4-0.7, p < 0.001) and 0.3 (95% CI 0.1-0.6, p = 0.002), respectively. Additionally, in the 1176 patients with available viral load data, there was significant difference between the underweight and normal-weight groups after adjustment for all factors, including viral load (p = 0.031). This result suggests that HIV-infected patients in Guangxi maintaining a BMI of 19-28 kg/m2, especially 24-28 kg/m2, have a reduced risk of death.

3.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 139(4): 275-279, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the prevalence and types of drug resistance mutations among patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Plasma samples from 112 patients with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) were collected for virus RNA extract and gene amplification. The mutations related to drug resistance were detected and the incidence was statistically analyzed, and the drug resistance rate against common drugs was also evaluated. RESULTS: 103 cases were successfully amplified, and the main drug resistance mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) region were M184V (50.49%), K103N (28.16%), Y181C (25.24%), and K65R (27.18%), while no drug main resistance mutation was found in the protease (PR) region. The incidence of drug resistance mutations was significantly different among patients with different ages, routes of infection, duration of treatment, initial ART regimens and viral load. The drug resistance rate to the common drugs was assessed, including Efavirenz (EFV, 71.84%), Nevirapine (NVP, 74.76%), Lamivudine (3TC, 66.02%), Zidovudine (AZT, 4.85%), Stavudine (D4T, 16.51%), and Tenofovir (TDF, 21.36%). CONCLUSION: The drug resistance mutations to NRTIs and NNRTIs are complex and highly prevalent, which was the leading cause of first-line ART failure. This study provides significant theoretical support for developing the second-line and third-line therapeutic schemes.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Antivirais/farmacologia , Benzoxazinas/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Mutação , Nevirapina/farmacologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lamivudina/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estavudina/farmacologia , Tenofovir/farmacologia , Falha de Tratamento , Carga Viral , Zidovudina/farmacologia
4.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(4): 765-776, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536462

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a global bone disease characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fractures. The risk of developing osteoporosis increases with aging, especially after menopause in women. Discovering the signaling pathways that play a significant role in aging- and menopause-induced osteoporosis should accelerate osteoporosis drug discovery. In this study, we found that bile acid membrane receptor Tgr5 knockout C57BL/6J mice had similar bone mass as wild-type mice during early and middle-age (before 4 months old) bone remodeling; however, Tgr5-/- markedly decreased bone mass in aged (more than 7 months old) and ovariectomized (OVX) mice compared with wild-type mice. Moreover, Tgr5 knockout strongly induced osteoclast differentiation but had no effect on osteoblast activity. Treatment with different TGR5 agonists consistently inhibited osteoclast differentiation. Importantly, our results showed that Tgr5 regulates osteoclastogenesis by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, which is a central metabolic pathway involved in the pathophysiology of aging and age-related diseases. The bile acid nuclear receptor FXR is an established regulator of bone metabolism. We screened the derivatives of betulinic acid (BA), a known TGR5 agonist, to identify novel dual agonists of FXR and TGR5. The derivative SH-479, a pentacyclic triterpene acid, could activate both TGR5 and FXR, with a better inhibitory effect on osteoclastogenesis compared with agonists solely activating FXR or TGR5 and additionally enhanced osteoblastogenesis. Furthermore, SH-479 therapeutically abrogated bone loss in C57BL/6J mice through the bone remodeling pathways. Together, our results demonstrate that dual targeting the bile acid membrane receptor TGR5 and nuclear receptor FXR is a promising strategy for osteoporosis. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

5.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(5): 552-557, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28562081

RESUMO

A new sesquiterpene, eupatolide 13-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (eupatolide-II, 1), lactone glucoside, along with 15 known compounds, were isolated from the whole plant of Inula salsoloides (Asteraceae). Dichloromethane extract and compounds 1-11 were used to investigate insecticidal activities against vegetable important pest, striped flea beetle (Phyllotreta striolata Fabricius). None of the samples show any toxicity under concentration of 500 times, while compound 1 and the extract had toxic effect when the concentration increased to 250 times. But the corrected mortality of compound 1 and the extract were only 44.83 and 13.80%, respectively. Compound 11 (inulasalene) showed repellency effect in the no-choice test, and the repellency rate was 70%. Compounds 1 and 3 (inulasalsolide) showed the antifeeding rates of 65.22 and 47.06%, respectively. Compound 10 (11ß,13-dihydrogeneupatolide) showed strong attractive effects on the adults, while the difference of injured area between the treatment and control was also not significant.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/química , Inseticidas/química , Inula/química , Lactonas/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Animais , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Lactonas/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
6.
J Clin Nurs ; 27(3-4): 694-704, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28815825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the pressure ulcer prevalence in secondary and tertiary general hospitals in different areas of Guangdong Province in China and explore the possible risk factors that are related to pressure ulcers. BACKGROUND: Few multicentre studies have been conducted on pressure ulcer prevalence in Chinese hospitals. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design was used. METHODS: Data from a total of 25,264 patients were included in the analysis at 25 hospitals in China. The investigators were divided into two groups. The investigators in group 1 examined the patients' skin. When a pressure ulcer was found, a pressure ulcer assessment form was completed. The investigators in group 2 provided guidance to the nurses, who assessed all patients and completed another questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyse the relationship between the possible risk factors and pressure ulcer. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rate of pressure ulcers in the 25 hospitals ranged from 0%-3.49%, with a mean of 1.26%. The most common stage of the pressure ulcers was stage II (41.4%); most common anatomical locations were sacrum (39.5%) and the feet (16.4%). Braden score (p < .001), expected length of stay (p < .001), incontinence (p < .001), care group (p = .011), hospital location (p < .001), type of hospitals (p = .004), ages of patients (p < .001) were associations of pressure ulcers from the multivariate logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence rate of pressure ulcers in Chinese hospitals was lower than that reported in previous investigations. Specific characteristics of pressure ulcer patients were as follows: low Braden score, longer expected length of stay, double incontinence, an ICU and a medical ward, hospital location in the Pearl River Delta, a university hospital and an older patient. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The survey could make managers know their prevalence level of pressure ulcers and provide priorities for clinical nurses.


Assuntos
Lesão por Pressão/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Incontinência Fecal/complicações , Feminino , Hospitais Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesão por Pressão/classificação , Lesão por Pressão/complicações , Lesão por Pressão/enfermagem , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Incontinência Urinária/complicações , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Med ; 22(5): 539-46, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27064449

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11, also known as RANKL) regulates multiple physiological or pathological functions, including osteoclast differentiation and osteoporosis. TNFRSF11A (also called RANK) is considered to be the sole receptor for RANKL. Herein we report that leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4, also called GPR48) is another receptor for RANKL. LGR4 competes with RANK to bind RANKL and suppresses canonical RANK signaling during osteoclast differentiation. RANKL binding to LGR4 activates the Gαq and GSK3-ß signaling pathway, an action that suppresses the expression and activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATC1) during osteoclastogenesis. Both whole-body (Lgr4(-/-)) and monocyte conditional knockout mice of Lgr4 (Lgr4 CKO) exhibit osteoclast hyperactivation (including elevation of osteoclast number, surface area, and size) and increased bone erosion. The soluble LGR4 extracellular domain (ECD) binds RANKL and inhibits osteoclast differentiation in vivo. Moreover, LGR4-ECD therapeutically abrogated RANKL-induced bone loss in three mouse models of osteoporosis. Therefore, LGR4 acts as a second RANKL receptor that negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea/genética , Reabsorção Óssea/genética , Osteogênese/genética , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Animais , Western Blotting , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Citometria de Fluxo , Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Tumor de Células Gigantes do Osso/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Imagem Óptica , Osteoporose/genética , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transdução de Sinais , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Microtomografia por Raio-X
8.
Dalton Trans ; 44(33): 15006-13, 2015 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26228637

RESUMO

A series of single-phase broadband white-light-emitting Sr5(PO4)3F:Eu(2+),Mn(2+) phosphors were prepared by a solid state reaction. The luminescence property, and the crystal and electronic structures of the fluorophosphates were studied by photoluminescence analysis, XRD Rietveld refinement and density functional theory calculation (DFT), respectively. Under near ultraviolet excitation in the 250 to 430 nm wavelength range, the phosphors exhibit two emission bands centered at 440 and 556 nm, caused by the Eu(2+) and Mn(2+) ions. By altering the relative ratios of Eu(2+) and Mn(2+) in the compounds, the emission color could be modulated from blue to white. The efficient energy transfer from the Eu(2+) to Mn(2+) ions could be ascribed to the well crystallized host lattice and the facile substitution of Eu(2+) and Mn(2+) for Sr(2+) sites due to similar ionic radii. A series of fluxes were investigated to improve the photoluminescence intensity. When KCl was used as flux in the synthesis, the photoluminescence intensity of Sr5(PO4)3F:Eu(2+),Mn(2+) was enhanced by 85% compared with no fluxes added. These results demonstrate that the single-phase Sr5(PO4)3F:Eu(2+),Mn(2+) with enhanced luminescence efficiency could be promising as a near UV-convertible direct white-light-emitting phosphor for WLED applications.

9.
Sci Rep ; 5: 11667, 2015 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26123623

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) plays a key role in tissue degradation in periodontitis. The relationship between the MMP3 -1171 5A/6A polymorphism (rs35068180) and periodontitis has been widely studied. However, existing studies have yielded contradictory results. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to comprehensively investigate these inconclusive findings. Several electronic databases were searched for eligible articles. Seven case-control studies from 6 articles were searched without any language restrictions. Pooled estimates indicated that MMP3 -1171 5A/6A polymorphism is associated with a decreased risk of periodontitis (allelic genetic model: OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.62-0.80, P(heterogeneity) = 0.315; heterozygous model: OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.39-0.65, P(heterogeneity) = 0.221; homozygous model: OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.25-0.69, P(heterogeneity) = 0.265; dominant model: OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.38-0.62, P(heterogeneity) = 0.238, respectively). Similar results were also found in chronic periodontitis (CP), Asian, Asian&CP, and non-smokers subgroups. Moreover, MMP3 rs35068180 polymorphism might be associated with a lower risk of aggressive periodontitis (AgP) in Asians (allelic genetic model: OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48-0.91, P(heterogeneity) = 0.945), and CP in Caucasians and Brazilians. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrates that MMP3 -1171 5A/6A polymorphism may be associated with decreased risk of both CP and AgP in Asians. Large independent studies to replicate these results are necessary to validate these associations in other populations.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/genética , Periodontite/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Periodontite/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
J Periodontol ; 86(2): 292-300, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25299389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This review assesses the associations of interleukin-8 gene (IL-8) -251A/T (rs4073) and -845T/C (rs2227532) polymorphisms with susceptibility to periodontitis. METHODS: Several electronic databases were searched for eligible articles. Twelve studies involving 2,233 cases and 2,655 controls were retrieved and analyzed. Odds ratios (ORs) along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of relationship between the IL-8 polymorphisms and periodontitis risk. RESULTS: No significant association was found for IL-8 -251A/T polymorphism with periodontitis in the overall analysis and stratification by periodontitis type and smoking status. Subgroup analysis by ethnicity revealed that -251A/T T allele and TT genotype were associated with decreased risk of periodontitis in a Brazilian mixed population (T allele versus A allele: OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.94, Pheterogeneity = 0.30; TT versus AA: OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.93, Pheterogeneity = 0.39; TT versus AA/AT: OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.98, Pheterogeneity = 0.01). In addition, -251A/T T allele was associated with increased periodontitis risk in Asians. Pooled estimates showed that the -845T/C polymorphism was associated with periodontitis susceptibility in overall analysis and the chronic periodontitis subgroup. In addition, marginal associations were observed between -845T/C polymorphism and periodontitis in a Brazilian mixed population. Moreover, this association was also confirmed to be significant in Brazilian non-smokers. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis indicated that both IL-8 -251A/T and -845T/C polymorphisms may be involved in the development of periodontitis in a Brazilian mixed population, whereas the -251A/T allele T appeared to be a risk factor for periodontitis in Asians.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Interleucina-8/genética , Periodontite/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Adenina , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Brasil/etnologia , Citosina , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Humanos , Timina
11.
Inorg Chem ; 53(18): 9541-7, 2014 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25148114

RESUMO

A series of La3BW(1-x)Mo(x)O9:Eu(3+) (x = 0-0.4) polycrystalline powders were prepared by using solid-state reactions. The phase structure, UV-vis absorption spectra, and photoluminescence properties were studied as a function of the Mo/W ratio. When Mo(6+) ions are incorporated into the lattice, the characteristic sharp lines in the excitation spectra of Eu(3+) monitored at 617 nm are prominently enhanced, which join the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) band of La3BW(1-x)Mo(x)O9:Eu(3+) into a broad band ranging from 250 to 450 nm centered at 375 nm. The intensity of the broad excitation band reaches a maximum when the content of Mo(6+) ions increases to x = 0.3. On the other hand, the LMCT band around 306 nm decreases and shifts toward the longer wavelength. These features are advantageous to near-UV or blue light GaN-based LED applications. Orbital population analysis by density functional theory calculation (DFT) reveals that the near-UV excitation of La3BW(1-x)Mo(x)O9:Eu(3+) red phosphor is due to the electronic transition from the O 2p orbital to the W 5d and Mo 4d orbitals, respectively. With the introduction of Mo(6+) into the lattice, the band gap of La3BW(1-x)Mo(x)O9 becomes narrower than that of the pure phase La3BWO9.

12.
Neurol Res ; 35(7): 684-92, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23561247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined the prevalence and risk factors of migraine among the She population. The prevalence of migraine among She Chinese in Fujian province is high. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional survey. Subjects completed a questionnaire that collected demographic and clinical data related to migraine. Physical examination and clinical laboratory tests were performed. Data were analyzed by regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 5519 subjects enrolled, 2377 were male (43·1%) and 3142 female (56·9%). Of these, 581 (10·53%) experienced migraine annually, including 6·18% of males and 13·82% of females. Highest prevalence rate was among those aged 40-49 years (11·28%). The 141 (24·3%) subjects who had migraine with aura had higher incidence of family history of headache than those without aura (38·5% vs 19·9%, P < 0·0001). CONCLUSION: Female gender and insomnia are possible risk factors for migraine in the She population.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Inorg Chem ; 50(22): 11487-92, 2011 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22029391

RESUMO

The effect of alkali-metal ions on the local structure and luminescence properties for alkali-metal europium double tungstate compounds AEu(WO(4))(2) (A = Li, Na, K) has been investigated by a dual-space structural technique, atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis, and the Rietveld method of powder X-ray diffraction. The compounds AEu(WO(4))(2) (A = Li, Na) crystallize in the isostructure with the tetragonal space group I41/a (No. 88) and show the same luminescence properties in spite of the different doped alkali metals. However, KEu(WO(4))(2) crystallizes in monoclinic symmetry with the space group C2/c (No. 15). Compared with the two other counterparts, KEu(WO(4))(2) exhibits a more effective charge-transfer excitation, a larger Stokes shift, and a broader 612 nm emission band. This phenomenon is ascribed to the lower crystal symmetry in KEu(WO(4))(2), which influences bond distances and the coordination number of Eu(3+). Two complementary methods, the Rietveld method and PDF analysis, reveal that both LiEu(WO(4))(2) and NaEu(WO(4))(2) afford the same local surroundings of Eu(3+). The local structure determined by the Rietveld and PDF methods well account for the observed luminescent properties.

14.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 34(2): 69-74, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21212687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of hypertension in the Chinese She ethnic minority in Fujian province of China. After analyzing relevant risk factors of hypertension, we wanted to provide information for prevention and control of hypertension in this ethnic minority. METHODS: Using the stratified and cluster methods, we randomly selected 5,350 She subjects for a questionnaire survey. Their weight, height and blood pressure were measured. Hypertension was defined as a mean systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication. SPSS 13.0 software was used for database building and the χ(2) test for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The number of patients with hypertension was 1,931 (prevalence 36.09%) and 71.15% of them (1,374 patients) were undiagnosed. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age and was associated with education levels, occupation, body mass index, smoking, salt intake levels and a lack of health concepts. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of hypertension in the She has grown rapidly, which is closely correlated with lifestyle and lack of health education of hypertension. The prevention and control of hypertension in the She is imperative, and the promotion of health education on hypertension can be improved to enhance awareness, prevention, and control of hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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