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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2303: 251-257, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626384

RESUMO

The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor modification attaches a lipid anchor to the C-terminus of a protein, tethering the protein to the cell surface membrane. From this membrane-bound state, GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) can be released into the extracellular space by multiple mechanisms, including proteolytic shedding and GPI lipase activity. Since the core GPI structure is co-released with the protein by GPI lipase activity, while removed from the protein by proteolytic cleavage, affinity purification by alpha-toxin (αToxin), which binds to the core domain of the GPI-anchor, isolates GPI-containing proteins from the culture medium. The following method details a technique for affinity purification of GP-APs using His-tagged αToxin for identification of GPI-anchored proteins, analysis of the GPI-anchor status of a protein of interest, or purification for subsequent biochemical analysis.

2.
PM R ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617406

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While it is well known that regular physical activity provides significant physical and psychosocial health benefits, people with disabilities have disproportionately lower rates of exercise compared to the able-bodied population. Reduced levels of physical activity can put this population at an increased risk of chronic health conditions, highlighting the importance of ensuring our communities have accessible adaptive fitness opportunities. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the demographic and disability characteristics in those who regularly attend a specialized urban adaptive fitness center, to provide foundational understanding about the population that uses such resources. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study SETTING: Specialized urban adaptive fitness center PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-three (n=63) participants who regularly attend an urban Adaptive Sports and Fitness Center INTERVENTION: Not applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0, evaluating disability in six domains: cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along, life activities, and participation. Results were converted into scores ranging from 0 (no disability) to 100 (total disability) and compared to WHO published norms for the general population and a demographics intake form. RESULTS: Participants with mean age of 52.9+/-14.3 years were grouped into three diagnostic categories: spinal cord injury (30.2%), traumatic brain injury/stroke (36.5%), and other neurologic disease/chronic medical disease (33.3%). 45.9% live alone, 96.8% exercise at least twice/week, and 43.5% participate in adaptive sports. Participants travel 8.0 miles on average for attendance. WHODAS disability summary score was 26.48 (86th percentile). CONCLUSIONS: Although adaptive fitness center participants had a higher level of disability than 80-90% of the general population, regular participation was realistic and feasible. Further understanding of the barriers in those who do not engage in such facilities is needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Kidney Int ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534550

RESUMO

A multitude of disease and therapy related factors drive the frequent development of kidney disorders in cancer patients. Along with chemotherapy, the newer targeted therapeutics can also cause kidney dysfunction through on and off-target mechanisms. Interestingly, among the small molecule inhibitors approved for the treatment of cancers that harbor BRAF-kinase activating mutations, vemurafenib can trigger tubular damage and acute kidney injury. BRAF is a proto-oncogene involved in cell growth. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we developed cell culture and mouse models of vemurafenib kidney toxicity. At clinically relevant concentrations vemurafenib induces cell-death in transformed and primary mouse and human kidney tubular epithelial cells. In mice, two weeks of daily vemurafenib treatment causes moderate acute kidney injury with histopathological characteristics of kidney tubular epithelial cells injury. Importantly, kidney tubular epithelial cell-specific BRAF gene deletion did not influence kidney function under normal conditions or alter the severity of vemurafenib-associated kidney impairment. Instead, we found that inhibition of ferrochelatase, an enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis contributes to vemurafenib kidney toxicity. Ferrochelatase overexpression protected kidney tubular epithelial cells and conversely ferrochelatase knockdown increased the sensitivity to vemurafenib-induced kidney toxicity. Thus, our studies suggest that vemurafenib-associated kidney tubular epithelial cell dysfunction and kidney toxicity is BRAF-independent and caused, in part, by off-target ferrochelatase inhibition.

4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372398

RESUMO

Accurate semantic image segmentation from medical imaging can enable intelligent vision-based assistance in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The human body and surgical procedures are highly dynamic. While machine-vision presents a promising approach, sufficiently large training image sets for robust performance are either costly or unavailable. This work examines three novel generative adversarial network (GAN) methods of providing usable synthetic tool images using only surgical background images and a few real tool images. The best of these three novel approaches generates realistic tool textures while preserving local background content by incorporating both a style preservation and a content loss component into the proposed multi-level loss function. The approach is quantitatively evaluated, and results suggest that the synthetically generated training tool images enhance UNet tool segmentation performance. More specifically, with a random set of 100 cadaver and live endoscopic images from the University of Washington Sinus Dataset, the UNet trained with synthetically generated images using the presented method resulted in 35.7% and 30.6% improvement over using purely real images in mean Dice coefficient and Intersection over Union scores, respectively. This study is promising towards the use of more widely available and routine screening endoscopy to preoperatively generate synthetic training tool images for intraoperative UNet tool segmentation.


Assuntos
Endoscopia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Humanos , Semântica
5.
J Vis Exp ; (173)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338679

RESUMO

Lateral interbody fusion provides a significant biomechanical advantage over the traditional transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion due to the large implant size and optimal implant position. However, current methods for lateral interbody cage placement require either a two-staged procedure or a single lateral decubitus position that precludes surgeons from having either full access to the posterior spine for direct decompression or comfortable pedicle screw placement. Herein is one institution's experience with 10 cases of a prone single-position approach for simultaneous access to the anterior and posterior lumbar spine. This allows both lateral lumbar interbody cage placement, direct posterior decompression, and pedicle screw placement, all in one position. Three-dimensional (3D) navigation is utilized for increased precision in both approaching the lateral spine and interbody cage placement. The traditional blind psoas muscle tubular dilation was also modified. Tubular retractors and lateral vertebral body retractor pins were used to minimize the risks to the lumbar plexus.


Assuntos
Parafusos Pediculares , Fusão Vertebral , Fixadores Internos , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Região Lombossacral/cirurgia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360971

RESUMO

Interleukin-22 (IL-22) plays a role in epithelial barrier function and repair, and may provide benefits in conditions like inflammatory bowel disease. However, limited human data are available to assess the clinical effect of IL-22 administration. This study used a human intestinal cell line to identify an IL-22-dependent gene signature that could serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker for IL-22 therapy. The response to IL-22Fc (UTTR1147A, an Fc-stabilized version of IL-22) was assessed in HT-29 cells by microarray, and the selected responsive genes were confirmed by qPCR. HT-29 cells demonstrated dose-dependent increases in STAT3 phosphorylation and multiple gene expression changes in response to UTTR1147A. Genes were selected that were upregulated by UTTR1147A, but to a lesser extent by IL-6, which also signals via STAT3. IL-1R1 was highly upregulated by UTTR1147A, and differential gene expression patterns were observed in response to IL-22Fc in the presence of IL-1ß. An IL-22-dependent gene signature was identified that could serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker in intestinal biopsies to support the clinical development of an IL-22 therapeutic. The differential gene expression pattern in the presence of IL-1ß suggests that an inflammatory cytokine milieu in the disease setting could influence the clinical responses to IL-22.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Interleucinas/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células HT29 , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(6): 069903, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420353

RESUMO

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.056802.

9.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 10(10): e12132, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429859

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are mediators of intercellular communication under both healthy and pathological conditions, including the induction of pro-metastatic traits, but it is not yet known how and where functional cargoes of EVs are delivered to their targets in host cell compartments. We have described that after endocytosis, EVs reach Rab7+ late endosomes and a fraction of these enter the nucleoplasmic reticulum and transport EV biomaterials to the host cell nucleoplasm. Their entry therein and docking to outer nuclear membrane occur through a tripartite complex formed by the proteins VAP-A, ORP3 and Rab7 (VOR complex). Here, we report that the antifungal compound itraconazole (ICZ), but not its main metabolite hydroxy-ICZ or ketoconazole, disrupts the binding of Rab7 to ORP3-VAP-A complexes, leading to inhibition of EV-mediated pro-metastatic morphological changes including cell migration behaviour of colon cancer cells. With novel, smaller chemical drugs, inhibition of the VOR complex was maintained, although the ICZ moieties responsible for antifungal activity and interference with intracellular cholesterol distribution were removed. Knowing that cancer cells hijack their microenvironment and that EVs derived from them determine the pre-metastatic niche, small-sized inhibitors of nuclear transfer of EV cargo into host cells could find cancer therapeutic applications, particularly in combination with direct targeting of cancer cells.

10.
Oral Dis ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379884

RESUMO

Cancer immunotherapy, which seeks to stimulate a patient's own immune system to combat cancer, is quickly becoming a central pillar of cancer therapeutics and has resulted in the development of many novel anticancer therapies. One subtype of cancer immunotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), has revolutionized cancer treatment and changed the standard of care for multiple indications. However, the advent of ICIs has produced a wide variety of inflammatory side effects termed immune-related adverse events (IRAEs), including ICI-induced Sicca syndrome. This article outlines the clinical features of ICI-induced Sicca syndrome and assesses its reported incidence in clinical trials, case series, and case reports across numerous cancers and treatment modalities. Presentations of ICI-induced Sicca syndrome in patients with pre-existing SjÓ§gren's disease and with extra-glandular manifestations will also be explored. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying IRAEs, including ICI-induced Sicca syndrome, will be evaluated through an examination of existing literature. Finally, the various treatment and management strategies as well as aims for future work will be discussed and reviewed.

11.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 36: 100852, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34401470

RESUMO

Background: Studies of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) as a novel therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases have proven promising. However, elevated IGF-1 levels have also been associated with poor patient outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. IGF-1 therapy has additionally been shown to not be beneficial in the percutaneous coronary intervention setting. Although IGF-1 activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways have been demonstrated as cardioprotective, other cellular mechanisms have not been fully investigated. Methods: Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NCMs) and fibroblasts (NCFs) were isolated from 1 to 2-day old pups using enzymatic digestion. NCMs and NCFs were pre-treated with IGF binding protein 6, inhibitors for the PI3K/Akt Wortmannin, ERK1/2 U0126, Rho Associated Protein Kinase (ROCK) GSK576371, Apoptosis Signal-regulating Kinase-1 (ASK-1) G2261818A, and p38MAPK RWJ67657 pathways before stimulation with IGF-1 for 62 and 50 h, respectively. Cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and fibroblast collagen synthesis were determined by 3H-leucine and 3H-proline incorporation, respectively. Results: IGF-1 dose-dependently stimulated NCM hypertrophy and NCF collagen synthesis.Treatment with IGFBP6 and the kinase inhibitors, Wortmannin, U0126, GSK576371, G2261818A and RWJ67657 significantly inhibited IGF-1 stimulated NCM hypertrophy and NCF collagen synthesis. Conclusion: This study is the first to demonstrate that IGF-1 treatment in NCMs and NCFs activates the ROCK, ASK-1 and p38MAPK pathways. Future research may be guided by consideration of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways potentially increasing collagen synthesis, and the utilisation of a biased agonist to reduce activation of the ROCK, ASK-1 and p38MAPK pathways to maximise cardioprotective benefit whilst mitigating risks.

12.
eNeuro ; 8(4)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301723

RESUMO

Astrocytes provide neurons with diffusible factors that promote synapse formation and maturation. In particular, glypican-4/GPC4 released from astrocytes promotes the maturation of excitatory synapses. Unlike other secreted factors, GPC4 contains the C-terminal GPI-anchorage signal. However, the mechanism by which membrane-tethered GPC4 is released from astrocytes is unknown. Using mouse primary astrocyte cultures and a quantitative luciferase-based release assay, we show that GPC4 is expressed on the astrocyte surface via a GPI-anchorage. Soluble GPC4 is robustly released from the astrocytes largely by proteolytic shedding and, to a lesser extent, by GPI-anchor cleavage, but not by vesicular release. Pharmacological, overexpression, and loss of function screens showed that ADAM9 in part mediates the release of GPC4 from astrocytes. The released GPC4 contains the heparan sulfate side chain, suggesting that these release mechanisms provide the active form that promotes synapse maturation and function. Overall, our studies identified the release mechanisms and the major releasing enzyme of GPC4 in astrocytes and will provide insights into understanding how astrocytes regulate synapse formation and maturation.


Assuntos
Astrócitos , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI , Glipicanas , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Camundongos , Neurônios , Proteólise , Sulfatos , Sinapses
13.
PM R ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation often have high risk of complications leading to unplanned transfer to acute care. Prior studies have identified factors associated with these transfers but have been limited to examining factors that pertain to initial admission to rehabilitation and were not conducted in a freestanding inpatient rehabilitation facility. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to include these prerehabilitation factors in addition to factors upon initial assessment in rehabilitation. It was hypothesized that specific factors from each of these periods would be associated with unplanned transfer to acute care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Freestanding academic inpatient rehabilitation facility affiliated with an academic tertiary care facility with a comprehensive cancer center. PATIENTS: Retrospective review of 330 specific encounters unique to 250 patients from March 2017 to September 2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome measure was unplanned transfer to acute care. A binary logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between factors from oncologic history, acute care course, and factors upon admission to rehabilitation to unplanned transfer to acute care. RESULTS: From 330 encounters, there were 111 unplanned transfers (34%). Unplanned transfer to acute care was independently associated with gastrointestinal malignancy (odds ratio [OR] 4.4, p = .01), 6-minute walk test less than 90 m (OR 4.6, p = .003), and prior unplanned transfer (OR 3.5, p = .007). CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that oncologic and functional prerehabilitation markers are associated with an increased likelihood of unplanned transfer during inpatient cancer rehabilitation. These findings will provide a framework for creating predictive tools for unplanned transfers in cancer rehabilitation patients.

14.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(3): L491-L506, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132117

RESUMO

Single-cell transcriptomics analyses of the fibrotic lung uncovered two cell states critical to lung injury recovery in the alveolar epithelium-a reparative transitional cell state in the mouse and a disease-specific cell state (KRT5-/KRT17+) in human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The murine transitional cell state lies between the differentiation from type 2 (AT2) to type 1 pneumocyte (AT1), and the human KRT5-/KRT17+ cell state may arise from the dysregulation of this differentiation process. We review major findings of single-cell transcriptomics analyses of the fibrotic lung and reanalyzed data from seven single-cell RNA sequencing studies of human and murine models of IPF, focusing on the alveolar epithelium. Our comparative and cross-species single-cell transcriptomics analyses allowed us to further delineate the differentiation trajectories from AT2 to AT1 and AT2 to the KRT5-/KRT17+ cell state. We observed AT1 cells in human IPF retain the transcriptional signature of the murine transitional cell state. Using pseudotime analysis, we recapitulated the differentiation trajectories from AT2 to AT1 and from AT2 to KRT5-/KRT17+ cell state in multiple human IPF studies. We further delineated transcriptional programs underlying cell-state transitions and determined the molecular phenotypes at terminal differentiation. We hypothesize that in addition to the reactivation of developmental programs (SOX4, SOX9), senescence (TP63, SOX4) and the Notch pathway (HES1) are predicted to steer intermediate progenitors to the KRT5-/KRT17+ cell state. Our analyses suggest that activation of SMAD3 later in the differentiation process may explain the fibrotic molecular phenotype typical of KRT5-/KRT17+ cells.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática , RNA-Seq , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Inorg Chem ; 60(12): 8631-8639, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077204

RESUMO

Discovery of new high-conductivity solid-state ionic conductors has been a long-lasting interest in the field of solid-state ionics for their important applications in solid-state electrochemical devices. Here, we report the mixed oxide-ion and Li-ion conductions, together with their conducting mechanisms in the Li2W2O7 material with triclinic symmetry. The process for the ionic identity is supported by several electrochemical measurements including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, DC polarization, oxygen concentration cell, and theoretical analysis of neutron diffraction data and bond-valence-based energy landscape calculations. We show from electrochemical measurements strong evidences of the predominating oxide-ion conducting and minor Li-ion chemistry in Li2W2O7 at high temperatures, while the bond-valence-based energy landscape analysis reveals possible multidimensional ionic migration pathways for both oxide-ions and Li-ions. Thus, the presented results provide fundamental insights into new mixed ionic conduction mechanisms in low-symmetry materials and have implications for discoveries of new ionic conductors in years to come.

16.
ACS Nano ; 15(6): 10678-10688, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100590

RESUMO

The cathode is a critical component for aqueous Zn-ion batteries (ZIBs) to achieve high capacity and long stability. In this work, we demonstrate a dissolution-free, low-Zn-preinserted bilayer-structured V2O5 xerogel cathode, Zn0.1V2O5·nH2O (ZnVO), with excellent capacity and stability using a low-cost ZnSO4 electrolyte. Its discharge capacity reaches 463 mAh g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 and 240 mAh g-1 at 10 A g-1, while 93% and 88% of its capacity are retained at 0.2 A g-1 for 200 cycles and at 10 A g-1 for 20 000 cycles, respectively. We then show that the outstanding performance of ZnVO is derived from the enlarged gallery spacing by the solvent water intercalation and the water stable V2O5 bilayer structure. We further unveil via ab initio molecular dynamics that H+ is largely originated from the dissociation of the gallery water, while OH- moves out of the gallery to form Zn4(SO4)(OH)6·5H2O with ZnSO4 electrolyte on the surface of ZnVO; the intercalated Zn2+ forms aquo complex [Zn(H2O)6]2+ with the gallery water. Our theoretical analysis also suggests that the gallery water and solvent water in the electrolyte are statistically the same and functionally equivalent. Overall, this study shows the promise of ZnVO as a practical cathode for ZIBs and offers fundamental insights into the roles of gallery water, solvent water, bilayer V2O5 structure, and dual Zn2+/H+ intercalation mechanisms in achieving high capacity and long stability.

17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(27)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187886

RESUMO

In matter, any spontaneous symmetry breaking induces a phase transition characterized by an order parameter, such as the magnetization vector in ferromagnets, or a macroscopic many-electron wave function in superconductors. Phase transitions with unknown order parameter are rare but extremely appealing, as they may lead to novel physics. An emblematic and still unsolved example is the transition of the heavy fermion compound [Formula: see text] (URS) into the so-called hidden-order (HO) phase when the temperature drops below [Formula: see text] K. Here, we show that the interaction between the heavy fermion and the conduction band states near the Fermi level has a key role in the emergence of the HO phase. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we find that while the Fermi surfaces of the HO and of a neighboring antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase of well-defined order parameter have the same topography, they differ in the size of some, but not all, of their electron pockets. Such a nonrigid change of the electronic structure indicates that a change in the interaction strength between states near the Fermi level is a crucial ingredient for the HO to AFM phase transition.

18.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 20(6): 286-290, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099605

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Sleep has been found to have wide-ranging effects on sports performance and overall well-being. Recent research has found evidence relating chronic suboptimal sleep with the risk of musculoskeletal pain and sports injury. The amount of sleep that consistently has been found to be associated with increased risk of injury is ≤7 h of sleep, which when sustained for periods of at least 14 d has been associated with 1.7 times greater risk of musculoskeletal injury. However, it is unknown if sleep loss predisposes the athlete to specific types of musculoskeletal injuries. The role of sleep on musculoskeletal pain is important to understand as studies in both children and adults have found that suboptimal sleep more consistently predicts next-day pain as compared with pain predicting subsequent sleep loss. Despite the evidence that certain aspects of sleep behavior seem to increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury and pain, sleep should be considered as only a part of the athlete's overall health and well-being when assessing the athlete for risk of injury.


Assuntos
Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Criança , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Musculoesquelética/etiologia , Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(20)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975950

RESUMO

Electrical resistivity measurements were performed on single crystals of URu2-x Os x Si2 up to x = 0.28 under hydrostatic pressure up to P = 2 GPa. As the Os concentration, x, is increased, 1) the lattice expands, creating an effective negative chemical pressure P ch(x); 2) the hidden-order (HO) phase is enhanced and the system is driven toward a large-moment antiferromagnetic (LMAFM) phase; and 3) less external pressure P c is required to induce the HO→LMAFM phase transition. We compare the behavior of the T(x, P) phase boundary reported here for the URu2-x Os x Si2 system with previous reports of enhanced HO in URu2Si2 upon tuning with P or similarly in URu2-x Fe x Si2 upon tuning with positive P ch(x). It is noteworthy that pressure, Fe substitution, and Os substitution are the only known perturbations that enhance the HO phase and induce the first-order transition to the LMAFM phase in URu2Si2 We present a scenario in which the application of pressure or the isoelectronic substitution of Fe and Os ions for Ru results in an increase in the hybridization of the U-5f-electron and transition metal d-electron states which leads to electronic instability in the paramagnetic phase and the concurrent formation of HO (and LMAFM) in URu2Si2 Calculations in the tight-binding approximation are included to determine the strength of hybridization between the U-5f-electron states and the d-electron states of Ru and its isoelectronic Fe and Os substituents in URu2Si2.

20.
Semin Neurol ; 41(3): 247-255, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010969

RESUMO

Traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) is a life-changing and potentially overwhelming event. The sudden disruption of the spinal cord's integrity necessitates rapid attention at a specialized medical center, and involves a multilateral collaboration between neurologists, spine surgeons, critical care physicians, and trauma specialists. Even with care under ideal conditions, many tSCI patients have significant disability that persists for the rest of their lives. However, recently, we have seen a proliferation in clinical and translational trials that offer the promise that new treatments may be available soon.

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