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1.
Poult Sci ; 100(6): 101100, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975048

RESUMO

Cosignal molecules are cell surface molecules that transduce signals to other cells to modulate immune response positively (costimulate) or negatively (cosuppress). Costimulatory signals are key factors in determining whether T/B cells are capable of responding to specific antigens and ultimately mediating an appropriate immune response. In this study, the cDNA sequence containing the complete coding frame of the costimulatory molecule duck CD40 gene was cloned and reported for the first time, and its mediated antiviral innate immune was verified in vitro. Results suggested duck CD40 molecule plays an important role in the innate immune responsiveness against some viruses. These data will be beneficial for the further understand of the avian immune system.

2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966351

RESUMO

Highly pathogenic coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV, are thought to be transmitted from bats to humans, but the viral genetic signatures that contribute to bat-to-human transmission remain largely obscure. In this study, we identified an identical ribosomal frameshift motif among the three bat-human pairs of viruses and strong purifying selection after jumping from bats to humans. This represents genetic signatures of coronaviruses that are related to bat-to-human transmission. To further trace the early human-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in North America, a geographically stratified genome-wide association study (North American isolates and the remaining isolates) and a retrospective study were conducted. We determined that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) 1059.C>T and 25563.G>T were significantly associated with approximately half of the North American SARS-CoV-2 isolates that accumulated largely during March 2020. Retrospectively tracing isolates with these two SNPs was used to reconstruct the early, reliable transmission history of North American SARS-CoV-2, and European isolates (February 26, 2020) showed transmission 3 days earlier than North American isolates and 17 days earlier than Asian isolates. Collectively, we identified the genetic signatures of the three pairs of coronaviruses and reconstructed an early transmission history of North American SARS-CoV-2. We envision that these genetic signatures are possibly diagnosable and predictable markers for public health surveillance.

3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(6): 105760, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845422

RESUMO

Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is an extracellular matrix phosphoprotein that is known to facilitate mineralization of collagen in bone and promote osteoblast/odontoblast differentiation. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is the major pathogenesis in secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of DMP1 in the mouse brain and explore the role of DMP1 in BBB disruption and brain injury in a mouse model of ICH. Mice were subjected to autologous blood injection-induced ICH. Immunofluorescence staining, western blot analysis, neurobehavioral tests, brain water content measurements, Evans blue permeability assay, and transmission electron microscopy were performed. Small interfering RNA targeting DMP1 (DMP1 siRNA) was administered at 72 h prior to ICH. Results showed that DMP1 is expressed extensively in the mouse brain, and is upregulated in the ICH model. Administration of DMP1 siRNA effectively ameliorated BBB disruption, attenuated brain edema, and improved neurological function after ICH. Moreover, the expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin were upregulated, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was downregulated in the ICH model. DMP1 siRNA administration reversed the expression of ZO-1, occludin, and MMP-9. These results demonstrated that DMP1 upregulation plays an essential role in inducing BBB disruption and brain injury after ICH. The inhibition of DMP1 could be a potential therapeutic strategy for ICH treatment.

4.
Poult Sci ; 100(5): 101085, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799115

RESUMO

Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) and duck plague virus (DPV) are typical DNA and RNA viruses of waterfowl, causing drastic economic losses to the duck farm industry in terms of high mortality and decreased egg production. These 2 viruses reappear from time to time because the available vaccines fail to provide complete immunity and no clinical antiviral drugs are available for them. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of SC75741 for DTMUV, DPV, and the model virus, vesicular stomatitis virus infection in duck cells. SC75741, a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-specific inhibitor in mammal cells, revealed the highest antiviral activity among the inhibitors specific to c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), and NF-κB signaling. The antiviral activity of SC75741 was dose-dependent and showed effects in different duck cell types. Time-addition and duration assay demonstrated that SC75741 inhibited virus infection in the middle of and after virus infection at least for 72 h in duck embro fibroblast cells. The DPV viral adsorption and genomic copy number were reduced, indicating that SC75741 blocks the phase of the virus life cycle at viral entry and genomic replication. In addition, SC75741 enhanced the expression of interferon only when stimulator of interferon genes (STING) was overexpressed or pre-activated by the virus infection, suggesting that SC75741 acts as a STING agonist. In conclusion, SC75741 is a candidate antiviral agent for DTMUV and DPV.

5.
Vet Microbiol ; 257: 109078, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906107

RESUMO

Studies have shown that proteins in the tegument (located between the viral capsid and envelope layer) play critical roles in the assembly and budding of herpesviruses. The UL11 protein of herpesviruses is important in the process of virus particle cell entry, release, assembly and secondary envelopment. Herpesvirus glycoprotein E (gE) is involved in syncytia formation, transmission between cells and nerve invasion. In herpes simplex virus, UL11 has been shown to interact with gE. However, little is known about the relationship of duck plague virus (DPV) pUL11 and gE. In this study, we constructed DPV cytoplasmic domain (CT)-gE, and extracellular domain (ET)-gE deletion mutants, pCMV-gE, CT-gE, and ET-gE and UL11 recombinant plasmids. We found that pUL11 can interact and colocalize with gE, CT-gE and ET-gE. Together, these results highlight an important role for UL11 in the function of gE, and may also have important implications for the role of pUL11 and gE.

6.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(9): 3691-3704, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852024

RESUMO

Lactiplantibacillus plantarum is frequently exposed to salt stress during industrial applications. Catabolite control protein (CcpA) controls the transcription of many genes, but its role in the response to salt stress remains unclear. In this study, we used transcriptome analyses to investigate differences in the logarithmic growth phases of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ST-III and its ccpA-knockout mutant when grown with or without salt and glycine betaine (GB). The deletion of ccpA significantly affected bacterial growth under different conditions. Among the comparisons, the highest proportion of differentially expressed genes (64%) was observed in the comparison between the wild-type and ccpA mutant grown with NaCl, whereas the lowest proportion (6%) was observed in the comparison between the ccpA mutant strain cultures grown with NaCl alone or with GB together. Transcriptomic analyses showed that CcpA could regulate GB uptake, activate iron uptake, produce acetyl-CoA, and affect fatty acid composition to maintain membrane lipid homeostasis in the adaptation of high-salinity conditions. Conclusively, these results demonstrate the importance of CcpA as a master regulator of these processes in response to salt stress, and provide new insights into the complex regulatory network of lactic acid bacteria. KEY POINTS: • The absence of CcpA significantly affected growth of L. plantarum and its response to salt stress. • CcpA regulates compatible solutes absorption and ions transport to resist salt stress. • CcpA alters fatty acids composition to maintain membrane lipid homeostasis towards salt stress.

7.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(9): 1935-1945, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850462

RESUMO

The prevalence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains makes disease control more complicated, which is the main cause of death in tuberculosis (TB) patients. Early detection and timely standard treatment are the key to current prevention and control of drug-resistant TB. In recent years, despite the continuous advancement in drug-resistant TB diagnostic technology, the needs for clinical rapid and accurate diagnosis are still not fully met. With the development of sequencing technology, the research of human microecology has been intensified. This study aims to use 16 rRNA sequencing technology to detect and analyze upper respiratory flora of TB patients with anti-TB drug sensitivity (DS, n = 55), monoresistance isoniazide (MR-INH, n = 33), monoresistance rifampin (MR-RFP, n = 12), multidrug resistance (MDR, n = 26) and polyresistance (PR, n = 39) in southern China. Potential microbial diagnostic markers for different types of TB drug resistance are searched by screening differential flora, which provides certain guiding significance for drug resistance diagnosis and clinical drug use of TB. The results showed that the pulmonary microenvironment of TB patients was more susceptible to infection by external pathogens, and the infection of different drug-resistant Mtb leads to changes in different flora. Importantly, seven novel microorganisms (Leptotrichia, Granulicatella, Campylobacter, Delfitia, Kingella, Chlamydophila, Bordetella) were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as diagnostic markers for different drug resistance types of TB. Leptotrichia, Granulicatella, Campylobacter were potential diagnostic marker for TB patients with INH single-resistance. Delftia was a potential diagnostic marker for TB patients with RFP single drug-resistance. Kingella and Chlamydophila can be used as diagnostic markers for TB patients with PR. Bordetella can be used as a potential diagnostic marker for identification of TB patients with MDR.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 809, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the outbreak of COVID-19, traditional face-to-face psychological intervention are difficult to achieve, so hotline becomes available and recommended strategies. The callers' characteristic could help us to study their experiences of emotional distress, as well as the reasons for calling during the pandemic, which can be used to inform future service design and delivery. METHODS: The information of 1558 callers called our hospital' s hotline for help from February 3, 2020, to March 16, 2020 were collected in the form of Tick-box and Free text, and the inductive content analysis was undertaken focusing on the reasons for caller engagement. RESULTS: It was indicated that more than half of the callers are female (59.7%), mostly between the age of 18-59 (76.5%). The average age was 37.13 ± 13.76 years old. The average duration of a call to the hotline was 10.03 ± 9.84 min. The most frequent description emotional state were anxious (45.1%) and calm (30.3%), with the sub-sequence of scared (18.2%), sad (11.9%), and angry (6.9%). All callers displayed a wide range of reasons for calling, with needing support around their emotion (64.6%), seeking practical help (44.0%), and sleep problems (20.3%) constituting the majority of calls. Among the subthemes, 314 callers thought the epidemic has made them upset, 198 asked questions about the epidemic, and 119 reported their life routines were disrupted. The prevalence of key reasons does not appear to differ over time. Through their feedback, 79.1% agreed that they felt emotionally better after calling, and 95.0% agreed that hotline had helped them. CONCLUSIONS: During the epidemic, the most concern of the public is still related to epidemics and its adverse effects. Fortunately, the hotline can be an active and effective rescue measure after an emergency happened.

9.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669264

RESUMO

Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with an antipathogenic activity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are ubiquitously expressed in cells. Endogenous miRNA may function as an innate response to block pathogen invasion. The miRNA expression profiles of both mice and humans after the ingestion of honeysuckle were obtained. Fifteen overexpressed miRNAs overlapped and were predicted to be capable of targeting three viruses: dengue virus (DENV), enterovirus 71 (EV71) and SARS-CoV-2. Among them, let-7a was examined to be capable of targeting the EV71 RNA genome by reporter assay and Western blotting. Moreover, honeysuckle-induced let-7a suppression of EV71 RNA and protein expression as well as viral replication were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that let-7a targeted EV71 at the predicted sequences using luciferase reporter plasmids as well as two infectious replicons (pMP4-y-5 and pTOPO-4643). The suppression of EV71 replication and viral load was demonstrated in two cell lines by luciferase activity, RT-PCR, real-time PCR, Western blotting and plaque assay. Furthermore, EV71-infected suckling mice fed honeysuckle extract or inoculated with let-7a showed decreased clinical scores and a prolonged survival time accompanied with decreased viral RNA, protein expression and virus titer. The ingestion of honeysuckle attenuates EV71 replication and related pathogenesis partially through the upregulation of let-7a expression both in vitro and in vivo. Our previous report and the current findings imply that both honeysuckle and upregulated let-7a can execute a suppressive function against the replication of DENV and EV71. Taken together, this evidence indicates that honeysuckle can induce the expression of let-7a and that this miRNA as well as 11 other miRNAs have great potential to prevent and suppress EV71 replication.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Enterovirus Humano A/efeitos dos fármacos , Lonicera/química , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Enterovirus Humano A/fisiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
10.
Vet Microbiol ; 255: 108979, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721633

RESUMO

The virion host shutoff (VHS) protein, encoded by the UL41 gene of herpes simplex virus (HSV), specifically degrades mRNA and induces host shutoff. VHS and its homologs are highly conserved in the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily. However, the role of the duck plague virus (DPV) UL41 gene is unclear. In this study, we found that the DPV UL41 gene-encoded protein (pUL41) degrades RNA polymerase (pol) II-transcribed translatable RNA and induces protein synthesis shutoff. DPV pUL41 was dispensable for viral replication, but the UL41-deleted mutant virus exhibited a significant viral growth defect and plaque size reduction in Duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells. Furthermore, DPV pUL41 regulated viral mRNA accumulation to affect viral DNA replication, release and cell-to-cell spread.

11.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(1): 149-152, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663677

RESUMO

Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema(RS3PE),the inflammatory arthritis attacking mainly elderly males,is characterized by symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema of the dorsum of hands and feet and the absence of rheumatoid factor.RS3PE commonly accompanies malignant tumor,infections and other diseases.Here we report a case of RS3PE associated with lung malignancy and review other six cases to summarize the clinical features,treatment and prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Sinovite , Idoso , Edema/etiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Masculino , Síndrome , Sinovite/complicações , Sinovite/tratamento farmacológico
12.
J Insect Sci ; 21(2)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693806

RESUMO

Background odors produced by plants in the environment can interfere with the response of insects to a point-releasing attractant, especially when their compositions overlap. In this study, a series of binary choice tests was conducted in a wind tunnel to investigate whether background odors emitted from cherry, blueberry, blackberry, or raspberry fruits would affect the level of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) attraction to its symbiotic yeast, Hanseniaspora uvarum (Niehaus) (Saccharomycetales: Saccharomycetaceae). Whether an increase in the intensity of background odors would affect the attractiveness of H. uvarum to D. suzukii was also investigated, either by increasing the number of cherry or raspberry fruit per cup or by increasing the number of fruit cups surrounding the cup baited with the yeast. In wind tunnel assays, background fruit odors interfering with D. suzukii attraction to the yeast varied among fruit types. Raspberry odor inhibited the attractiveness of H. uvarum to the fly the most, followed by blackberry odor, whereas cherry and blueberry odors had no significant impact on the attraction. An increase in the intensity of odors by adding more cherry or raspberry fruit per cup did not increase the impact of fruit odor on the attraction; however, adding more raspberry cups around H. uvarum linearly decreased its attractiveness, suggesting that background host fruit abundance and likely increase in host odor may influence D. suzukii attraction to yeast odor depending on host species.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Frutas/fisiologia , Hanseniaspora , Odorantes , Animais , Bioensaio/métodos , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/fisiologia , Drosophila/microbiologia , Drosophila/fisiologia , Prunus avium/fisiologia , Rubus/fisiologia , Saccharomycetales , Simbiose
13.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 37, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663572

RESUMO

Fowl cholera caused by Pasteurella multocida exerts a massive economic burden on the poultry industry. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is essential for the growth of P. multocida genotype L1 strains in chickens and specific truncations to the full length LPS structure can attenuate bacterial virulence. Here we further dissected the roles of the outer core transferase genes pcgD and hptE in bacterial resistance to duck serum, outer membrane permeability and virulence in ducks. Two P. multocida mutants, ΔpcgD and ΔhptE, were constructed, and silver staining confirmed that they all produced truncated LPS profiles. Inactivation of pcgD or hptE did not affect bacterial susceptibility to duck serum and outer membrane permeability but resulted in attenuated virulence in ducks to some extent. After high-dose inoculation, ΔpcgD showed remarkably reduced colonization levels in the blood and spleen but not in the lung and liver and caused decreased injuries in the spleen and liver compared with the wild-type strain. In contrast, the ΔhptE loads declined only in the blood, and ΔhptE infection caused decreased splenic lesions but also induced severe hepatic lesions. Furthermore, compared with the wild-type strain, ΔpcgD was significantly attenuated upon oral or intramuscular challenge, whereas ΔhptE exhibited reduced virulence only upon oral infection. Therefore, the pcgD deletion caused greater virulence attenuation in ducks, indicating the critical role of pcgD in P. multocida infection establishment and survival.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 777: 145171, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676207

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of silver (Ag NPs) and sliver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag2S NPs) on nitrogen removal and nitrogen functional microbes in constructed wetlands were investigated. The obtained results demonstrated that inhibition extent on nitrogen removal relied on NPs types and high concentrations NPs showed higher negative effects. 0.5 mg/L Ag NPs had no influence on NH4+-N removal, amoA and nxrA gene copies, whereas Ag2S NPs and Ag+ decreased NH4+-N removal by reducing abundances of nitrifying genes. The concentrations of NO3--N and TN in all 0.5 mg/L obviously increased compared with control, resulting from decreasing functional genes and denitrifying bacteria. And 0.5 mg/L Ag NPs exhibited largest inhibitory effects, with the highest NO3--N effluent concentrations. 2 mg/L Ag NPs decreased NH4+-N removal, but adverse effects gradually vanished with extension of time, whereas both Ag2S NPs and Ag+ at 2 mg/L influenced NH4+-N transformation and decreased the abundance of amoA and nxrA genes and the AOB Nitrosomonas in CWs. Moreover, 2 mg/L of Ag NPs reduced NO3--N removal by decreasing abundance of nirS and key denitrifying bacteria. To sum up, the inhibition mechanisms concluded from current results were possibly in that Ag NPs exhibited nanotoxicity rather than ionic toxicity.

16.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 48, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741064

RESUMO

Iron is essential for most bacteria to survive, but excessive iron leads to damage by the Fenton reaction. Therefore, the concentration of intracellular free iron must be strictly controlled in bacteria. Riemerella anatipestifer (R. anatipestifer), a Gram-negative bacterium, encodes the iron uptake system. However, the iron homeostasis mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, it was shown that compared with the wild type R. anatipestifer CH-1, R. anatipestifer CH-1Δfur was more sensitive to streptonigrin, and this effect was alleviated when the bacteria were cultured in iron-depleted medium, suggesting that the fur mutant led to excess iron accumulation inside cells. Similarly, compared with R. anatipestifer CH-1∆recA, R. anatipestifer CH-1∆recAΔfur was more sensitive to H2O2-induced oxidative stress when the bacteria were grown in iron-rich medium rather than iron-depleted medium. Accordingly, it was shown that R. anatipestifer CH-1∆recAΔfur produced more intracellular ROS than R. anatipestifer CH-1∆recA in iron-rich medium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that R. anatipestifer CH-1 Fur suppressed the transcription of putative iron uptake genes through binding to their promoter regions. Finally, it was shown that compared with the wild type, R. anatipestifer CH-1Δfur was significantly attenuated in ducklings and that the colonization ability of R. anatipestifer CH-1Δfur in various tissues or organs was decreased. All these results suggested that Fur is important for iron homeostasis in R. anatipestifer and its pathogenic mechanism.

17.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 142, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), an important pseudocereal crop, has high economic value due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. However, dehulling of Tartary buckwheat is difficult owing to its thick and tough hull, which has greatly limited the development of the Tartary buckwheat processing industry. The construction of high-resolution genetic maps serves as a basis for identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and qualitative trait genes for agronomic traits. In this study, a recombinant inbred lines (XJ-RILs) population derived from a cross between the easily dehulled Rice-Tartary type and Tartary buckwheat type was genotyped using restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to construct a high-density SNP genetic map. Furthermore, QTLs for 1000-grain weight (TGW) and genes controlling hull type were mapped in multiple environments. RESULTS: In total, 4151 bin markers comprising 122,185 SNPs were used to construct the genetic linkage map. The map consisted of 8 linkage groups and covered 1444.15 cM, with an average distance of 0.35 cM between adjacent bin markers. Nine QTLs for TGW were detected and distributed on four loci on chromosome 1 and 4. A major locus detected in all three trials was mapped in 38.2-39.8 cM region on chromosome 1, with an LOD score of 18.1-37.0, and explained for 23.6-47.5% of the phenotypic variation. The genes controlling hull type were mapped to chromosome 1 between marker Block330 and Block331, which was closely followed by the major locus for TGW. The expression levels of the seven candidate genes controlling hull type present in the region between Block330 and Block336 was low during grain development, and no significant difference was observed between the parental lines. Six non-synonymous coding SNPs were found between the two parents in the region. CONCLUSIONS: We constructed a high-density SNP genetic map for the first time in Tartary buckwheat. The mapped major loci controlling TGW and hull type will be valuable for gene cloning and revealing the mechanism underlying grain development and easy dehulling, and marker-assisted selection in Tartary buckwheat.

18.
J Hazard Mater ; 413: 125295, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609865

RESUMO

Although the potential threats of metallic oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) to constructed wetland (CW) have been broadly reported, limited information is available regarding the long-term impact of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs) on CWs at the environmentally relevant concentrations. Here, we comprehensively elucidated the responses in the treatment performance, enzyme activities, microbial properties, metabolic pathways and functional genes of CWs to chronic exposure of NiO NPs (0.1 and 1 mg/L) for 120 days, with a quantitative analysis on the fate and migration of NiO NPs within CWs. Nitrogen removal evidently declined under the long-term exposure to NiO NPs. Besides, NiO NPs induced a deterioration in phosphorus removal, but gradually restored over time. The activities of dehydrogenase (DHA), phosphatase (PST), urease (URE), ammonia oxygenase (AMO) and nitrate reductase (NAR) were inhibited to some extent under NiO NPs stress. Furthermore, NiO NPs exposure reduced bacterial diversity, shifted microbial composition and obviously inhibited the transcription of the ammonia oxidizing and denitrifying functional genes. The results of nickel mass balance indicated that the major removal mechanism of NiO NPs in CWs was through substrate adsorption and plants uptake. Thus, the ecological impacts of prolonged NiO NPs exposure at environmental concentrations should not be neglected.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(8)2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558418

RESUMO

The expansion of anatomically modern humans (AMHs) from Africa around 65,000 to 45,000 y ago (ca. 65 to 45 ka) led to the establishment of present-day non-African populations. Some paleoanthropologists have argued that fossil discoveries from Huanglong, Zhiren, Luna, and Fuyan caves in southern China indicate one or more prior dispersals, perhaps as early as ca. 120 ka. We investigated the age of the human remains from three of these localities and two additional early AMH sites (Yangjiapo and Sanyou caves, Hubei) by combining ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis with a multimethod geological dating strategy. Although U-Th dating of capping flowstones suggested they lie within the range ca. 168 to 70 ka, analyses of aDNA and direct AMS 14C dating on human teeth from Fuyan and Yangjiapo caves showed they derive from the Holocene. OSL dating of sediments and AMS 14C analysis of mammal teeth and charcoal also demonstrated major discrepancies from the flowstone ages; the difference between them being an order of magnitude or more at most of these localities. Our work highlights the surprisingly complex depositional history recorded at these subtropical caves which involved one or more episodes of erosion and redeposition or intrusion as recently as the late Holocene. In light of our findings, the first appearance datum for AMHs in southern China should probably lie within the timeframe set by molecular data of ca. 50 to 45 ka.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e24232, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546043

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Primary extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) rarely occurs in childhood and adolescence. To the best of our knowledge, ENKTL of childhood in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has not been reported yet. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 12-year-old Chinese boy complained of abdominal pain and persistent fever for 1 month. DIAGNOSIS: Grossly an ulcerated tumor with perforation was located at the proximal ascending colon, 5 cm × 4 cm × 1.5 cm in diameter. The tumor was poorly circumscribed, tan-white and solid. Histological evaluation revealed medium-sized atypical lymphoid cells with large areas of necrosis distributed throughout all layers of the colon. Small blood vessels with destroyed walls were surrounded by lymphoid cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) highlighted tumor cells as strongly positive for CD3, CD56, CD5, CD2, CD8, CD4, CD43, T-cell restricted intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) and granzyme B. The proliferation index, measured by Ki-67 expression was high with 60%. The In situ hybridization (ISH) for EBER was positive. TCR was negative. Therefore, the final diagnosis was ENKTL of childhood in the colon. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent right hemicolectomy and ileocolostomy. OUTCOMES: We recommended further evaluation and treatment, but the patient and patient family rejected further treatment of his condition. The patient died within 1 month after being discharged from hospital as a result of his disease. LESSONS: ENKTL of childhood in the GI tract is extremely rare. Due to the non-specific clinical symptoms, it is easy it is easy not to think of this differential diagnosis at early stage. If patients have GI symptoms, ENKTL cannot easily be ignored. It is necessary to diagnose ENKTL of childhood in the GI tract by morphology and immunohistochemistry, and to differentiate from the GI T-cell lymphomas. We hope this case may serve as a reference improving clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/patologia , Criança , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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