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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the global use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) has become the most common bacterial cause of lower respiratory tract infections among children. Monitoring the changing epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance rates of this organism is important for MP clinical management. METHODS: This study characterizes key features of MP during the 2019-2020 epidemic in children in Taiwan. The cohort included all hospitalized children under 18 years of age with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed community-acquired mycoplasma pneumonia (CAMP) in southern Taiwan. Macrolide resistance was identified by mutations in domain V of MP 23S rRNA. Severe disease referred to symptoms warranting oxygen therapy, septic shock, or intensive care unit admission. RESULTS: Among 495 LRTI patients, 195 (39.4%) had CAMP, of which 106 (54.4%) had concurrent serological evidence of MP infection. The diagnostic sensitivity of IgM in the acute phase was 65.6%. CAMP case numbers were highest from July 2019 to January 2020. The most common clinical presentations of CAMP were fever (99.0%), cough (99.0%), and coryza (31.8%). Despite a high rate of macrolide resistance (88.1%), macrolide-resistant MP (MRMP) did not differ from macrolide-sensitive MP (MSMP) in clinical course or severity. Delayed administration of effective antimicrobial treatment was also associated with severe disease (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis and determination of MRMP are needed for effective management of MP infection.

2.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of childhood pneumonia, but there is limited understanding of whether bacterial co-infections affect clinical severity. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at National Taiwan University Hospital from 2010 to 2019 to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes between RSV with and without bacterial co-infection in children without underlying diseases, including length of hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ventilator use, and death. RESULTS: Among 620 inpatients with RSV pneumonia, the median age was 1.33 months (interquartile range, 0.67-2 years); 239 (38.6%) under 1 year old; 366 (59.0%) males; 201 (32.4%) co-infected with bacteria. The three most common bacteria are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae. The annually seasonal analysis showed that spring and autumn were peak seasons, and September was the peak month. Compared with single RSV infection, children with bacterial co-infection were younger (p = 0.021), had longer hospital stay (p < 0.001), needed more ICU care (p = 0.02), had higher levels of C-reactive protein (p = 0.009) and more frequent hyponatremia (p = 0.013). Overall, younger age, bacterial co-infection (especially S. aureus), thrombocytosis, and lower hemoglobin level were associated with the risk of requiring ICU care. CONCLUSION: RSV related bacterial co-infections were not uncommon and assoicated with ICU admission, especially for young children, and more attention should be given. For empirical antibacterial treatment, high-dose amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or ampicillin-sulbactam was recommended for non-severe cases; vancomycin and third-generation cephalosporins were suggested for critically ill patients requiring ICU care.

3.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent pneumonia is uncommon in children and few studies investigate the clinical impact of underlying diseases on this issue. This study aimed to explore the difference in clinical manifestations, pathogens, and prognosis of recurrent pneumonia in children with or without underlying diseases. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of pediatric recurrent pneumonia from 2007 to 2019 in National Taiwan University Hospital. Patients under the age of 18 who had two or more episodes of pneumonia in a year were included, and the minimum interval of two pneumonia episodes was more than one month. Aspiration pneumonia was excluded. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were collected and compared. RESULTS: Among 8508 children with pneumonia, 802 (9.4%) of them had recurrent pneumonia. Among these 802 patients, 655 (81.7%) had underlying diseases including neurological disorders (N = 252, 38.5%), allergy (N = 211, 32.2%), and cardiovascular diseases (N = 193, 29.5%). Children without underlying diseases had more viral bronchopneumonia (p < 0.001). Children with underlying diseases were more likely to acquire Staphylococcus aureus (p = 0.001), and gram-negative bacteriae, more pneumonia episodes (3 vs 2, p < 0.001), a longer hospital stay (median: 7 vs. 4 days, p < 0.001), a higher ICU rate (28.8% vs 3.59%, p < 0.001), and a higher case-fatality rate (5.19% vs 0%, p < 0.001) than those without underlying diseases. CONCLUSION: Children with underlying diseases, prone to have recurrent pneumonia and more susceptible to resistant microorganisms, had more severe diseases and poorer clinical outcomes. Therefore, more attention may be paid on clinical severity and the therapeutic plan.

4.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Influenza is frequently complicated with bacterial co-infection. This study aimed to disclose the significance of Streptococcus pneumoniae co-infection in children with influenza. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of pediatric patients hospitalized for influenza with or without pneumococcal co-infection at the National Taiwan University Hospital from 2007 to 2019. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between patients with and without S. pneumoniae co-infection. RESULTS: There were 558 children hospitalized for influenza: 494 had influenza alone whereas 64 had S. pneumoniae co-infection. Patients with S. pneumoniae co-infection had older ages, lower SpO2, higher C-Reactive Protein (CRP), lower serum sodium, lower platelet counts, more chest radiograph findings of patch and consolidation on admission, longer hospitalization, more intensive care, longer intensive care unit (ICU) stay, more mechanical ventilation, more inotropes/vasopressors use, more surgical interventions including video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and higher case-fatality rate. CONCLUSION: Compared to influenza alone, patients with S. pneumoniae co-infection had more morbidities and mortalities. Pneumococcal co-infection is considered when influenza patients have lower SpO2, lower platelet counts, higher CRP, lower serum sodium, and more radiographic patches and consolidations on admission.

5.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 700958, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335666

RESUMO

Orchids are the most species-rich plants and highly interactive with pollinators via visual or olfactory cues. Biosynthesis and emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere facilitate the olfactory cues and ensure successful pollination. Phalaenopsis bellina is a scented orchid with monoterpenes as major VOCs, comprising linalool, geraniol, and their derivatives. Comparative transcriptomics analysis identified four terpene synthase-b (TPS-b) genes and two TPS-e/f genes with differential gene expression between scented and scentless Phalaenopsis species. Here, we confirmed their differential expression between scented and scentless Phalaenopsis orchids and excluded one TPS-b candidate. We analyzed the temporal and spatial expression and functionally characterized these TPSs. Both TPS-b and TPS-e/f genes showed an increased expression on blooming day or 3 days post-anthesis (D + 3) before the optimal emission of floral scent on D + 5, with especially high expression of PbTPS5 and PbTPS10. The TPS-b genes are expressed exclusively in reproductive organs, whereas the TPS-e/f genes are expressed in both reproductive and vegetative organs. In planta functional characterization of both PbTPS5 and PbTPS10 in tobacco and scentless Phalaenopsis plants did not produce terpenoids. Further ectopic expression in scented Phalaenopsis cultivar P. I-Hsin Venus showed that linalool was the main product, with PbTPS10 displaying 3-fold higher activity than PbTPS5. On in vitro enzyme assay with purified recombinant TPS-b proteins ectopically expressed in Escherichia coli, geraniol was the product catalyzed by PbTPS5 and PbTPS9. PbTPS3 was a linalool/(ß)-cis-ocimene synthase and PbTPS4 a linalool synthase. In conclusion, both TPS-b and TPS-e/f enzymes orchestrated floral monoterpene biosynthesis in P. bellina.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203299

RESUMO

Terpenoids are the largest class of plant secondary metabolites and are one of the major emitted volatile compounds released to the atmosphere. They have functions of attracting pollinators or defense function, insecticidal properties, and are even used as pharmaceutical agents. Because of the importance of terpenoids, an increasing number of plants are required to investigate the function and evolution of terpene synthases (TPSs) that are the key enzymes in terpenoids biosynthesis. Orchidacea, containing more than 800 genera and 28,000 species, is one of the largest and most diverse families of flowering plants, and is widely distributed. Here, the diversification of the TPSs evolution in Orchidaceae is revealed. A characterization and phylogeny of TPSs from four different species with whole genome sequences is available. Phylogenetic analysis of orchid TPSs indicates these genes are divided into TPS-a, -b, -e/f, and g subfamilies, and their duplicated copies are increased in derived orchid species compared to that in the early divergence orchid, A. shenzhenica. The large increase of both TPS-a and TPS-b copies can probably be attributed to the pro-duction of different volatile compounds for attracting pollinators or generating chemical defenses in derived orchid lineages; while the duplications of TPS-g and TPS-e/f copies occurred in a species-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Orchidaceae/enzimologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
7.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(9): e333-e339, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This phase 2 observer-blind, randomized, multicenter, dose-ranging study evaluated immunogenicity and safety of different formulations of an AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine in children 6-35 months of age. METHODS: One hundred eighty-five children randomized into 5 groups [1.9 µg hemagglutinin (HA)/AS03B, 0.9 µg HA/AS03C, 1.9 µg HA/AS03C, 3.75 µg HA/AS03C or 3.75 µg HA/AS03D] were to receive 2 doses administered 21 days apart (primary vaccination). AS03 was classified by amount of DL-α-tocopherol, with AS03B the highest amount. One year later, all subjects were to receive unadjuvanted 3.75 µg HA as antigen challenge. Immunogenicity was assessed 21 days after primary vaccination (day 42) and 7 days after antigen challenge (day 392). Immunogenicity-fever index, based on hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization antibody titers at day 42 and fever 7 days after each vaccination, was used to guide the selection of an acceptable formulation. RESULTS: After primary vaccination, formulations elicited strong homologous immune responses with all subjects' hemagglutination inhibition titers ≥1:40 post-vaccination. Immunogenicity-fever index based on hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays showed that 1.9 µg HA/AS03B ranked the highest. Antibody levels persisted >4 times above baseline 12 months after primary vaccination with all formulations (day 385). Antibodies increased >4-fold after antigen challenge (day 392/day 385) with 1.9 µg HA/AS03B, 0.9 µg HA/AS03C and 1.9 µg HA/AS03C formulations. Overall per subject, the incidence of fever ranged from 28.6% (3.75 µg HA/AS03D) to 60.5% (1.9 µg HA/AS03B). CONCLUSIONS: All formulations were highly immunogenic and demonstrated acceptable safety profiles, with the 1.9 µg HA/AS03B providing the most favorable balance of immunogenicity versus reactogenicity for use in children 6-35 months of age.

8.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) remains a significant health issue in children. The worldwide evolution of pediatric AGE pathogens had been recorded since the introduction of rotavirus vaccine. Ten years after the rotavirus vaccine was introduced to the private sectors in Taiwan, a nationwide study was conducted to elucidate the epidemiological changes among major AGE pathogens. METHODS: From January 2014 to December 2017, children younger than 5 years old, hospitalized with AGE at 10 hospitals across Taiwan were enrolled. Stool specimens were tested for Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Clostridiodes difficile, norovirus, and rotavirus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The epidemiological and clinical information was collected. RESULTS: Enteric pathogen were detected in 1983 (42.2%) of 4700 subjects, with Salmonella spp. (12.5%) being the leading cause of AGE, followed by norovirus (11.2%), rotavirus (8.7%), C. difficile (4.2%), Campylobacter spp. (1.0%), and a mixture of at least 2 of 5 above-mentioned pathogens (4.6%). The case distributions varied across different regions. In eastern Taiwan, rotavirus (21/131, 16.0%) remained the most common pathogen detected. The rotavirus vaccine uptake rate is significantly lower in patients with rotavirus AGE. Besides, rotavirus AGE frequently occurred in children with foreign parent(s), Taiwanese indigenous people, and those with the household monthly income < NT$ 60,000. CONCLUSION: Salmonella spp. and norovirus were two major pathogens of pediatric AGE in Taiwan during 2014-17. Providing low-to middle-income households with free rotavirus vaccine nationwide and an industry-led act to reduce salmonellosis should be considered by the authorities.

9.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120 Suppl 1: S19-S25, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 has become a pandemic emerging infectious disease it is important to examine whether there was a spatiotemporal clustering phenomenon in the globe during the rapid spread after the first outbreak reported from southern China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The open data on the number of COVID-19 cases reported at daily basis form the globe were used to assess the evolution of outbreaks with international air link on the same latitude and also including Taiwan. The dynamic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model was used to evaluate continental transmission from December 2019 to March 2020 before the declaration of COVID-19 pandemic with basic reproductive number and effective reproductive number before and after containment measurements. RESULTS: For the initial COVID-19 outbreak in China, the estimated reproductive number was reduced from 2.84 during the overwhelming outbreaks in early January to 0.43 after the strict lockdown policy. It is very surprising to find there were three countries (including South Korea, Iran, and Italy) and the Washington state of the USA on the 38° North Latitude involved with large-scale community-acquired outbreaks since the first imported COVID-19 cases from China. The propagation of continental transmission was augmented from hotspot to hotspot with higher reproductive number immediately before the declaration of pandemic. By contrast, there was not any large community-acquired outbreak in Taiwan. CONCLUSION: The propagated spatiotemporal transmission from China to other hotspots may explain the emerging pandemic that can only be exempted by timely border control and preparedness of containment measurements according to Taiwan experience.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/transmissão , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Washington/epidemiologia
10.
World J Pediatr ; 17(3): 242-252, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Huaiqihuang (HQH) granule is a traditional Chinese herbal complex that has been used as an adjuvant treatment in clinics for the primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) for many years. However, the effectiveness and safety of HQH have not been systematically discussed. This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of HQH in paediatric patients with PNS. METHODS: The following databases were searched from inception to Mar 2019: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, Wanfang Database, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database and the Chinese biomedical literature service system. All the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) eligible for inclusion were included. The primary outcomes were relapse, infection, remission and adverse events. The secondary outcomes included serum immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgG or IgM), T-lymphocyte subtype (CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ , CD4+ /CD8+), IL-10, TNF-α, TNF-γ, total cholesterol and time of proteinuria turning negative. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs (885 patients) were identified. Treatment with HQH reduced the chance of relapse [relative risk (RR): 0.47; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.66; P < 0.001] and infections (RR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.62; P < 0.001). No significant difference was found in adverse events. HQH also increased the serum levels of IgA [weighted mean difference (WMD): 0.40; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.60; P < 0.001] and IgG (WMD: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.38-1.78; P < 0.001), as well as CD4+ [standard mean difference (SMD): 0.90; 95% CI: 0.12-1.68; P = 0.02], CD3+ (WMD: 4.04; 95% CI: 3.27-4.82; P < 0.001), and the CD4+/CD8+ratio (WMD: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.21-0.41; P < 0.001), but decreased the level of CD8+ cells (WMD: -3.39; 95% CI: -5.73-1.05; P = 0.004). No statistically significant difference was found in IgM (WMD: 0.05; 95% CI: -0.13, 0.24; P = 0.57). CONCLUSIONS: HQH could reduce the rate of relapse and the frequency of infection in children with PNS. No apparent adverse effects were found. Moreover, the beneficial influence of HQH may act through immunomodulation. Additional multi-center, large-sample, high-quality studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness and safety of HQH.

11.
Clin Chim Acta ; 520: 95-100, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast malignancy is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women worldwide, and the diagnosis relies on invasive examinations. However, most clinical breast changes in women are benign, and invasive diagnostic approaches cause unnecessary suffering for the patients. Thus, a novel noninvasive approach for discriminating malignant breast lesions from benign lesions is needed. METHODS: We performed cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing on plasma samples from 173 malignant breast lesion patients, 158 benign breast lesion patients, and 102 healthy women. We then analyzed the cfDNA-based nucleosome profiles, which reflect the various tissues of origin and transcription factor activities. Moreover, by using machine learning classifiers along with the cfDNA sequencing data, we built classifiers for discriminating benign from malignant breast lesions. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to evaluate the performance of the classifiers. RESULTS: cfDNA-based nucleosome profiles reflected the various tissues of origin and transcription factor activities in benign and malignant breast lesions. The cfDNA-based transcription factor activities and breast malignancy-specific transcription factor-binding site accessibility profiles could accurately distinguish benign and malignant breast lesions, with area under the curve values of 0.777 and 0.824, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our proof-of-principle study established a methodology for noninvasively discriminating benign from malignant breast lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Nucleossomos/genética , Curva ROC
12.
Vaccine ; 39(24): 3259-3269, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important viral pathogen responsible for severe infection of the lower respiratory tract in children under the age of 5 years. No vaccines against RSV are currently in clinical use. Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) caused by excess Th2 type responses was observed in a clinical trial of formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) in antigen-naïve infants. Thus, inducing a balanced immune response is a crucial issue in the development of an RSV vaccine. METHODS: In this study, we constructed, expressed, and purified a recombinant RSV vaccine candidate (i.e., HRØ24) containing the two heptad repeat regions and the antigenic sites Ø, II, and IV of the RSV F protein. The RSV vaccine candidate was intranasally administrated to BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice in combination with virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from the core protein of the hepatitis B virus (HBc). Mucosal immunity to HRØ24 was then assessed. RESULTS: Intranasal administration of HBc VLPs in combination with HRØ24 induced serum IgGs against HRØ24 as well as lung HRØ24-specific sIgAs in both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mouse models. The secretion of IFN-γ from splenocyte re-stimulation and an elevated ratio of serum IgG2a to IgG1 indicated that the immune response induced by the HBc VLPs/HRØ24 mixture was Th1-biased. Weight loss of <5% and no to low eosinophil infiltration was observed in histological analysis of the lung following a challenge with the RSV A2 strain. These results suggest that the HBc VLPs/HRØ24 combination conferred substantial partial protection against RSV-induced illness in mice. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term immunity to RSV-induced illness was achieved via intranasal vaccination using a mixture of HBc VLPs and HRØ24 in mouse models.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vacinas contra Vírus Sincicial Respiratório , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Pulmão , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Virais de Fusão
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248801, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765031

RESUMO

Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the leading environmental cause of childhood hearing impairment. However, its significance remains largely undocumented in many regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical features of cCMV infection in East Asia. Neonates born at a municipal hospital in Taipei were prospectively recruited and underwent concurrent hearing and CMV screenings. Those who failed the hearing screening or screened positive for CMV were subjected to a focused audiological and/or virological surveillance. The characteristics of the newborns and their mothers were compared between the CMV-positive and CMV-negative groups. Of the 1,532 newborns who underwent concurrent hearing and CMV screenings, seven (0.46%) were positive for cCMV infection. All seven CMV-positive newborns were asymptomatic at birth, and none of them developed hearing or other symptoms during a follow-up period of 14.4±6.3 months. The mothers of the CMV-positive newborns demonstrated higher gravidity (2.4 ± 1.4 vs. 2.1 ± 1.2) and parity (2.0 ± 1.2 vs. 1.6 ± 0.7) than those in the CMV-negative group; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. The prevalence of cCMV infection in Taipei newborns was 0.46%, which is slightly lower than that of other populations and that of a previous report in the Taiwanese population. The relatively low prevalence in this study might be attributed to the improved public health system and decreased fertility rate in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/congênito , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Feminino , Audição , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Triagem Neonatal , Gravidez , Prevalência
15.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 7(1): 35, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772032

RESUMO

Gene expression signatures have been used to predict the outcome of chemotherapy for breast cancer. The nucleosome footprint of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) carries gene expression information of the original tissues and thus may be used to predict the response to chemotherapy. Here we carried out the nucleosome positioning on cfDNA from 85 breast cancer patients and 85 healthy individuals and two cancer cell lines T-47D and MDA-MB-231 using low-coverage whole-genome sequencing (LCWGS) method. The patients showed distinct nucleosome footprints at Transcription Start Sites (TSSs) compared with normal donors. In order to identify the footprints of cfDNA corresponding with the responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients, we mapped on nucleosome positions on cfDNA of patients with different responses: responders (pretreatment, n = 28; post-1 cycle, post-3/4 cycles, and post-8 cycles of treatment, n = 12) and nonresponders (pretreatment, n = 10; post-1 cycle, post-3/4 cycles, and post-8 cycles of treatment, n = 10). The coverage depth near TSSs in plasma cfDNA differed significantly between responders and nonresponders at pretreatment, and also after neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment cycles. We identified 232 TSSs with differential footprints at pretreatment and 321 after treatment and found enrichment in Gene Ontology terms such as cell growth inhibition, tumor suppressor, necrotic cell death, acute inflammatory response, T cell receptor signaling pathway, and positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production. These results suggest that cfDNA nucleosome footprints may be used to predict the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer patients and thus may provide help in decision making for individual patients.

16.
World J Pediatr ; 17(3): 227-233, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary renal tubular disease can cause hypercalciuria, acid-base imbalance, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, rickets, kidney stones, etc. If these diseases are not diagnosed or treated in time, they can cause kidney damage and electrolyte disturbances, which can be detrimental to the maturation and development of the child. Glomerular involvement in renal tubular disease patients has only been considered recently. METHODS: We screened 71 papers (including experimental research, clinical research, etc.) about Dent's disease, Gitelman syndrome, and cystinosis from PubMed, and made reference. RESULTS: Glomerular disease was initially underestimated among the clinical signs of renal tubular disease or was treated merely as a consequence of the tubular damage. Renal tubular diseases affect glomerular podocytes through certain mechanisms resulting in functional damage, morphological changes, and glomerular lesions. CONCLUSIONS: This article focuses on the progress of changes in glomerular podocyte function in Dent disease, Gitelman syndrome, and cystinosis for the purposes of facilitating clinically accurate diagnosis and scientific treatment and improving prognosis.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420151

RESUMO

Haemophilus influenzae is a predominant pathogen for conjunctivitis, acute otitis media and acute bacterial paranasal sinusitis in children. We undertook this study to investigate the possible association among these diseases. Children younger than 18-year-old with a diagnosis of bacterial conjunctivitis plus acute otitis media and/or acute bacterial paranasal sinusitis during 2009-2018 were included. Sampling for bacterial cultures was obtained from the lower palpebral conjunctiva and/or ear discharge with cotton-tipped swabs. A total of 67 children were recruited and the age was 29.5 (± 22.4) months in average. Fifty-seven children had conjunctivitis-otitis media syndrome and eight of them had a concurrent diagnosis of acute paranasal sinusitis. Ten children had conjunctivitis and acute paranasal sinusitis simultaneously. Clusters in household were observed in 50.7% children. Most common isolates were Haemophilus influenzae (70%), Moraxella catarrhalis (18%), and Staphylococcus aureus (8%). Antibiotic resistance rate of H. influenzae was 80% for ampicillin, 18% for amoxicillin-clavulanate, and 11% for the second or third-generation cephalosporins. Apart from well-known conjunctivitis-otitis media syndrome, acute paranasal sinusitis may also be linked to conjunctivitis with a similar pathogenic process. Simultaneous presence of these infections may guide the choice of empiric antibiotics toward H. influenzae.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Haemophilus influenzae/patogenicidade , Otite Média/microbiologia , Sinusite/microbiologia , Doença Aguda , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Feminino , Haemophilus influenzae/efeitos dos fármacos , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
18.
Pediatrics ; 147(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human papillomavirus (HPV) antibody responses to the 9-valent human papillomavirus (9vHPV) vaccine among girls and boys (aged 9-14 years) receiving 2-dose regimens (months 0, 6 or 0, 12) were noninferior to a 3-dose regimen (months 0, 2, 6) in young women (aged 16-26 years) 4 weeks after last vaccination in an international, randomized, open-label trial (NCT01984697). We assessed response durability through month 36. METHODS: Girls received 2 (months 0 and 6 [0, 6]: n = 301; months 0 and 12 [0, 12]: n = 151) or 3 doses (months 0,2, and 6 [0, 2, 6]: n = 301); boys received 2 doses ([0, 6]: n = 301; [0, 12]: n = 150); and young women received 3 doses ([0, 2, 6]: n = 314) of 9vHPV vaccine. Anti-HPV geometric mean titers (GMTs) were assessed by competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA) and immunoglobulin G-Luminex immunoassay (IgG-LIA) through month 36. RESULTS: Anti-HPV GMTs were highest 1 month after the last 9vHPV vaccine regimen dose, decreased sharply during the subsequent 12 months, and then decreased more slowly. GMTs 2 to 2.5 years after the last regimen dose in girls and boys given 2 doses were generally similar to or greater than GMTs in young women given 3 doses. Across HPV types, most boys and girls who received 2 doses (cLIA: 81%-100%; IgG-LIA: 91%-100%) and young women who received 3 doses (cLIA: 78%-98%; IgG-LIA: 91%-100%) remained seropositive 2 to 2.5 years after the last regimen dose. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses persisted through 2 to 2.5 years after the last dose of a 2-dose 9vHPV vaccine regimen in girls and boys. In girls and boys, antibody responses generated by 2 doses administered 6 to 12 months apart may be sufficient to induce high-level protective efficacy through at least 2 years after the second dose.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
World J Pediatr ; 17(1): 52-57, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dent disease is a rare tubulopathy characterized by manifestations of proximal tubular dysfunction, which occurs almost exclusively in males. It mainly presents symptoms in early childhood and may progress to end-stage renal failure between the 3rd and 5th decades of human life. According to its various genetic basis and to clinical signs and symptoms, researchers define two forms of Dent disease (Dent diseases 1 and 2) and suggest that these forms are produced by mutations in the CLCN5 and OCRL genes, respectively. Dent diseases 1 and 2 account for 60% and 15% of all Dent disease cases, and their genetic cause is generally understood. However, the genetic cause of the remaining 25% of Dent disease cases remains unidentified. DATA SOURCES: All relevant peer-reviewed original articles published thus far have been screened out from PubMed and have been referenced. RESULTS: Genetic testing has been used greatly to identify mutation types of CLCN5 and OCRL gene, and next-generation sequencing also has been used to identify an increasing number of unknown genotypes. Gene therapy may bring new hope to the treatment of Dent disease. The abuse of hormones and immunosuppressive agents for the treatment of Dent disease should be avoided to prevent unnecessary harm to children. CONCLUSIONS: The current research progress in classification, genetic heterogeneity, diagnosis, and treatment of Dent disease reviewed in this paper enables doctors and researchers to better understand Dent disease and provides a basis for improved prevention and treatment.

20.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(1 Pt 2): 443-451, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553527

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical feature of tuberculosis and BCG adverse effects in children and to examine whether delayed BCG vaccination changes the incidence of BCG osteomyelitis. METHODS: We analyzed patients younger than 18 years with tuberculosis or BCG-associated adverse effects from 2008 to 2019. We compared their clinical features, laboratory tests and outcomes. RESULTS: Totally 137 patients were collected, with 27% of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), 31% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) and 42% of BCG-associated adverse effects. The median age was older in PTB than EPTB group (17.1 vs 15.4 years; p = 0.015). More patients in EPTB group had fever than PTB group (55% vs 25%; p = 0.008). Compared with exclusively EPTB, more patients in EPTB plus PTB group had fever (78% vs 38%; p = 0.009), and had more systemic symptoms (67% vs 25%; p = 0.007), lower absolute lymphocyte count (1230 vs 1850/µL; p = 0.033), higher CRP level (5.62 vs 2.21 mg/dL; p = 0.024) and longer hospital stay (20 vs 11 days; p = 0.031). In BCG osteomyelitis group, the median time interval from vaccination to diagnosis was 16.4 months (IQR 15.0-20.2). Age at vaccination, either at birth or 5-8 month-old, did not affect the proportion of BCG osteomyelitis among children with BCG-associated adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Children with EPTB plus PTB had more fever, lower lymphocyte count and higher CRP. The median time interval from vaccination to diagnosis of BCG osteomyelitis was 16.4 months and the proportion of BCG osteomyelitis among children with BCG-associated adverse effects was not affected by delayed vaccination in this study.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
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