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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605245

RESUMO

Defect engineering is a reasonable solution to improve the surface properties and electronic structure of nanomaterials. However, how to introduce dual defects into nanomaterials by a simple way is still facing challenge. Herein, we propose a facile two-step solvothermal method to introduce Fe dopants and S vacancies into metal-organic framework-derived bimetallic nickel cobalt sulfide composites (NiCo-S). The as-prepared Fe-doped NiCo-S (Fe-NiCo-S) possesses improved charge storage kinetics and activities as electrode material for supercapacitors and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The obtained Fe-NiCo-S nanosheet has a high specific capacitance (2779.6 F g-1 at 1 A g-1) and excellent rate performance (1627.2 F g-1 at 10 A g-1). A hybrid supercapacitor device made of Fe-NiCo-S as the positive electrode and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as the negative electrode presents a high energy density of 56.0 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 847.1 W kg-1 and excellent cycling stability (capacity retention of 96.5% after 10,000 cycles at 10 A g-1). Additionally, the Fe-NiCo-S composite modified by Fe doping and S vacancy has an ultralow oxygen evolution overpotential of 247 mV at 10 mA cm-2. Based on the density functional theory (DFT) calculation, defects cause more electrons to appear near the Fermi level, which is conducive to electron transfer in electrochemical processes. Our work provides a rational strategy for facilely introducing dual defects into metal sulfides and may provide a novel idea to prepare electrode materials for energy storage and energy conversion application.

2.
Phytochemistry ; 191: 112910, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481345

RESUMO

Ten sesterterpenoids, including eight undescribed ones named spectanoids A-H and two known analogs, were obtained from Aspergillus spectabilis. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined based on HRESIMS, NMR, ECD calculations and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Spectanoids A-G are tricyclic sesterterpenoids with an unusual 5/12/5 ring system, while spectanoid H possesses a 5/8/6/5 ring system. All of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cells, and spectanoid A, spectanoid C and spectanoid F exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities with IC50 values ranging from 12.1 to 26.1 µM.


Assuntos
Aspergillus , Cristalografia por Raios X , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112740, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482066

RESUMO

The land-based oil extraction activity has led to serious pollution of the soil. While microbes may play an important role in the remediation of contaminated soils, ecological effects of oil pollution on soil microbial relationships remain poorly understood. Here, typical contaminated soils and undisturbed soils from seven oilfields of China were investigated in terms of their physicochemical characteristics, indigenous microbial assemblages, bacterial co-occurrence patterns, and metabolic enzymes. Network visualization based on k-core decomposition illustrated that oil pollution reduced correlations between co-existing bacteria. The core genera were altered to those related with oil metabolism (Pseudarthrobacter, Alcanivorax, Sphingomonas, Chromohalobacter and Nocardioides). Under oil pollution pressure, the indigenous bacteria Gammaproteobacteria was domesticated as biomarker and the enzyme expression associated with the metabolism of toxic benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was enhanced. Functional pathways of xenobiotics biodegradation were also stimulated under oil contamination. Finally, twelve culturable hydrocarbon-degrading microbes were isolated from these polluted soils and classified into Stenotrophomonas, Delftia, Pseudomonas and Bacillus. These results show that the soil microbial communities are transformed under oil pollution stress, and also provide useful information for future bioremediation processes.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
4.
Clin Lab ; 67(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been inducing an ongoing global health and economic emergency. Although viral pneumonia is the most striking presentation for COVID-19 patients, it has been noticed that some patients may also be accompanied with an abnormal liver function. METHODS: CT was performed in both lungs, and routine bloodwork and the blood metabolic panel were measured. RESULTS: Here, we report on a young male patient without any history of live diseases who suffered simultaneously both SARS-CoV-2 caused pneumonia and hepatitis as evidenced by increased serum bilirubin together with increased serum transaminases. CONCLUSIONS: Studies on mechanisms whereby SARS-CoV-2 causing liver damages might provide more information about the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and help management of this global health emergency.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hepatopatias , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(18): 6627-6648, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468802

RESUMO

Mixotrophic bacteria provide a desirable alternative to the use of classical heterotrophic or chemolithoautotrophic bacteria in environmental technology, particularly under limiting nutrients conditions. Their bi-modal ability of adapting to inorganic or organic carbon feed and sulfur, nitrogen, or even heavy metal stress conditions are attractive features to achieve efficient bacterial activity and favorable operation conditions for the environmental detoxification or remediation of contaminated waste and wastewater. This review provides an overview on the state of the art and summarizes the metabolic traits of the most promising and emerging non-model mixotrophic bacteria for the environmental detoxification of contaminated wastewater and waste containing excess amounts of limiting nutrients. Although mixotrophic bacteria usually function with low organic carbon sources, the unusual capabilities of mixotrophic electroactive exoelectrogens and electrotrophs in bioelectrochemical systems and in microbial electrosynthesis for accelerating simultaneous metabolism of inorganic or organic C and N, S or heavy metals are reviewed. The identification of the mixotrophic properties of electroactive bacteria and their capability to drive mono- or bidirectional electron transfer processes are highly exciting and promising aspects. These aspects provide an appealing potential for unearthing new mixotrophic exoelectrogens and electrotrophs, and thus inspire the next generation of microbial electrochemical technology and mixotrophic bacterial metabolic engineering. KEY POINTS: • Mixotrophic bacteria efficiently and simultaneously remove C and N, S or heavy metals. • Exoelectrogens and electrotrophs accelerate metabolism of C and N, S or heavy metals. • New mixotrophic exoelectrogens and electrotrophs should be discovered and exploited.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Águas Residuárias , Bactérias/genética , Processos Heterotróficos , Nitrogênio
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of mirror therapy (MT) for phantom limb pain (PLP). DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, CNKI, and WanFang Data were used to search for studies published up to March 31, 2021. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the pain intensity of MT for PLP were performed. A total of 2094 articles were found. Among them, 10 were eligible for the final analysis. DATA EXTRACTION: The quality of the RCTs was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale by 2 independent reviewers. Outcome data were pooled according to follow-up intervals (1, 3, 6, and 12mo). Duration times were used as a basis for distinguishing subgroups. The primary evaluation was by visual analog scale. The PEDro scale was used to assess the methodological quality of studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: Meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant decrease in pain in the MT group vs the control group within 1 month (I2=0%; standardized mean difference [SMD]=-0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.79 to -0.13; P = .007). The patients with pain for longer than 1 year benefited more from MT (I2=0%; SMD=-0.46; 95% CI, -0.85 to -0.07; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: MT has beneficial effects for patients with PLP in the short-term, as evidenced by their improved pain scores. There was no evidence that MT had a long-term effect, but that may be a product of limited data. For patients with long-term PLP, MT may be an effective treatment.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 385(12): 1067-1077, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salt substitutes with reduced sodium levels and increased potassium levels have been shown to lower blood pressure, but their effects on cardiovascular and safety outcomes are uncertain. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, cluster-randomized trial involving persons from 600 villages in rural China. The participants had a history of stroke or were 60 years of age or older and had high blood pressure. The villages were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention group, in which the participants used a salt substitute (75% sodium chloride and 25% potassium chloride by mass), or to the control group, in which the participants continued to use regular salt (100% sodium chloride). The primary outcome was stroke, the secondary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events and death from any cause, and the safety outcome was clinical hyperkalemia. RESULTS: A total of 20,995 persons were enrolled in the trial. The mean age of the participants was 65.4 years, and 49.5% were female, 72.6% had a history of stroke, and 88.4% a history of hypertension. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.74 years. The rate of stroke was lower with the salt substitute than with regular salt (29.14 events vs. 33.65 events per 1000 person-years; rate ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 0.96; P = 0.006), as were the rates of major cardiovascular events (49.09 events vs. 56.29 events per 1000 person-years; rate ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.94; P<0.001) and death (39.28 events vs. 44.61 events per 1000 person-years; rate ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.95; P<0.001). The rate of serious adverse events attributed to hyperkalemia was not significantly higher with the salt substitute than with regular salt (3.35 events vs. 3.30 events per 1000 person-years; rate ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.37; P = 0.76). CONCLUSIONS: Among persons who had a history of stroke or were 60 years of age or older and had high blood pressure, the rates of stroke, major cardiovascular events, and death from any cause were lower with the salt substitute than with regular salt. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia; SSaSS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02092090.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Hipossódica , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China , Dieta Hipossódica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Potássio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
8.
Mycoses ; 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is associated with high mortality, the epidemiology and pathophysiology of which is poorly understood, especially in non-HIV populations. OBJECTIVES: We aim to explore the incidence, clinical risk factors, immunological profiles and potential influence of leukotriene A4 hydroxylase (LTA4H) on non-HIV CM IRIS populations. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, 101 previously untreated non-HIV CM patients were included. We obtained data for clinical variables, 27 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines levels and LTA4H genotype frequencies. Changes of CSF cytokines levels before and at IRIS occurrence were compared. RESULTS: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome was identified in 11 immunocompetent males, generating an incidence of 10.9% in non-HIV CM patients. Patients with higher CrAg titres (> 1:160) were more likely to develop IRIS, and titre of 1:1280 is the optimum level to predict IRIS occurrence. Baseline CSF cytokines were significantly higher in IRIS group, which indicated a severe host immune inflammation response. Four LTA4H SNPs (rs17525488, rs6538697, rs17525495 and rs1978331) exhibited significant genetic susceptibility to IRIS in overall non-HIV CM, while five cytokines were found to be associated with rs1978331, and baseline monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) became the only cytokine correlated with both IRIS and LTA4H SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that non-HIV CM patients with high fungal burden and severe immune inflammation response were more likely to developed IRIS. LTA4H polymorphisms may affect the pathogenesis of IRIS by regulating the level of baseline CSF MCP-1.

9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 664766, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421817

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a common obstetric disorder affecting 2-8% of pregnancy worldwide. Fibrosis is an important histological change occurring in preeclamptic placenta, and might depend on the excess deposition of collagen I. However, the role of fibrotic placenta and collagen I in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia remains unclear. Therefore, we analyzed the collagen deposition and the expression of Collagen I in human placenta by Masson staining, Sirius red staining and western blotting. Further, the role of collagen I in preeclampsia pathogenesis was studied in C57BL/6 mice. HTR-8/SVneo cells were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of collagen I in trophoblasts by transcriptome sequencing and pharmacological agonists. Human preeclamptic placenta exhibited a significantly higher degree of fibrosis in stem villi and terminal villi than normal placenta, and was characterized by collagen I deposition. In vivo, a single injection of collagen I on gestational day 0.5 led to an increase in systolic pressure of pregnant mice from gestational days 4.5-17.5, to a decrease in weight and number of embryos, and to enhanced placental collagen I expression and degree of fibrosis compared with control mice. In vitro, collagen I attenuated the proliferation and invasion of HTR-8SV/neo cells. This effect could be reversed by treatment with agonists of ERK and ß-catenin. Moreover, transcriptome sequencing demonstrated that signaling pathways related to cell proliferation and invasion were significantly downregulated in HTR-8SV/neo cells. Thus, we propose that collagen I induced preeclampsia-like symptoms by suppressing the proliferation and invasion of trophoblasts through inhibition of the ERK phosphorylation and WNT/ß-catenin signaling pathways. Our findings could pave the way to the discovery of small-molecule inhibitors for preeclampsia treatment and future studies with larger sample size are required.

10.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(11): 5294-5303, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) is mainly vectored by Bemisia tabaci in China, which has a worldwide distribution, and greatly reduces the yields of tomato and other vegetables. At present, control of ToCV has been focused mainly by the use of insecticides to control whitefly populations. Transcriptome sequencing showed high expression of the B. tabaci Bta11975 gene, an α-glucosidase (AGLU) during ToCV acquisition by whitefly Mediterranean (MED) species. To investigate the role of Bta11975 gene in ToCV acquisition and transmission by B. tabaci MED, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to reduce the expression of the Bta11975 gene. RESULTS: The relative expression of the Bta11975 gene was correlated with the ToCV content in B. tabaci. The AGLU is highly expressed in primary salivary gland and gut. After the Bta11975 gene was silenced, the gene expression of B. tabaci was reduced and B. tabaci mortality was increased. Besides, ToCV acquisition by B. tabaci at 48 and 72 h AAP was reduced, and ToCV transmission was significantly reduced by 25 or 50 of B. tabaci. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that suppression of expression of the Bta11975 gene in B. tabaci MED by RNAi can reduce acquisition and transmission of ToCV by B. tabaci MED.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , alfa-Glucosidases , Animais , Crinivirus , Hemípteros/genética , Doenças das Plantas , Interferência de RNA
11.
Dalton Trans ; 50(32): 11099-11105, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318845

RESUMO

Hydrogen is a promising substitute for non-renewable fossil fuels. Producing hydrogen fuel by electrolyzing water is an effective strategy to address the growing environmental problems. Platinum (Pt) is still the most active electrocatalyst to catalyze the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline media. Herein, we demonstrate that ultrafine candied haws-shaped PtWNi nanoalloys modified with the Ni species (Nin+) could be formed in the alkaline electroactivation process of PtWNi alloys. Notably, the Ni species (Nin+) promoted the decomposition of water and produced hydrogen intermediates, which were then immediately adsorbed on the surface of Pt and recombined into molecular hydrogen. Moreover, these hydrogen intermediates also enhanced the instability of the HO-H bond, leading to an increase in the total activity.

12.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e045929, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285006

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Reducing dietary salt consumption is a potentially cost-effective way to reduce blood pressure and the burden of CVD. To date, economic evidence has focused on sodium reduction in food industry or processed food with blood pressure as the primary outcome. This study protocol describes the planned within-trial economic evaluation of a low-sodium salt substitute intervention designed to reduce the risk of stroke in China. METHODS AND ANALYSES: The economic evaluation will be conducted alongside the Salt Substitute and Stroke Study: a 5-year large scale, cluster randomised controlled trial. The outcomes of interest are quality of life measured using the EuroQol-5-Dimensions and major adverse cardiovascular events. Costs will be estimated from a healthcare system perspective and will be sought from the routinely collected data available within the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses will be conducted, resulting in the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio expressed as cost per cardiovascular event averted and cost per quality-adjusted life year gained, respectively. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial received ethics approval from the University of Sydney Ethics Committee (2013/888) and Peking University Institutional Review Board (IRB00001052-13069). Informed consent was obtained from each study participant. Findings of the economic evaluation will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT02092090).


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
13.
Int Wound J ; 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219379

RESUMO

Current low-temperature plasma (LTP) devices essentially use a rare gas source with a short working distance (8 to 20 mm), low gas flow rate (0.12 to 0.3 m3 /h), and small effective treatment area (1-5 cm2 ), limiting the applications for which LTP can be utilised in clinical therapy. In the present study, a novel type of LTP equipment was developed, having the advantages of a free gas source (surrounding air), long working distance (8 cm), high gas flow rate (10 m3 /h), large effective treatment area (20 cm2 ), and producing an abundance of active substances (NOγ, OH, N2 , and O), effectively addressing the shortcomings of current LTP devices. Furthermore, it has been verified that the novel LTP device displays therapeutic efficacy in terms of acceleration of wound healing in normal and Type I diabetic rats, with enhanced wound kinetics, rate of condensation of wound area, and recovery ratio. Cellular and molecular analysis indicated that LTP treatment significantly reduced inflammation and enhanced re-epithelialization, fibroblast proliferation, deposition of collagen, neovascularization, and expression of TGF-ß, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in Type I diabetic rats. In conclusion, the novel LTP device provides a convenient and efficient tool for the treatment of clinical wounds.

14.
Anal Chem ; 93(31): 10841-10849, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284572

RESUMO

Retinal dopamine is believed to be involved in the development of myopia, which is projected to affect almost half of the world population's visual health by 2050. Direct visualization of dopamine in the retina with high spatial precision is essential for understanding the biochemical mechanism during the development of myopia. However, there are very few approaches for the direct detection of dopamine in the visual system, particularly in the retina. Here, we report surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based dopamine imaging in cells and retinal tissues with high spatial precision. The surface of gold nanoparticles is modified with N-butylboronic acid-2-mercaptoethylamine and 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid di(N-hydroxysuccinimide ester), which shows excellent specific reaction with dopamine. The existence of dopamine triggers the aggregation of gold nanoparticles that subsequently form plasmonic hot spots to dramatically increase the Raman signal of dopamine. The as-synthesized SERS nanoprobes have been evaluated and applied for dopamine imaging in living cells and retinal tissues in form-deprivation (FD) myopia guinea pigs, followed by further investigation on localized dopamine levels in the FD-treated mice. The results suggest a declined dopamine level in mice retina after 2-week FD treatment, which is associated with the development of myopia. Our approach will greatly contribute to better understanding the localized dopamine level associated with myopia and its possible treatments. Furthermore, the imaging platform can be utilized to sensing other important small molecules within the biological samples.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Animais , Dopamina , Cobaias , Camundongos , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise Espectral Raman
15.
Nanomicro Lett ; 13(1): 141, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138357

RESUMO

The highly immunosuppressive microenvironment after surgery has a crucial impact on the recurrence and metastasis in breast cancer patients. Programmable delivery of immunotherapy-involving combinations through a single drug delivery system is highly promising, yet greatly challenging, to reverse postoperative immunosuppression. Here, an injectable hierarchical gel matrix, composed of dual lipid gel (DLG) layers with different soybean phosphatidylcholine/glycerol dioleate mass ratios, was developed to achieve the time-programmed sequential delivery of combined cancer immunotherapy. The outer layer of the DLG matrix was thermally responsive and loaded with sorafenib-adsorbed graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles. GO under manually controlled near-infrared irradiation generated mild heat and provoked the release of sorafenib first to reeducate tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and promote an immunogenic tumor microenvironment. The inner layer, loaded with anti-CD47 antibody (aCD47), could maintain the gel state for a much longer time, enabling the sustained release of aCD47 afterward to block the CD47-signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) pathway for a long-term antitumor effect. In vivo studies on 4T1 tumor-bearing mouse model demonstrated that the DLG-based strategy efficiently prevented tumor recurrence and metastasis by locally reversing the immunosuppression and synergistically blocking the CD47-dependent immune escape, thereby boosting the systemic immune responses.

16.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072684

RESUMO

Unhealthy diets are underpinned by the over-consumption of packaged products. Data describing the ingredient composition of these products is limited. We sought to define the ingredients used in Australian packaged foods and beverages and assess associations between the number of ingredients and existing health indicators. Statements of ingredients were disaggregated, creating separate fields for each ingredient and sub-ingredient. Ingredients were categorised and the average number of ingredients per product was calculated. Associations between number of ingredients and both the nutrient-based Health Star Rating (HSR) and the NOVA level-of-processing classification were assessed. A total of 24,229 products, listing 233,113 ingredients, were included. Products had between 1 and 62 ingredients (median (Interquartile range (IQR)): 8 (3-14)). We identified 915 unique ingredients, which we organised into 17 major and 138 minor categories. 'Additives' were contained in the largest proportion of products (64.6%, (15,652/24,229)). The median number of ingredients per product was significantly lower in products with the optimum 5-star HSR (when compared to all other HSR score groups, p-value < 0.001) and significantly higher in products classified as ultra-processed (when compared to all other NOVA classification groups, p-value < 0.001). There is a strong relationship between the number of ingredients in a product and indicators of nutritional quality and level of processing.


Assuntos
Bebidas/classificação , Fast Foods/classificação , Rotulagem de Alimentos/classificação , Supermercados , Austrália , Valor Nutritivo
17.
Biomater Sci ; 9(14): 4803-4820, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018503

RESUMO

The immune response of the host towards a decellularized scaffold is complex. Not only can a number of immune cells influence this process, but also the characteristics, preparation and modification of the decellularized scaffold can significantly impact this reaction. Such factors can, together or alone, trigger immune cells to polarize towards either a pro-healing or pro-inflammatory direction. In this article, we have comprehensively reviewed factors which may influence the immune response of the host towards a decellularized scaffold, including the source of the biomaterial, biophysical properties or modifications of the scaffolds with bioactive peptides, drugs and cytokines. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism has also been recapitulated.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular , Tecidos Suporte , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Imunidade , Engenharia Tecidual , Cicatrização
18.
FASEB J ; 35(6): e21555, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046947

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) is a life-threatening disease of pregnant women associated with severe hypertension, proteinuria, or multi-organ injuries. Mitochondrial-mediated placental oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of PE. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be revealed. Here, we identify Rnd3, a small Rho GTPase, regulating placental mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). We showed that Rnd3 is down-regulated in primary trophoblasts isolated from PE patients. Loss of Rnd3 in trophoblasts resulted in excessive ROS generation, cell apoptosis, mitochondrial injury, and proton leakage from the respiratory chain. Moreover, Rnd3 overexpression partially rescues the mitochondrial defects and oxidative stress in human PE primary trophoblasts. Rnd3 physically interacts with the peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and promotes the PPARγ-mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) cascade. Forced expression of PPARγ rescues deficiency of Rnd3-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that Rnd3 acts as a novel protective factor in placental mitochondria through PPARγ-UCP2 signaling and highlight that downregulation of Rnd3 is a potential factor involved in PE pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/patologia , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Placenta/patologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/patologia , Trofoblastos/patologia , Proteína Desacopladora 2/metabolismo , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , PPAR gama/genética , Placenta/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Gravidez , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 2/genética , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/genética
19.
Brain Res Bull ; 173: 124-131, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974897

RESUMO

Ischaemic stroke is attributable to cerebrovascular disease and is associated with high morbidity, disability, mortality and recurrence. Autophagy is a critical mediator and plays dual roles in ischaemic stroke. Autophagy can protect against ischaemic brain injury during the early stage of ischaemic stroke, while excessive autophagy can induce apoptosis and exacerbate brain injury. However, the time-dependent variations in autophagy in ischaemic stroke are unknown. C57BL/6 mice were used to establish a model of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (tMCAO). The neurological functional scores and infarct volumes were determined at 1 d, 3 d, 5 d, and 7 d after modelling. The levels of Beclin-1, LC3B, p62, GFAP, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, ROS, 4-HNE and 8-OHDG were measured by ELISA, RT-PCR, immunofluorescence analysis and western blotting. The morphology of autophagosomes of ischaemic penumbra was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Beclin-1, LC3B, ROS, 4-HNE, 8-OHDG, GFAP, TNF-α and IL-6 levels increased (P < 0.01), while p62 and IL-10 levels decreased (P < 0.01) after tMCAO compared to those in the sham group. Beclin-1, LC3B, ROS, 4-HNE, 8-OHDG, GFAP, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were reduced in tMCAO mice at 3 d, 5 d and 7 d (P<0.05), and p62 and IL-10 levels were enhanced (P < 0.05) compared to those at 1 d. In addition, Beclin-1 positively correlated with LC3B, GFAP, TNF-α, IL-6, ROS, 4-HNE and 8-OHDG (P < 0.05), and Beclin-1 negatively correlated with p62 and IL-10 (P < 0.05). The number of autophagosomes was consistent with the expression of autophagy marker proteins, both showing a steady decrease. In summary, autophagy was activated within 7 d of tMCAO induction, and it strengthened at 1 d and then weakened steadily from 3 to 7 d. In addition, this study verified that autophagy positively correlated with the inflammatory response and oxidative stress at 7 d after tMCAO.

20.
Infect Genet Evol ; 92: 104870, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-migration infection and domestic transmission of HIV-1 between immigrants and local population are critical for the HIV epidemic, but have not been addressed thus far in China. METHODS: Transmission clusters were analyzed with two cluster reconstruction methods, HIV-TRACE and Cluster Picker, using 1695 HIV-1 pol sequences obtained from 139 HIV-infected foreigners and 1556 Chinese natives in Guangzhou, China from 2008 to 2012. The geographic origin of the HIV-1 sequences was further determined by PastML while the factors associated with recent HIV-1 transmission were documented by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: HIV-1 genotypes that are prevalent in African and East Asian countries were identified in HIV-infected Chinese subjects and vice versa. In addition, more NRTI drug resistance mutations were found in HIV-infected foreigners than in native Chinese (p < 0.001). HIV-1 transmission between HIV-infected foreigners and native Chinese individuals was documented in 12.95% (18/139) of the HIV-infected foreigners. Furthermore, Asian (odds ratio [OR] = 3.45), male (OR = 16.88) and those with known HIV-1 infection routes (OR = 3.23) were more likely associated with recent HIV-1 transmission in China. The Chinese natives linked to recent HIV-1 transmission were more likely to be infected through men who have sex with men (OR = 3.05) or people who inject drugs (OR = 3.05), rather than by heterosexual transmission. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates the impact of recent HIV-1 transmission between HIV-infected foreigners and Chinese natives on the HIV-1 epidemic in Guangzhou, China. Moreover, the results highlight the importance of phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 surveillance data and the need for specific prevention strategies that target the immigrant population.

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