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1.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272505

RESUMO

Amyloid-ß peptide (Aß) aggregation is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The imbalance between the production and clearance of Aß results in the accumulation and aggregation of Aß in the brain. Thus far, few drugs are available for AD treatment, but exercise has been recognized for its cognition-enhancing properties in AD patients. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our recent study showed that long-term running exercise could activate the lysosomal function in the brains of mice. In this study, we investigated whether exercise could reduce Aß accumulation by activating lysosomal function in APP/PSEN1 transgenic mice. Started at the age of 5 months, the mice were trained with a running wheel at the speed of 18 r/min, 40 min/d, 6 d/week for 5 months, and were killed at the end of the 10th month, then brain tissue was collected for biochemical analyses. The cognitive ability was assessed in the 9th month. We showed that long-term exercise significantly mitigated cognitive dysfunction in AD mice, accompanied by the enhanced lysosomal function and the clearance of Aß in the brain. Exercise significantly promoted the nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB (TFEB), and increased the interaction between nuclear TFEB with AMPK-mediated acetyl-CoA synthetase 2, thus enhancing transcription of the genes associated with the biogenesis of lysosomes. Exercise also raised the levels of mature cathepsin D and cathepsin L, suggesting that more Aß peptides could be degraded in the activated lysosomes. This study demonstrates that exercise may improve the cognitive dysfunction of AD by enhancing lysosomal function.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209973

RESUMO

In maize, the ear shank is a short branch that connects the ear to the stalk. The length of the ear shank mainly affects the transportation of photosynthetic products to the ear, and also influences the dehydration of the grain by adjusting the tightness of the husks. However, the molecular mechanisms of maize shank elongation have rarely been described. It has been reported that the maize ear shank length is a quantitative trait, but its genetic basis is still unclear. In this study, RNA-seq was performed to explore the transcriptional dynamics and determine the key genes involved in maize shank elongation at four different developmental stages. A total of 8145 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 729 transcription factors (TFs). Some important genes which participate in shank elongation were detected via function annotation and temporal expression pattern analyses, including genes related to signal transduction hormones (auxin, brassinosteroids, gibberellin, etc.), xyloglucan and xyloglucan xyloglucosyl transferase, and transcription factor families. The results provide insights into the genetic architecture of maize ear shanks and developing new varieties with ideal ear shank lengths, enabling adjustments for mechanized harvesting in the future.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228426

RESUMO

Photocatalytic artificial fixation of N2 to NH3 occurs over NaYF4:Yb,Tm (NYF) upconversion nanoparticles (NPs) decorated carbon nitride nanotubes with nitrogen vacancies (NYF/NV-CNNTs) in water under near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation. NYF NPs with a particle size of ca. 20 nm were uniformly distributed on the surface of NV-CNNTs. The NYF/NV-CNNTs with 15 wt % NYF exhibited the highest NH3 production yield of 1.72 mmol L-1 gcat-1, corresponding to an apparent quantum efficiency of 0.50% under NIR light illumination, and about three times higher the activity of the bare CNNTs under UV-filtered solar light. 15N isotope-labeling NMR results confirm that the N source of ammonia originates from the photochemical N2 reduction. The spectroelectrochemical measurements reveal that NVs can greatly facilitate the photogenerated electron transfer without energy loss, while the presence of NYF NPs shifts both the deep trap state and the edge of conduction band toward a lower potential. Moreover, NYF NPs endow the photocatalyst with a NIR light absorption via the fluorescence resonance energy transfer process, and NVs have the ability to enhance the active sites for a stronger adsorption of N2 and decrease the surface quenching effect of NYF NPs, which thus can promote the energy migration within the heterojunctions. This work opens the way toward full solar spectrum photocatalysis for sustainable ammonia synthesis under aqueous system.

4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 641997, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277463

RESUMO

Background: Gut microbiota plays an important role in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases. However, the complex pathogenesis of Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (HSP) remains elusive. This study aimed to characterize the gut microbiota in HSP patients and explore the potential association between gut microbiota composition and phenotypic changes in HSP. Methods: 16SrRNA gene sequencing and bioinformatic analyses were performed using total DNA extracted from the fecal microbiota of 34 children with HSP, including 18 primary cases, 16 recurrent cases, and 23 healthy children. Results: The diversity indexes showed significant differences in the microbial community among the primary HSP groups, the recurrent HSP group and healthy controls. The abundance of Escherichia-Shigella in the recurrent HSP group was significantly higher than that in the primary HSP group, and the constructed ROC curve had an AUC value of 0.750. According to the Spearman correlation analysis, the abundance of Bacteroides was positively associated with the serum IgG level in children with HSP, while the abundance of Lachnoclostridium was negatively correlated with the complement component 3 (C3). The diversity indexes of gut microbiota in the HSP group with abdominal symptoms were higher than those in the HSP group without GI involvement, and also higher than those in the healthy control group. In the HSP group with GI involvement, the abundance of Faecalibacterium was decreased, while the abundance of Streptococcus and Fusobacteria was increased, compared to the HSP group without GI involvement. Conclusions: The gut microbiota of children with HSP was different from that of healthy children. The genus Escherichia-Shigella has a diagnostic value for HSP recurrence. Bacteroides and Lachnoclostridium may affect IgG and complement C3 levels in children with HSP. Abdominal symptoms in HSP children were related to gut microbiota (Streptococcus and butyric acid-producing bacteria).

5.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 604: 469-479, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274711

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Water contamination from heavy metal ions is a major global environmental concern. Adsorbents based on biomaterials have been demonstrated to possess remarkable removal efficiency for metal ions, but the adsorption model of biosorbents is not clear and much efforts should be devoted to study the adsorption behaviors and understand the adsorption mechanism. EXPERIMENTS: The multifunctional rhodamine-modified chitosan (RMC) hydrogel for Hg2+ adsorption with fluorescent turn-ON properties was fabricated through grafting the rhodamine-modified poly (ethylene glycol) benzaldehyde (RM-PEG) onto the hydrogel network serving as the fluorescence/colorimetric sensing receptor. The adsorption behaviors and colorimetric sensing mechanism of RMC hydrogel towards Hg2+ were investigated in detail. FINDINGS: RMC hydrogel can remove more than 96.5% of Hg2+ from aqueous solution with significant fluorescence response and colorimetric change. The high adsorption selectivity and colorimetric sensing mechanism of RMC hydrogel towards Hg2+ can be explained by the hard and soft acid/base (HSAB) theory. The O atom in hydroxyl and carbonyl groups together with the N atom in amine/imine groups of RMC hydrogel play a vital role in the adsorption of Hg2+, while the colorimetric response and fluorescence enhancement of the hydrogel after adsorption are attributed to the specific spiro-lactam structure of rhodamine moieties. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated and well described by Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Furthermore, RM-PEG showed low cytotoxicity towards mouse embryonic fibroblast cells and RMC hydrogel can be used as a fluorescent pH indicator from 4.2 to 7.4, demonstrating the potential applications of RMC hydrogel in biological diagnosis.

6.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(5)2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227673

RESUMO

The estrogen 17ß­estradiol has been proven to serve an indispensable role in the occurrence and development of adenomyosis (ADS). The let­7a/Lin28B axis can control cell proliferation by acting as a tumor­inhibiting axis in numerous types of cancer. However, its role in ADS remains unknown. The present study aimed i) to elucidate the role of let­7a in regulating the proliferation of human uterine junctional zone (JZ) smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in ADS, ii) to evaluate whether 17ß­estradiol modifies the expression levels of let­7a and Lin28B in JZ SMCs in ADS, and iii) to establish how 17ß­estradiol affects the function of the let­7a/Lin28B axis in the proliferation of JZ SMCs in ADS. A total of 36 premenopausal women with ADS were enrolled as the experimental group and 34 women without ADS were recruited as the control group. Reverse transcription­quantitative PCR was used to evaluate the expression level of let­7a, and western blotting was performed to determine the Lin28B expression levels. Lentiviral null vector, let­7a overexpression lentiviral vector GV280 and let­7a inhibition lentiviral vector GV369 were used to infect cells to alter the expression of let­7a for further functional experiments. 17ß­estradiol and Cell Counting Kit­8 assays were conducted to determine how 17ß­estradiol affects the function of the let­7a/Lin28B axis in the proliferation of JZ SMCs in ADS. The results demonstrated that let­7a was downregulated and Lin28B was upregulated in the JZ SMCs of ADS compared with the control cells (P<0.0001). Moreover, a lower expression of let­7a led to faster proliferation of JZ SMCs (P<0.05), and 17ß­estradiol affected the let­7a/Lin28B axis to accelerate the proliferation of JZ SMCs in ADS (P<0.05). These data suggested that 17ß­estradiol collaborates with the let­7a/Lin28B axis to affect the development of ADS.

7.
J Oleo Sci ; 70(7): 955-964, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193671

RESUMO

Inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress play a major role in cancer expansion. Boeravinone B (BB) had already proofed their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects against various animal models of disease. In this experimental research, the chemoprotective effect of BB against skin cancer caused by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/croton oil was investigated and the possible mechanism was explored. Swiss albino mice were used in the current protocol. 100 µg/100 mL acetone, DMBA was used for induction the skin cancer and, after the 2-week repeated dose of croton oil (1% in acetone) give to the mice till end of the protocol. The mice were received the oral dose of BB (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, body weight). The body weight and tumor incidence were estimated at regular time interval. At the end of the protocol, the antioxidant, phase I, phase II, pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators were scrutinized. The mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators were estimated. BB treatment significantly (p < 0.001) reduced tumor incidence, tumor yield, average latency period and tumor burden in a dose-dependent manner. BB treatment considerably (p < 0.001) reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and increased the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) in DMBA/croton-induced skin cancer. BB treatment significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the level of phase I and phase II enzymes. BB treatment considerably reduced the cytokines include tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-18 (IL-18), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and inflammatory parameters such as transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nuclear kappa B factor (NF-κB) and cycloxgenase-2 (COX-2) in DMBA/croton-induced skin cancer mice. BB considerably (p < 0.001) reduced the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators. The results of the current investigation suggest that oral administration of boeravinone B significantly reduced skin cancer in mice via reduction of inflammatory reaction.

8.
ISA Trans ; 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215440

RESUMO

This paper investigates the consensus problem for a class of multi-agent systems with P-one-sided Lipschitz nonlinearity. This nonlinearity offers a significant extension to application range of existing consensus control protocol design methods, which removes the assumption of the quadratic inner-boundedness. To solve this problem, a strongly connected graph topology is applied within the consensus protocol design framework. Moreover, the leader-following scenario is addressed under the graph topology. Under the above objectives, sufficient conditions are employed to yield consensus. Two examples are performed to illustrate the properties.

9.
Syst Biol ; 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143216

RESUMO

Genome sequencing projects routinely generate haploid consensus sequences from diploid genomes, which are effectively chimeric sequences with the phase at heterozygous sites resolved at random. The impact of phasing errors on phylogenomic analyses under the multispecies coalescent (MSC) model is largely unknown. Here we conduct a computer simulation to evaluate the performance of four phase-resolution strategies (the true phase resolution, the diploid analytical integration algorithm which averages over all phase resolutions, computational phase resolution using the program PHASE, and random resolution) on estimation of the species tree and evolutionary parameters in analysis of multi-locus genomic data under the MSC model. We found that species tree estimation is robust to phasing errors when species divergences were much older than average coalescent times but may be affected by phasing errors when the species tree is shallow. Estimation of parameters under the MSC model with and without introgression is affected by phasing errors. In particular, random phase resolution causes serious overestimation of population sizes for modern species and biased estimation of cross-species introgression probability. In general the impact of phasing errors is greater when the mutation rate is higher, the data include more samples per species, and the species tree is shallower with recent divergences. Use of phased sequences inferred by the PHASE program produced small biases in parameter estimates. We analyze two real datasets, one of East Asian brown frogs and another of Rocky Mountains chipmunks, to demonstrate that heterozygote phase-resolution strategies have similar impacts on practical data analyses. We suggest that genome sequencing projects should produce unphased diploid genotype sequences if fully phased data are too challenging to generate, and avoid haploid consensus sequences, which have heterozygous sites phased at random. In case the analytical integration algorithm is computationally unfeasible, computational phasing prior to population genomic analyses is an acceptable alternative.

10.
Chemosphere ; 284: 131307, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182281

RESUMO

Mechanochemical destruction of organic pollutants by high energy milling with inorganic reagents is considered a promising non-thermal technology to detoxify hazardous waste. However, due to complex nature of the physicochemical phenomena involved, pollutant destruction kinetics heavily depends on the used reagents and operating parameters, thus varying case by case. In the present work, a fractal model was validated as flexible tool to interpolate pollutant mechanochemical destruction data satisfactorily. In addition, such model was expanded to estimate the contributions of the inorganic reagent and the pollutant to the overall reaction rate. Specifically, the kinetic constant associated to mechanical activation of the co-milling reagent and that related to pollutant destruction reaction were calculated. Their values resulted to depend only on the specific compound, hence, the tabulated data could be used to predict the pollutant mechanochemical degradation rate for any kind of mixture.

11.
Nat Methods ; 18(7): 763-767, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140701
12.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(6): 591, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103468

RESUMO

p53, the major tumor suppressor, is frequently mutated in many cancers, and up to 84% of human melanomas harbor wild-type p53, which is considered to be an ideal target for melanoma therapy. Here, we evaluated the antitumor activity of a carbazole derivative, 9-ethyl-9H-carbazole-3-carbaldehyde (ECCA), on melanoma cells. ECCA had a selectively strong inhibitory activity against the growth of BRAF-mutated and BRAF-wild-type melanoma cells but had little effect on normal human primary melanocytes. ECCA inhibited melanoma cell growth by increasing cell apoptosis, which was associated with the upregulation of caspase activities and was significantly abrogated by the addition of a caspase inhibitor. In vivo assays confirmed that ECCA suppressed melanoma growth by enhancing cell apoptosis and reducing cell proliferation, and importantly ECCA did not have any evident toxic effects on normal tissues. RNA-Seq analysis identified several pathways related to cell apoptosis that were affected by ECCA, notably, activation of the p53 signaling pathway. Biochemical assays demonstrated that ECCA enhanced the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 in melanoma cells harboring wild-type p53, and importantly, the knockdown or deletion of p53 in those cells counteracted the ECCA-induced apoptosis, as well as senescence. Further investigations revealed that ECCA enhanced the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and treatment with either a p38-MAPK or a JNK inhibitor rescued the cell growth inhibition elicited by ECCA, which depended on the expression of the p53 gene. Finally, the combination of ECCA with a BRAF inhibitor significantly enhanced the growth inhibition of melanoma cells. In summary, our study demonstrates that the carbazole derivative, ECCA, induces melanoma cell apoptosis and senescence through the activation of p53 to significantly and selectively suppress the growth of melanoma cells without affecting normal human melanocytes, suggesting its potential to develop a new drug for melanoma therapy.

13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105913, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sleep-disordered breathing adversely impacts stroke outcomes. We investigated whether sleep-disordered breathing during rapid eye movement sleep and non-rapid eye movement sleep differentially influenced stroke outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute ischemic stroke patients who finished polysomnography within 14 days of stroke onset from April 2010 to August 2018 were reviewed. Patients were divided into four groups according to apnea-hypopnea index during rapid eye movement sleep and non-rapid eye movement sleep. The modified Rankin Scale was used to evaluate short-term outcome. During January and April 2019, another follow-up was performed for long-term outcomes, including stroke-specific quality-of-life scale, modified Rankin Scale, stroke recurrence and death. RESULTS: Of 140 patients reviewed, 109 were finally recruited. Although patients with sleep-disordered breathing during non-rapid eye movement sleep only and with sleep-disordered breathing during both rapid eye movement sleep and non-rapid eye movement sleep had higher apnea-hypopnea indices and more disrupted sleep structures, short-term and long-term outcomes did not significantly different between four groups. In Logistic regression analysis, apnea-hypopnea index (p = 0.013, OR 1.023, 95%CI 1.005-1.042) was found independently associated with short-term outcome. Rapid eye movement sleep latency (p = 0.045, OR 0.994, 95%CI 0.987-1.000) was found independently associated with quality of life. Apnea-hypopnea indices during rapid eye movement sleep or non-rapid eye movement sleep were not significantly associated with short-term or long-term outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Apnea-hypopnea index is an independent risk factor of short-term outcome of acute ischemic stroke while sleep-disordered breathing during rapid eye movement sleep and non-rapid eye movement sleep do not affect stroke outcomes differently.

14.
Mol Cell ; 81(13): 2765-2777.e6, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102105

RESUMO

The BRCA1-BARD1 complex directs the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway choice to error-free homologous recombination (HR) during the S-G2 stages. Targeting BRCA1-BARD1 to DSB-proximal sites requires BARD1-mediated nucleosome interaction and histone mark recognition. Here, we report the cryo-EM structure of BARD1 bound to a ubiquitinated nucleosome core particle (NCPUb) at 3.1 Å resolution and illustrate how BARD1 simultaneously recognizes the DNA damage-induced mark H2AK15ub and DNA replication-associated mark H4K20me0 on the nucleosome. In vitro and in vivo analyses reveal that the BARD1-NCPUb complex is stabilized by BARD1-nucleosome interaction, BARD1-ubiquitin interaction, and BARD1 ARD domain-BARD1 BRCT domain interaction, and abrogating these interactions is detrimental to HR activity. We further identify multiple disease-causing BARD1 mutations that disrupt BARD1-NCPUb interactions and hence impair HR. Together, this study elucidates the mechanism of BRCA1-BARD1 complex recruitment and retention by DSB-flanking nucleosomes and sheds important light on cancer therapeutic avenues.

15.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(7): e23864, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR) remains a difficult problem in patients requiring long-term platelet supportive care. However, there are little data on the frequency of platelet antibodies in multiply transfused Chinese patients. Moreover, the relationship between peripheral regulatory T cells (Tregs) and PTR remains unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the frequency of alloimmunization against platelet antigens in patients receiving multiple transfusions between 2013 and 2017. Monoclonal antibody solid-phase platelet antibody test (MASPAT) kits were used to screen for platelet antibodies before each platelet transfusion. Peripheral Tregs and CD4+ CD25+ CD127- T cells were detected by flow cytometry, while transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) and interleukin (IL)-17 cytokines were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: A total of 399 patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled for the analysis of platelet antibodies and refractoriness. Among these patients, 10 (2.5%) were positive for platelet antibodies before transfusion and 47 (11.8%) became antibody-positive during the study period. The number of alloimmunized patients was significantly higher in patients with hematological disease as compared with other disease groups (p < 0.05). Refractoriness and alloimmunization occurred in 77 (19.3%) and 22 (28.6%) patients, respectively. There were no significant differences in CD4+ , CD8+ , and CD4+ CD25+ CD127- T cell numbers and plasma levels of TGF-ß1 and IL-17 between patients with PTR and the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Refractoriness was common in patients undergoing multiple platelet transfusions (19.3%), with alloimmunization observed in 28.6% of patients. However, Tregs in peripheral blood may not play a key role in PTR.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy has been linked with the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) in children, while the results were inconsistent. The objective of this study was to assess the potential association. METHODS: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured in pregnant women from the birth cohort MKFOAD. Infant AD was diagnosed according to Williams' criteria. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine the association of maternal serum 25(OH)D levels in the first, second, and third trimester of gestation with the risk of infant AD at first year of age. RESULTS: In total, 121 (26.5%) of 456 infants developed AD prior to 1 year of age. In general, higher maternal serum 25(OH)D levels throughout pregnancy were associated with increased risks of AD in infants prior to 1 year of age in multivariate logistic regression models, with borderline statistical significance in the first (per ln unit increase: adjusted OR = 1.93, 95% CI: 0.96, 3.88) and second (per ln unit increase: adjusted OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 0.93, 3.19) trimester. Multivariate logistic regression models using categorical variables of maternal 25(OH)D levels by tertiles showed similar results: Infants born to mothers with serum 25(OH)D levels in the highest tertile had higher risk of AD than those with 25(OH)D in the lowest tertile. CONCLUSIONS: The present study found some evidence supporting that higher maternal 25(OH)D levels during pregnancy increased the risk of infant AD. However, the clinical implication of the findings should be limited for those with blood levels over the recommendations.

17.
J Environ Manage ; 293: 112952, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102494

RESUMO

Bioretention has been widely used in China for the purpose of sponge city construction. In subtropical climate areas, the performance of bioretention cell under condition of low infiltration underlying soil and heavy storms is still poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the effects of low infiltration underlying soil and precipitation characteristics on the hydraulic performance of a bioretention cell using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The hydraulic performance of a bioretention cell were investigated under a Typical year rainfall event (P(total) (total precipitation) = 1299.2 mm) and seven heavy storms (i.e., Ptotal range from 53.1 mm to 287.3 mm), at different SF(i) (seepage rates of the underlying soil) (i.e., range from 2.5 mm/h to 15 mm/h). Then, sensitivity of the optimal design to the different design parameters, including the hydraulic conductivity of soil medium layer and the berm height of surface layer, was examined. The results show that the increase in SF(i) was effective in increasing the ARVR(i) (annual runoff volume reduction) and RVR(i) (runoff volume reduction), while little effective in increasing PFR(i) (peak flow reduction). Moreover, the ARVR(i) could meet the designed goal of 70% when the SF(i) was more than 7.5 mm/h. For RVR(i), the key variable of precipitation characteristic changes from Ptotal to P4h(max) (maximum precipitation in 4 h) as SF(i) increases, while P4h(max) remains as the key variable for PFR(i) all the time. The sensitivity studies demonstrate that the hydraulic conductivity is more effective in increasing PFR(i) than the berm height. For the bioretention cell under condition of low infiltration underlying soil and heavy storms, in order to simultaneously achieve expected reduction goal of both peak flow and runoff volume, and make the best comprehensive performance of bioretention cell, it requires not only a maintenance action to increase the hydraulic conductivity of soil medium layer, but also a drain pipe to be added in the storage layer, and meanwhile other LID practices should be combined.

18.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(1): e1-e2, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167738
19.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(1): e3-e4, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167740
20.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(1): e5-e6, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167741
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