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1.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35521897

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by progressive pancreatic ß-cell loss. Both a predisposing genetic background, that may encompass mutations in several genes, as well as exposure to environmental factors can affect the progression of autoimmune responses to multiple pancreatic islet autoantigens. Many genetic variants that increase the risk of T1D are found in immunity genes involved in sensing and responding to microorganisms. Although increasing evidence indicates that the gut microbiome composition may promote or prevent T1D development, little is known about the link between gut microbiota and T1D susceptibility genes in patients with T1D. Recent studies in the inbred non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, a widely used model of T1D, have suggested that many genetic loci can influence gut microbiome composition to modulate islet autoimmunity. This review summarizes evidence that examines the effect of host genes on gut microbiota diversity and function during T1D development. Knowledge of the host gene-gut microbiota interactions at play during T1D progression may help us identify new diagnostic and prognostic tools and help also design effective strategies for disease treatment.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 882796, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35515004

RESUMO

Duck plague (DP) is an acute infectious disease in the duck industry. The duck plague virus (DPV) is the pathogen, a subfamily of alphaherpesvirinae. gE is a type I membrane protein that contains three parts: an extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain. gE is the major virulence determinant of α-herpesvirus. However, the functions of the gE extracellular and cytoplasmic domains have not been reported in DPV. In this study, a gE extracellular domain deletion mutant and a gE cytoplasmic domain deletion mutant were constructed from DPV. Virus replication kinetics showed that the growth titers of both the gE ectodomain-deleted mutant virus and the gE cytoplasmic domain-deleted virus in DEFs were lower than that of the parental virus CHv-50. DPV CHv-gEΔET and DPV CHv-gEΔCT were continuously passed to the 20th passage in DEFs and the 10th in ducklings. The mutant virus DNA after passage was extracted for identification. The results showed that the gE ectodomain and gE cytoplasmic domain deletion mutant viruses have good genetic stability. The ducklings in each group (n=10) were inoculated with the same titers of DPV CHv-gEΔET, DPV CHv-gEΔCT, DPV CHv-ΔgE, and parental CHv-50, respectively. Clinical symptoms and serum antibody levels were detected after inoculation. The results showed that the virulence of DPV CHv-gEΔCT to ducklings was reduced compared with parental CHv-50, while the virulence of DPV CHv-gEΔET to ducklings was significantly reduced. 105 TCID50 DPV CHv-gEΔET or DPV CHv-ΔgE can induce ducklings to produce DPV-specific antibodies, protect the ducklings from virulent CHv challenge. Therefore, DPV CHv-gEΔET may serve as a promising vaccine candidate to prevent and control duck plague.


Assuntos
Alphaherpesvirinae , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Mardivirus , Alphaherpesvirinae/genética , Animais , Patos
3.
Chem Sci ; 13(15): 4341-4351, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509458

RESUMO

Interfacial water remains liquid and mobile much below 0 °C, imparting flexibility to the encapsulated materials to ensure their diverse functions at subzero temperatures. However, a united picture that can describe the dynamical differences of interfacial water on different materials and its role in imparting system-specific flexibility to distinct materials is lacking. By combining neutron spectroscopy and isotope labeling, we explored the dynamics of water and the underlying substrates independently below 0 °C across a broad range of materials. Surprisingly, while the function-related anharmonic dynamical onset in the materials exhibits diverse activation temperatures, the surface water presents a universal onset at a common temperature. Further analysis of the neutron experiment and simulation results revealed that the universal onset of water results from an intrinsic surface-independent relaxation: switching of hydrogen bonds between neighboring water molecules with a common energy barrier of ∼35 kJ mol-1.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 757490, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35548344

RESUMO

The root of Reynoutria multiflora Thunb. Moldenke (RM, syn.: Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.) has been widely used in TCM clinical practice for centuries. The raw R. multiflora (RRM) should be processed before use, in order to reduce toxicity and increase efficiency. However, the content of trans-2, 3, 5, 4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (trans-THSG), which is considered to be the main medicinal ingredient, decreases in this process. In order to understand the changes of stilbene glycosides raw R. multiflora (RRM) and processed R. multiflora (PRM), a simple and effective method was developed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole/electrostatic field orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Exactive plus orbitrap MS/MS). The content and quantity of stilbene glycosideshave undergone tremendous changes during the process. Seven parent nucleus of stilbene glycosides and 55 substituents, including 5-HMF and a series of derivatives, were identified in PM. 146 stilbene glycosides were detected in RRM, The number of detected compounds increased from 198 to 219 as the processing time increased from 4 to 32 h. Among the detected compounds, 102 stilbene glycosides may be potential new compounds. And the changing trend of the compounds can be summarized in 3 forms: gradually increased, gradually decreased, first increased and then decreased or decreased first. The content of trans-THSG was indeed decreased during processing, as it was converted into a series of derivatives through the esterification reaction with small molecular compounds. The clarification of secondary metabolite group can provide a basis for the follow-up study on the mechanism of pharmacodynamics and toxicity of PM, and for screening of relevant quality markers.

5.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 51, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550523

RESUMO

Live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) represent a promising approach for flavivirus vaccine development. In the present study, we demonstrated a method for generating flavivirus LAVs based on breaking spatially and temporally regulated C-prM cleavage to disturb the viral assembly process, using an avian flavivirus (Tembusu virus) as the model. Using reverse genetics technology, we successfully generated two recombinant viruses (CQW1-IRES-mC and CQW1-MINI-mC) with bicistronic genomic RNA in which native capsid genes were deleted and instead expressed in the 3'UTR under the control of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) or minimum IRES. Both viruses showed a significantly attenuated phenotype in vitro due to impaired viral assembly, and the engineered mutations were genetically stable in vitro within ten passages. Importantly, their virulence was also highly attenuated in ducklings and suckling mice and did not cause any overt clinical symptoms or mortality. In addition, a single dose of immunization with any of these mutant viruses could completely protect ducklings from a lethal challenge, and no viremia was detected after immunization and challenge, even though the viruses induced a relatively moderate immune response in terms of the T-lymphocytes proliferative response and the level of neutralization antibodies compared with that obtained with the wild-type virus. Besides, a recombinant virus ectopically expressing the prM-E protein was also generated in the present study, but this virus was too attenuated with severely decreased proliferation. Our results indicated that the use of a recombinant flavivirus that ectopically expresses structural proteins could be an effective and universal method for flavivirus LAVs development.

6.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 815131, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574111

RESUMO

Gravity is known as an important environmental factor involved in the regulation of plant architecture. To identify genes related to the gravitropism of Tartary buckwheat, a creeping line was obtained and designated as lazy1 from the mutant bank by 60Co-γ ray radiation. Genetic analysis indicated that the creeping phenotype of lazy1 was attributed to a single recessive locus. As revealed by the horizontal and inverted suspension tests, lazy1 was completely lacking in shoot negative gravitropism. The creeping growth of lazy1 occurred at the early seedling stage, which could not be recovered by exogenous heteroauxin, hormodin, α-rhodofix, or gibberellin. Different from the well-organized and equivalent cell elongation of wild type (WT), lazy1 exhibited dilated, distorted, and abnormally arranged cells in the bending stem. However, no statistical difference of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels was found between the far- and near-ground bending sides in lazy1, which suggests that the asymmetric cell elongation of lazy1 was not induced by auxin gradient. Whereas, lazy1 showed up-expressed gibberellin-regulated genes by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) as well as significantly higher levels of gibberellin, suggesting that gibberellin might be partly involved in the regulation of creeping growth in lazy1. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) identified a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to gravitropism at stages I (before bending), II (bending), and III (after bending) between WT and lazy1. Venn diagram indicated that only Pectate lyase 5 was down-expressed at stages I [Log2 fold change (Log2FC): -3.20], II (Log2FC: -4.97), and III (Log2FC: -1.23) in lazy1, compared with WT. Gene sequencing revealed that a fragment deletion occurred in the coding region of Pectate lyase 5, which induced the destruction of a pbH domain in Pectate lyase 5 of lazy1. qRT-PCR indicated that Pectate lyase 5 was extremely down-expressed in lazy1 at stage II (0.02-fold of WT). Meanwhile, lazy1 showed the affected expression of lignin- and cellulose-related genes and cumulatively abnormal levels of pectin, lignin, and cellulose. These results demonstrate the possibility that Pectate lyase 5 functions as the key gene that could mediate primary cell wall metabolism and get involved in the asymmetric cell elongation regulation of lazy1.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 837: 155766, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533860

RESUMO

The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) driven by NO2- or Fe(III) alone was limited by slow electron delivery and ineffective enrichment of microbes. The flexible coupling between Fe(III) and NO2- potentially cooperated to accelerate AOM. One negative control was fed CH4 and NO2-, and four treatment reactors were supplemented with CH4, NO2- and ferric citrate (FC)/ferric chloride (FCH)/ chelate iron (FCI)/ferric hydroxide (FH) and were anaerobically operated for 1200 days to verify the synergy and promicrobial roles of Fe(III) and NO2- in improving AOM. The changes in gas and ion profiles were observed in the reactors, and microbial development was studied using 16S rRNA gene sequencing with the Illumina platform. The results indicated that the combined Fe(III) and NO2- treatment improved AOM, and their synergy followed the order of FC > FCI > FCH > FH. The biochemical reaction of Fe3+ with NO2- and its secondary process accelerated electron transfer to microbial cells and subsequently enhanced AOM in the reactors. The total organic carbon (TOC) content, NH4+ content, NO3- content, and pH value altered the dominant bacteria the most in the FC reactor, FCI, FCH, and FH groups, respectively. Several dominant bacterial species were enriched, whereas only two archaea were highly concentrated in the FC and FCI groups. Only bacteria were detected in the FCH group, and archaea contributed substantially to the FH group. These findings contribute to an improved understanding of the interactions among nitrogen, iron and CH4 that are paramount to accelerating the process of AOM for engineering applications.

8.
Anal Chem ; 94(15): 5946-5952, 2022 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35373557

RESUMO

Air pollution is a serious problem. Refractory thiophene sulfides, which cause air pollution, bring great challenges to their rapid and accurate identification. In this work, we propose a fluorescent sensor array based on two perovskite nanocrystals (CsPbBr3 NCs and CsPbBr3/SiO2 NCs) to distinguish different thiophene sulfides. The hydrogen bonding force between the thiophenics of thiophene sulfides and the amino groups of the perovskite NCs results in the weakening of the fluorescence signals of the perovskite NCs. The diverse interactions between thiophene sulfides and two perovskite NCs provide rich information, which can be obtained on the sensor array and identified by linear discriminant analysis. Five thiophene sulfides (i.e., benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, 2-methylbenzothiophene, 3-methylthiophene, and thiophene) were discriminated by the sensor array at concentrations of 10-50 ppm. The effectiveness of the sensor array was further verified in the discrimination of blinded samples, in which all 10 samples were correctly identified. In addition, it is gratifying that even binary mixtures of thiophene sulfides could be distinguished by the proposed sensor array.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Dióxido de Silício , Fluorescência , Nanopartículas/química , Sulfetos , Tiofenos
9.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(6): 354, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433933

RESUMO

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 3rd most common malignancy globally, and its disease burden is increasing rapidly in China. But CRC patients' knowledge and awareness of CRC have not yet been examined, which could facilitate the identification of targeted population from public for intervention. Methods: A nationwide multicenter cross-sectional survey was conducted in 19 tertiary hospitals (10 cancer hospitals and 9 general hospitals) from March 2020 to March 2021 in China. During study period, all Stage III and IV CRC patients were invited to complete a semi-structured survey that had been designed to collect information about their socio-demographic characteristics, and knowledge and awareness of CRC risk factors and screening. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with their knowledge and awareness. Results: In total, 4,589 advanced CRC patients were enrolled in this study, of whom, 46.2% were from tertiary cancer hospitals, and 59.5% were male. Patients had a mean age of 60.1±11.6 years. Before diagnosis, 65.1% of the patients had no related knowledge of the CRC risk factors, and 84.9% were unaware of the CRC screening-related information. Only 30.4% of patients had actively sought to acquire CRC-related knowledge before diagnosis. The 3 most common knowledge sources were relatives or friends who had been diagnosed with CRC (13.2%), popular science television/broadcast shows (12.9%), and community publicity and education (9.6%). Generally, knowledge and awareness were positively associated with better education level [odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.49 to 2.54, P<0.001], annual household income ranged from 50,000 Chinese Yuan (CNY) to 100,000 CNY (OR =1.32, P<0.001), being manual laborer (OR =1.25, P<0.001) and being white-collar worker (OR =1.47, P<0.001). Conclusions: Advanced CRC patients' knowledge and awareness of CRC were severely limited before diagnosis. Thus, those who had limited knowledge and awareness should has a priority for intervention.

10.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(6): 342, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433943

RESUMO

Background: The imbalanced allocation of medical resources leads to the occurrence of cross-regional healthcare-seeking in China. Due to the low cure rate, advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) patients may seek cross-regional healthcare for high-level medical facilities. Investigating status of cross-regional healthcare-seeking and its associated factors among advanced CRC patients is important for policymakers to understand access to health services and improve the quality of oncology services. Methods: From March 2020 to March 2021, a cross­sectional, nation-wide, hospital-based, multi-center survey was conducted. Nineteen hospitals in seven regions were selected by multi-stage stratified sampling. All eligible CRC patients in the selected hospitals were invited to participate in the current study. The outcome variable, cross-regional healthcare-seeking, was defined as seeking health facilities outside the local administration policy of medical insurance. The demographics, clinical information, and medical treatment history of each eligible CRC patient in stage III or IV, were collected through the patients' self-reporting or medical records by trained interviewers. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were used to explore the associated factors of cross-regional healthcare-seeking. All statistical analyses were conducted using SAS 9.4. Results: A total of 4,589 individuals with advanced CRC were included. The average age of the patients was 60.1±11.6 years, and 59.5% were males. About 37.5% of the patients suffered from metastatic CRC at first diagnosis. Approximately 36.5% of the patients had sought cross-regional health care previously, and among them, 31.9% had encountered problems. The most common problems included complicated procedures (95.3%), unreimbursed expenses of outpatient service (71.0%), and reimbursement delay (59.4%). Logistic regression analysis showed that patients who completed undergraduate or above [odds ratio (OR) =1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.73], had an annual household income of more than 100,000 Chinse Yuan (CNY) (OR =1.46, 95% CI: 1.21-1.78), and had metastasis at diagnosis (OR =1.33, 95% CI: 1.18-1.51) were more likely to seek cross-regional health care. Conclusions: About one third of advanced CRC patients seek cross-regional health care, and 31.9% had encountered problems. There is a need to simplify procedures of reimbursement, optimize direct settlement system and referral mechanisms in order to improve the equality of health services.

11.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(6): 328, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433947

RESUMO

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in China, and most CRC patients have already reached an advanced stage by the time of initial diagnosis. Due to the loss of health as a result of cancer, it has consequence on the treatment which may affect the psychophysical and social impairment of CRC patients. These indicators (psychophysical, function and social impairment) affect the health-related quality of life (HRQOL). There are limited studies that focus on advanced CRC patients in China. This study aimed to assess the HRQOL and its associated factors of advanced CRC patients in China. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, nationwide, hospital-based, and multi-center survey. According to the traditional administrative district definition, we selected 19 hospitals in 7 regions by multi-stage stratified sampling in China. For each eligible CRC patient with stage III or IV in the selected hospitals, socio-demographics, clinical information, and HRQOL were collected based on patients' self-reporting and/or medical records between March 2020 and March 2021. Patients completed the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Colorectal (FACT-C) plus-traditional Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ)-9. Results: A total of 4,589 CRC patients (mean age 60.1 years, including 2,730 males and 1,859 females) were included. The total score of HRQOL in population was 128.2±24.70. There were significant differences in the overall score of HRQOL in gender, education level, occupation, region, disease type, and disease stage (P<0.05). The score of HRQOL was better in males, undergraduates and above, unemployed/laid-off, and southwestern and central China. Multivariate analysis showed that education level, occupation, location, number of hospitals visited and treatment methods, and gender were associated with utilities of CRC patients. Conclusions: The HRQOL is an important outcome measure for CRC patients. The HRQOL scores differed according to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and findings of these factors were associated with education level, occupation, region, number of visited and treatment methods, and gender.

12.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(6): 326, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433962

RESUMO

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) poses a significant public health burden worldwide. The investigation of the choice of medical facility among CRC patients is helpful for understanding access to health services and improving quality of oncology services to optimize health outcomes. However, there are limited studies on the topic. The objective of this study was to investigate the choice of medical facility and its associated factors among advanced CRC patients. Methods: This cross-sectional multi-center study included a total of 4,589 individuals with advanced CRC from 19 hospitals in 7 geographic regions in China. Participants were recruited by multi-stage stratified sampling. In the first stage, two cities in each geographic region were selected through simple random sampling. In the second stage, one tertiary cancer hospital and/or one general hospital were selected in each city. Data on medical experience and demographics were collected via a questionnaire during face-to-face interviews. Explanatory variables were selected based on the Andersen behavioral model. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the factors associated with the level of medical facility for the first treatment. Results: Hospitals at the prefecture level were the most common medical facility sought by advanced CRC patients for initial medical care (44.9%), the first definite diagnosis (46.3%), the first treatment (39.5%), and regular follow-up (38.9%). However, the first priority was changed to hospitals at the national level for the second treatment (38.0%) and after recurrence and metastasis (45.9%). Female {odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.71] to 1.41 (95% CI: 1.07-1.87)} and relatively well-educated individuals [ORs ranged from 1.74 (95% CI: 1.20-2.53) to 7.26 (95% CI: 4.18-12.60)] preferred to seek higher-level health facilities. Individuals with metastatic CRC at diagnosis were more likely to visit hospitals in provincial capitals versus hospitals at the county level (OR =1.68, 95% CI: 1.27-2.22). Individuals with "good" health-related quality of life (HRQOL) (OR =0.63, 95% CI: 0.49-0.81) were less likely to seek hospitals at the prefecture level compared with hospitals at the county level. Conclusions: There is a need to improve the oncology services for CRC patients, including the optimization of referral reform policy and the promotion of quality of primary healthcare service. The results may provide evidence to fill the policy-implementation gap and potentially contribute to the improvement of the efficiency of the healthcare system.

13.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(6): 356, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433986

RESUMO

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) causes a substantial disease burden in China. Information on the medical expenditure of CRC patients is critical for decision-makers to allocate medical resources reasonably, however, relevant data is limited in China, especially advanced CRC. The aim of this survey was to quantify the out-of-pocket medical expenditure of advanced CRC and explore associated factors. Methods: A nation-wide, multi-center, cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 2020 to March 2021. Nineteen hospitals in seven geographical regions were selected by multi-stage stratified sampling. For each eligible CRC patient with stage III or IV disease in the selected hospitals, the socio-demographics, clinical information, and range of out-of-pocket medical expenditure data were collected based on patients' self-reporting or medical records. Multivariable logistic analysis was used to explore associated factors of medical expenditure. All statistical analyses were conducted using SAS 9.4. Results: The mean age of the 4,428 advanced CRC patients included was 59.5±11.6 years, 59.6% were male, and 80.1% of patients were in stage III or IV at the time of diagnosis. Besides, 57.2% of patients had an annual household income of less than 50,000 Chinese Yuan (CNY), 40.9% of patients had an out-of-pocket medical expenditure of 50,000-99,999 CNY. As for the affordability of medical expenditure, 33.2% could afford 50,000-99,999 CNY. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who were in the southern [odds ratio (OR): 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-2.03] and southwestern (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.25-1.93), were in stage III at the time of diagnosis (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.13-1.57), visited three or more hospitals (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.04-1.52), had sought cross-regional health care (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.40-1.83), used genetic testing (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.10-1.45) and targeted drugs (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.79-2.51) had higher out-of-pocket medical expenditure. Conclusions: Patients with advanced CRC had a high out-of-pocket medical expenditure. It is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of CRC to reduce the disease burden; also, it is critical to deepen the reform of the medical system, increase proportion of medical insurance reimbursement, and remove barriers to cross-regional health care.

14.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(6): 324, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35434030

RESUMO

Background: Biomarkers are a key tool in early detection, prognostication, survival, and predicting treatment response of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, little is known about biomarker testing for CRC patients in real-life clinical practice in China. This study aimed to address the usage of biomarker testing and analyze factors related to its acceptance among Chinese patients with advanced CRC. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional, hospital-based clinical epidemiology study was conducted from March 2020 to March 2021. Nineteen hospitals were selected in seven geographical regions of China using stratified, multistage, nonrandomized cluster sampling. Data on demographics and clinical characteristics of each eligible CRC patient in stage III or IV diseases were recorded based on the patients' self-reporting and/or medical records. In addition, information on whether biomarker testing [RAS, BRAF, and microsatellite instability (MSI)] was performed, the results and timing for performing biomarker testing, and the reasons for refusing biomarker testing were also recorded. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were conducted to explore the potential factors of biomarker testing. Results: A total of 4,526 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 41.4%, 36.1%, and 28.2% underwent RAS, BRAF, and MSI testing, respectively. RAS, BRAF, and high-level MSI (MSI-high) mutation rates in Chinese patients with advanced CRC were 37.0%, 9.9%, and 8.1%, respectively. The logistic regression analysis revealed that the treating hospital, age at diagnosis, education, family income, tumor site, history of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and metastases were dependent factors affecting the utilization of biomarker testing in advanced CRC in China (P<0.005). Conclusions: The biomarker testing rate, especially MSI testing, is less prevalent in clinical practice for patients with advanced CRC in China. Our findings may guide the formulation of biomarker testing of CRC strategies in China and other low-income countries.

15.
Vet Microbiol ; 269: 109433, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489297

RESUMO

Flavivirus nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) harbors the N-terminal methyltransferase (MTase) and C-terminal polymerase RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The intramolecular NS5 features an integral MTase and RdRp interface with two components: a six-residue hydrophobic network and a GTR linker. Herein, the determinants of the MTase-RdRp interface and flavivirus substituted GTR linker were explored in TMUV replication and proliferation. First, the NanoLuc® Binary Technology (NanoBiT) and coimmunoprecipitation assays (Co-IP) methods confirmed the interaction between the MTase and RdRp domains of TMUV NS5. To screen for an optimal orientation for reporter gene fusion to the protein of interest, the signal activity of eight combinations of MTase and RdRp was explored. Intriguingly, all the combinations with the reporter gene fused to the C-terminal of MTase (1.1 C/2.1 C MTase) could barely detect any positive signal, suggesting a role for the GTR linker of the MTase C-terminal in MTase-RdRp affinity. Based on the flavivirus NS5 homologous interplay, we introduced alanine mutations into the MTase-RdRp interface of TMUV NS5. However, no single or pairwise mutation was found to abort the NS5 intramolecular interaction. Then, a mutated replicon and infectious clone were constructed to analyze the replication ability and properties of the recombinant virus. The mutant replicons of MTase F113A and M115A replicated to comparable extent as the wild type (WT). However, the replication level of the mutant MTase W121A was impaired without an obvious decrease in proliferation and virulence. Both the RdRp F351A and P585A mutants could replicate and proliferate well. Notably, the RdRp F467A virus was attenuated and did not strikingly impair the MTase-RdRp interaction. Furthermore, the TMUV was specifically compatible with the substituted NS5 with a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) GTR linker. Compensatory mutations were observed in the context of a defective MTase-RdRp interface after several passages of the rescued mutants in BHK-21 cells. A greater understanding of the molecular mechanism of the NS5 protein controlling duck TMUV replication will facilitate the design of novel therapies.

16.
Poult Sci ; 101(6): 101863, 2022 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489250

RESUMO

To investigate the pivotal roles of the duck plague virus (DPV) tegument protein UL14 in viral replication, we generated 2 mutated viruses of DPV by using the bacterial artifcial chromosome system, the UL14-null mutant virus (CHv-BAC-ΔUL14) and the corresponding revertant virus (CHv-BAC-ΔUL14R). We found that the CHv-BAC-ΔUL14 viruses exhibited impaired virion morphogenesis in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore, CHv-BAC-ΔUL14 exhibited a plaque size reduction in duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). Finally, CHv-BAC-ΔUL14 exhibited a significant viral growth defect. Taken together, our findings suggest that DPV UL14 protein regulates viral morphogenesis for efficient viral replication.

17.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(6): 2277-2291, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35414788

RESUMO

RORA plays an important role in regulating circadian rhythms, inflammation, metabolism and cellular development. Herein, we explore the roles of Rora in B cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as in Ph+ B-ALL. By using Roraloxp/loxp Mx-1-Cre mice, Rora was deleted in hematopoietic cells post Pipc induction. Rora deficiency mice were associated with an obvious accumulation of B cells in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and spleen. On the other hand, activation of Rora with Cholesterol sulfate (CS) was associated with decreased B cell numbers. RNA-seq analysis revealed that the transcription level of Lmo1 was decreased in Rora deficient B cells. Moreover, the expression of RORA was shown to be decreased in Ph+ B-ALL cells compared to peripheral blood derived B cells from healthy donors. The overexpression of Rora in BaF3 cells with BCR/ABL1 was also associated with impeded the cell growth and an increased apoptotic rate compared to cells transduced with BCR/ABL1 alone. The co-expression of BCR/ABL1 and Rora induced B-ALL mouse model was associated with the significant inhibition of BCR/ABL1-transformed cell growth and prolonged the survival of the diseased mice. These results suggest a novel role for Rora in B cell development and Ph+ leukemogenesis.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl , Animais , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Camundongos
18.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 30(2): 461-465, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression and clinical significance of miR-424 and miR-765 in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). METHODS: The eighty-one MM patients admitted to Sanya Central Hospital from January 2017 to July 2020 were divided into phase Ⅰ (n=16), phase Ⅱ (n=25) and phase Ⅲ (n=40) according to the international staging system, while they were divided into IgG type (n=46), IgA type (n=19), light chain type (n=10) and non secretory type (n=6) according to the results of immunotyping. Another 50 healthy normal persons in the same period were selected as the control group. The levels of serum miR-424, miR-765 and Cystatin C (Cys-C) were measured in each group. The diagnostic value of serum miR-424, miR-765 and Cys-C in MM was estimated by ROC curve. Pearson correlation was used to analyze the correlation between serum levels of miR-424, miR-765 and Cys-C in MM patients. RESULTS: The serum levels of miR-424 (2.74±1.30 vs 0.85±0.26), miR-765 (2.05±0.82 vs 0.63±0.17) and Cys-C ï¼»(2.18±0.86 vs 0.72±0.15) mg/Lï¼½ in MM group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.001). The serum levels of miR-424 (5.08±2.36 vs 1.12±0.34, 2.24±0.93), miR-765 (3.50±1.52 vs 0.74±0.20, 1.78±0.65) and Cys-C ï¼»(3.81±1.30 vs 0.92±0.24, 1.68±0.55) mg/Lï¼½ in MM patients at stage Ⅲ were significantly higher than those in patients at stage Ⅰ and Ⅱ (P<0.001). Also the serum levels of the three molecules in phase II were significantly higher than those in phase I (P<0.001). The serum levels of miR-424 and miR-765 in MM patients at IgG type were significantly higher than those at IgA, light chain and non secretory types (P<0.001). ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve (0.952,95%CI: 0.890-0.993) was greatest for the combination of miR-424, miR-765 and Cys-C for diagnosis of MM, and its sensitivity and specificity were 95.0% and 87.2%. The results of correlation analysis showed that the serum levels of miR-424 and miR-765 were positively correlated with Cys-C (r=0.795,r=0.760). CONCLUSION: The serum levels of miR-424 and miR-765 in MM patients are significantly increased in the pattern increasing with the progression of MM stage. Combined with Cys-C, miR-424 and miR-765 have high value in the diagnosis of MM.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Mieloma Múltiplo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A , Imunoglobulina G , Curva ROC
19.
Reprod Biol ; 22(2): 100639, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429809

RESUMO

Missed abortion, one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality, is associated with impaired trophoblast function. Opa interacting protein 5 (OIP5) interacts with outer membrane proteins, Opa, to play an important role in mitosis and tumorigenesis. The role of OIP5 in missed abortion was investigated in this study. Firstly, the expression of OIP5 in villous samples from patients with missed abortion was compared with women with normal pregnancies. Result showed that OIP5 was down-regulated in the placental villi from patients with missed abortion. Secondly, human first-trimester extravillous trophoblast-derived cell line (HTR-8/SVneo) was transfected with shRNA targeting OIP5 (shOIP5) or pcDNA-OIP5 (OIP5). Data from MTT and flow cytometry assays demonstrated that knockdown of OIP5 reduced number of viable cells in HTR-8/SVneo, and promoted the cell apoptosis. However, over-expression of OIP5 increased the number of viable cells and suppressed the cell apoptosis in HTR-8/SVneo. Moreover, cell migration of HTR-8/SVneo was inhibited by silencing of OIP5, and OIP5 over-expression enhanced protein expression of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP) 2/9. Lastly, OIP5 contributed to phosphorylation of STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) in HTR-8/SVneo. Inhibition of STAT3 attenuated OIP5 over-expression-induced increase in number of viable cells and migration in HTR-8/SVneo. In conclusion, OIP5 contributed to the proliferation and migration of trophoblast cell through activation of STAT3 signaling.

20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 207: 114186, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35316758

RESUMO

The level of DNA methylation has been reported to be closely associated with various carcinomas and is dynamically regulated by several demethylases. However, current demethylase detection methods are mainly antibody-based, which detect the demethylase concentrations, while the actual numbers of catalytically active demethylase remain unknown. Thus, we have developed an activity assay based on epigenetically modified DNAzymes (EMOzymes), and CRISPR/Cas12a facilitated cascade signal amplification. We have ultrasensitively quantitated the activity of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT), a key demethylase that contributes to the chemoresistance to alkylation agents in cancer therapy, with an estimated limit of detection of 0.054 nM. This approach opens a new avenue for sensitively profiling the activity of many disease-related demethylases.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , DNA Catalítico , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Metilação de DNA , DNA Catalítico/metabolismo
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