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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(22): 5797-5803, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951167

RESUMO

Schisandra sphenanthera is dioecious and only the fruits of female plants can be used as medicine and food. It is of great significance for the cultivation and production of S. sphenanthera to explore the differences between male and female plants at the non-flowering stage and develop the identification markers at non-flowering or seedling stage. In this study, the transcriptome of male and female leaves of S. sphenanthera at the non-flowering stage was sequenced by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology and analyzed based on bioinformatics. A total of 236 682 transcripts were assembled by Trinity software and 171 588 were chosen as unigenes. Finally, 1 525 differentially expressed genes(DEGs) were identified, with 458 up-regulated and 1 067 down-regulated in female lea-ves. The down-regulated genes mainly involve photosynthesis, photosynthesis-antenna protein, carbon fixation in photosynthetic or-ganisms, and other pathways. Real-time quantitative PCR(qPCR) identified two genes between male and female leaves and one of them was a HVA22-like gene related to floral organ development and abscisic acid(ABA). Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was applied to determine the content of ABA, auxin, gibberellin, and zeatin riboside(ZR) in leaves of S. sphenanthera. The results showed that the content of ABA and ZR in male leaves was significantly higher than that in female leaves. The involvement of down-regulated genes in female leaves in the photosynthesis pathway and the significant differences in the content of endogenous hormones between male and female leaves lay a scientific basis for analyzing the factors affecting sex differentiation of S. sphenanthera.


Assuntos
Schisandra , Ácido Abscísico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma
2.
Biotechnol Adv ; : 107845, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627952

RESUMO

There are sharply rising demands for pharmaceutical proteins, however shortcomings associated with traditional protein production methods are obvious. Genetic engineering of plant cells has gained importance as a new strategy for protein production. But most current genetic manipulation techniques for plant components, such as gene gun bombardment and Agrobacterium mediated transformation are associated with irreversible tissue damage, species-range limitation, high risk of integrating foreign DNAs into the host genome, and complicated handling procedures. Thus, there is urgent expectation for innovative gene delivery strategies with higher efficiency, fewer side effect, and more practice convenience. Materials based nanovectors have established themselves as novel vehicles for gene delivery to plant cells due to their large specific surface areas, adjustable particle sizes, cationic surface potentials, and modifiability. In this review, multiple techniques employed for plant cell-based genetic engineering and the applications of nanovectors are reviewed. Moreover, different strategies associated with the fusion of nanotechnology and physical techniques are outlined, which immensely augment delivery efficiency and protein yields. Finally, approaches that may overcome the associated challenges of these strategies to optimize plant bioreactors for protein production are discussed.

3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(15): 3814-3823, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472254

RESUMO

Volatile oil is the main effective component and an important quality indicator of Artemisia argyi leaves. In this study, 100 germplasm resources of A. argyi were collected from all the related habitats in China. The total volatile oils in A. argyi leaves were extracted by steam distillation and the content was determined by GC-MS. The result demonstrated that the content of total volatile oils was in the range of 0.53%-2.55%, with the average of 1.43%. A total of 39 chemical constituents were identified from the volatile oils, including 13 shared by the 100 germplasm resources. Clustering analysis of the 39 constituents showed that the 100 A. argyi samples were categorized into groups Ⅰ(9), Ⅱ(2), Ⅲ(66) and Ⅳ(23), and group Ⅲ had the most volatile medicinal components, with the highest content. Five principal components(PCs) were extracted from 13 shared constituents, which explained 73.454% of the total variance. PC1, PC2, and PC3 mainly reflected the pharmacological activity of volatile oils and the rest two the aroma information. The volatile oils identified in this study lay a foundation for variety breeding of and rational utilization of volatile oils in A. argyi leaves.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Óleos Voláteis , Destilação , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(15): 3838-3845, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472257

RESUMO

The longevity mechanism of ginseng(Panax ginseng) is related to its strong meristematic ability. In this paper, this study used bioinformatic methods to identify the members of the ginseng TCP gene family in the whole genome and analyzed their sequence characteristics. Then, quantitative real-time fluorescent PCR was performed to analyze the TCP genes containing elements rela-ted to meristem expression in the taproots, fibrous roots, stems, and leaves. According to the data, this study further explored the expression specificity of TCP genes in ginseng tissues, which facilitated the dissection of the longevity mechanism of ginseng. The ginseng TCP members were identified and analyzed using PlantTFDB, ExPASy, MEME, PLANTCARE, TBtools, MEGA and DNAMAN. The results demonstrated that there were 60 TCP gene family members in ginseng, and they could be divided into two classes: Class Ⅰ and Class Ⅱ, in which the Class Ⅱ possessed two subclasses: CYC-TCP and CIN-TCP. The deduced TCP proteins in ginseng had the length of 128-793 aa, the isoelectric point of 4.49-9.84 and the relative molecular mass of 14.2-89.3 kDa. They all contained the basic helix-loop-helix(bHLH) domain. There are a variety of stress response-related cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of ginseng TCP genes, and PgTCP20-PgTCP24 contained the elements associated with meristematic expression. The transcription levels of PgTCP20-PgTCP24 were high in fibrous roots and leaves, but low in stems, indicating the tissue-specific expression of ginseng TCP genes. The Class Ⅰ TCP members which contained PgTCP20-PgTCP23, may be important regulators for the growth and development of ginseng roots.


Assuntos
Panax , Fatores de Transcrição , Biologia Computacional , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Panax/genética , Panax/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(17): 4380-4388, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581040

RESUMO

Safflower(Carthamus tinctorius), a valuable traditional Chinese medicinal plant, has attracted much attention in recent years. This study established a stable tissue culture system of safflower and analyzed the chromatogram of its secondary metabolites, providing high-quality experimental materials for further research on natural products in safflower. The calluses were established from the safflower seeds germinated in a sterile environment, and then they were differentiated into the aseptic seedlings, or cultured to obtain suspension cells in liquid medium. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), Progenesis QI, and principal component analysis(PCA) were used to detect and analyze the secondary metabolites in the suspension cells before and after induction with different elicitors(methyl jasmonate, silver nitrate, salicylic acid and yeast extract). A total of 23 secondary metabolites including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, fatty acids and aromatic glycosides were detected in safflower suspension cells. In response to the four elicitors, 11 compounds showed increased or decreased relative content. The results indicate that different elicitors have various effects on the accumulation of secondary metabolites in safflower suspension cells, and yeast extract shows more obvious positive induction. Therefore, different elicitors may play a role in the expression of related genes in the biosynthetic pathway of specific secondary metabolites. The results facilitate the discovery of targeted elicitors and the large-scale production of valuable secondary metabolites in the future.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavonoides , Glicosídeos , Espectrometria de Massas
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4111-4116, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467721

RESUMO

Sanguinarine is the main active component of the Papaver plants, and protopine-6-hydroxylase(P6 H), involved in the sanguinarine biosynthetic pathway, can oxidize protopine to 6-hydroxyprotopine. The investigation on the diversity of P6 H genes in the medicinal Papaver plants contributes to the acquirement of P6 H with high activity to increase the biosynthesis of sanguinarine. Five P6 H genes in P. somniferum, P. orientale, and P. rhoeas were discovered based on the re-sequencing data of the Papaver species, followed by bioinformatics analysis. With the elongation factor 1α(EF-1α), which exhibits stable expression in the root and stem, as the internal reference gene, the transcription levels of P6H genes in roots and stems of the Papaver plants were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. As indicated by the re-sequencing results, there were two genotypes of P6H in P. somniferum and P. orientale, respectively, and only one in P. rhoeas. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the P6 H proteins of the three Papaver plants contained the conserved domain cl12078, which is the characteristic of p450 supergene family, and transmembrane regions. The existence of signal peptide remained verification. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR results revealed that the transcription level of P6 H in roots of P. somniferum was about 1.44 times of that in stems(α=0.05). The present study confirmed genetic diversity of P6 H in the three medicinal Papaver plants, which lays a basis for the research on the biosynthesis pathway and mechanism of sanguinarine in Papaver species.


Assuntos
Alcaloides de Berberina , Papaver , Benzofenantridinas , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Variação Genética , Papaver/genética
7.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 35(12): e5175, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390018

RESUMO

Viscum articulatum Burm. f. is a parasitic plant rich in flavonoids, triterpenoids, and catechins and has a high nutritional value. It has been reported that consuming V. articulatum can prevent cardiac diseases. In this study, six bioactive compounds, including catechins, triterpenoids, and phenylpropanoid glycosides, were determined in alcohol extracts of the plant using HPLC. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of three catechins, two triterpenoids, and three combination drugs were measured in cardiomyocytes, and the results showed that the anti-inflammatory activity was significantly enhanced while retaining strong antioxidant activity when epicatechin and ursolic acid were used in combination. The main quality markers epicatechin and ursolic acid were screened based on the specificity of the genuine herb and a potent synergistic effect, and the lowest limitation contents of V. articulatum which could discriminate it from some other taxonomically similar materials were accordingly determined. This self-built lowest limitation content of the two screened quality markers could quickly and accurately reflect the efficacy in terms of chemical composition and reverse the disorderly market use of nongenuine herbs or confusing species for adulteration. This study is of some significance for market regulation, drug development, and clinical medication.

8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(13): 3319-3329, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396751

RESUMO

The basic features of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on leaves of Artemisia argyi( germplasms from Qichun,Ningbo,Tangyin,and Anguo,respectively) and related species A. stolonifera were observed by scanning electron microscopy( SEM)and compared. There were significant differences in trichome characteristics of leaves at all parts of A. argyi and A. stolonifera,which were closely related to the difference in chemical components. The length of non-glandular trichomes and size of glandular trichomes on middle leaves were the stablest. A. argyi and A. stolonifera can be distinguished by the density of glandular trichome. Additionally,the four germplasms of A. argyi can be discriminated via the density and curvature of non-glandular trichome. The density of non-glandular trichomes was the highest in A. stolonifera. For A. argyi,the germplasm from Qichun had the highest density of non-glandular trichomes on the abaxial surfaces of upper leaves and that from Ningbo had the largest non-glandular trichome curvature. With regard to the germplasm from Anguo,the T-shaped non-glandular trichomes of long stalks on the adaxial surfaces of the middle leaves were lodging-susceptible,and those with slender heads were wave-like. Statistics results of A. argyi and A. stolonifera are as follows: largest glandular trichomes on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces and highest glandular trichome density on the abaxial surfaces of the lower leaves in A. argyi germplasm from Ningbo,highest density of non-glandular trichomes on the abaxial surfaces of upper leaves in A. stolonifera,and highest density of glandular trichomes and non-glandular trichomes on the adaxial surfaces of the upper leaves in A. argyi germplasm from Qichun. According to the observation result under fluorescence microscope( FM),flavonoids were closely related to the size and density of non-glandular trichomes and size of glandular trichomes. The fluorescence intensity was the strongest and fluorescence area was the largest for flavonoids in A. argyi germplasms from Qichun and Tangyin,while the fluorescence for flavonoids was the weakest in A. stolonifera. It was the first time to observe and analyze the trichome ultrastructure of A. argyi leaves at different positions by SEM and FM. This study clarifies the differences between A. stolonifera and four famous A. argyi germplasms,which provides new evidence for the microscopic identification of A. argyi and its related species and serves as a reference for the study of the relationship of A. argyi structure with its components and functions.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Tricomas , Flavonoides , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Folhas de Planta
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(14): 3455-3464, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402267

RESUMO

Chinese materia medica( CMM) serves as an important cornerstone for the development of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) culture and industry due to its unique ecological,medical,economic,scientific and technological,and cultural values. The supply shortage and unstable quality of some CMM resources have hindered the development of TCM. Ensuring the sustainable use of CMM resources has become essential for the development of TCM in China. Enriching CMM resources is the key to ensuring the sustainable utilization of TCM resources in China,which can be achieved via expanding the medicinal parts,developing the substitutes,seeking for analogues,exploring the ethnic and folk medicines,or introducing foreign medicinal materials. CMM efficacy or function positioning plays a very important role in the transformation of new CMM resources. The strategies and methods for efficacy or function positioning of new CMM resources,including analogy,plant genetic relationship exploration,medicinal property deduction,ethnobotanical investigation,text mining,network pharmacology,and structure-activity relationship exploration,were systematically proposed in this study based on CMM theory,textual research,and modern methodologies. This paper is expected to provide a theoretical reference for the continuous enrichment and development of CMM resources and the high-quality development of TCM culture and industry.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , China , Mineração de Dados , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(11): 2737-2745, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296570

RESUMO

Drynariae Rhizoma is warm in nature and bitter in taste, mainly acting on liver and kidney systems. It is a common Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of fracture and bone injury. The chemical compositions of Drynariae Rhizoma mainly include flavonoids, triterpenoids, phenylpropanoids and lignans. At present, modern pharmacological and clinical studies have shown that Drynariae Rhizoma has the effects of anti osteoporosis, promoting fracture healing, kidney protection, anti-inflammatory, promoting tooth growth, preventing and treating aminoglycoside ototoxicity and lowering blood lipid. In addition, the toxicity evaluation experiment of Drynariae Rhizoma has also shown that it has no obvious toxic and side effects. Naringin is a kind of dihydroflavone in Drynariae Rhizoma. Many studies have shown that naringin and other total flavonoids play an important role in anti-osteoporosis, promoting fracture healing, anti-inflammation, promoting tooth growth and lowering blood lipid. In this study, the research progresses on chemical consti-tuents and pharmacological activities of Drynariae Rhizoma in recent years were reviewed, and some mechanisms of action were summarized, to provide references for the further research and development of Drynariae Rhizoma.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Osteoporose , Polypodiaceae , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavonoides , Humanos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Rizoma
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(11): 2806-2815, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296579

RESUMO

The plant root-associated microbiomes include root microbiome and rhizosphere microbiome, which are closely related to plant life activities. Nearly 30% of photosynthesis products of plants are used to synthesize root compounds, there is evidence that root compounds regulate and significantly affect the root microbiome Tanshinones are the main hydrophobic components in Salvia miltiorrhiza. In order to study whether these compounds can regulate the root-associated microbiomes of S. miltiorrhiza, our study first identified a white root S. miltiorrhiza(BG) which contains little tanshinones. Retain of the fifth intron of tanshinones synthesis key enzyme gene SmCPS1 leading to the early termination of the SmCPS1 gene, and a stable white root phenotype. Further, wild type(WT) and BG were planted in greenhouse with nutrient soil(Pindstrup, Denmark) and Shandong soil(collected from the S. miltiorrhiza base in Weifang, Shandong), then high-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the root-associated microbiomes. The results showed that the tanshinones significantly affected the root-associated microbiomes of S. miltiorrhiza, and the impact on root microbiomes was more significant. There are significant differences between WT and BG root microbiomes in species richness, dominant strains and co-occurrence network. Tanshinones have a certain repelling effect on Bacilli which belongs to Gram-positive, while specifically attract some Gram-negative bacteria such as Betaproteobacteria and some specific genus of Alphaproteobacteria. This study determined the important role of tanshinones in regulating the structure of root-associated microbiomes from multiple angles, and shed a light for further improving the quality and yield of S. miltiorrhiza through microenvironment regulation.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Abietanos , Raízes de Plantas
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(10): 2467-2473, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047092

RESUMO

Plants have a memory function for the environmental stress they have suffered. When they are subjected to repeated environmental stress, they can quickly and better activate the response and adaptation mechanism to environmental stress, thus realizing long-term stable reproduction. However, most of the relevant studies are applied to crops and Arabidopsis thaliana rather than medicinal plants about the improvement of plant growth status and the effect on phytoalexin biosynthesis. In this study, yeast extract(YE) was used as an elicitor to simulate biotic stress, and the changes in biomass and the content of some secondary metabolites were measured by giving repeated stresses to Sorbus aucuparia suspension cell(SASC). The results showed that the accumulation levels of biomass and some secondary metabolites in SASC subjected to repeated stress are significantly increased at some time points compared with single stress. A phenomenon that SASC can memorize biotic stress is confirmed in this study and influences phytoalexin accumulation in SASC. Furthermore, the work laid the groundwork for research into the transgenerational stress memory mechanism of medicinal plant.


Assuntos
Sorbus , Células Cultivadas , Metabolismo Secundário , Estresse Fisiológico
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(9): 2119-2132, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047112

RESUMO

Based on the systematic retrieval and the reported components of Sojae Semen Nigrum and Sojae Semen Praeparatum, this study conducted in-depth analysis of conversion of components in the fermentation process, and discussed types and possible mec-hanisms of conversion of chemical components, so as to provide the basis for studying technology, medicinal ingredients and quality standards. According to the analysis, there is a certain degree of conversion of nutrients(like protein, sugar, lipid), bioactive substances(like isoflavones, saponins, γ-aminobutyric acid) and other substances(like nucleosides, melanoids, biamines, etc) in the process of fermentation.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas , Soja , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Isoflavonas/análise , Sêmen/química
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(9): 2182-2189, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047119

RESUMO

Carboxyl CoA ligases(CCLs) is an important branch of adenylate synthetase gene family, which mainly has two-step catalytic reactions. Firstly, in the presence of adenosine triphosphate, it can catalyze the pyrophosphorylation of carboxylateswith diffe-rent structures to form corresponding acyl adenosine monophosphate intermediates. Secondly, adenosine monophosphate was replaced by free electrons in the mercaptan group of enzyme A or other acyl receptors by nucleophilic attack to form thioesters. In this study, on the basis of the transcriptome database of Arnebia euchroma, two genes were selected, named AeCCL5(XP_019237476.1) and AeCCL7(XP_019237476.1). Bioinformatics analysis showed that their relative molecular weights were 60.569 kDa and 60.928 kDa, theoretical PI were 8.59 and 8.92, respectively. They both have transmembrane domains but without signal peptide. By multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis, we found that the similarity between AeCCLs and other plant homologous proteins was not high, and the substrate binding sites of AeCCLs were not highly conserved. The reasons might be that the sequence and structure need to adapt to the changes of new substrates in the process of evolution. In this study, the full-length of AeCCL5 and AecCCL7 were cloned into the expression vector pCDFDuet-1. The proteins of AeCCL5 and AeCCL7 with His-tag were expressed in Escherichia coli. The proteins of AeCCL5 and AeCCL7 were purified by nickel column. In vitro enzymatic reactions proved that both AeCCL5 and AeCCL7 can participate in the upstream phenylpropane pathway of shikonin biosynthesisby catalyzing 4-coumaric acid to produce 4-coumarin-CoA, and then to synthesis p-hydroxybenzoic acid, which is an important precursor of shikonin biosynthesis in A. euchroma.


Assuntos
Boraginaceae , Coenzima A Ligases , Boraginaceae/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Coenzima A , Coenzima A Ligases/genética , Ligases , Filogenia
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(8): 1851-1857, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982491

RESUMO

This study steps through four key principles, four open problems and future perspectives of Chinese materia medica(CMM) ecological agriculture by presenting the historical development, existing theories and practice outcomes. Then, it focuses on refining the main principles of CMM ecological agriculture:(1)the principles of ecological niche associated with yield and comprehensive income;(2)principles of biological diversity associated with the integrated control of diseases, pests and weeds;(3)principles of adversity effects associated with the quality improvement of CMM;(4)principles of structural stability associated with the sustainable development of CMM ecological agriculture. On this basis, four burning issues of CMM ecological agriculture were obtained,(1)ecological planting mode and supporting technologies need to be perfect;(2)multi-integrated industrial coupling remains to strengthen;(3) quality assurance system of CMM ecological agriculture and high-quality and favorable price model remains to be formed;(4)awareness of the demonstration and extension of CMM ecological agriculture needs to be desired. Finally, suggestions for the sustainable development of CMM ecological agriculture are put forward:(1)strengthen the national planning and layout, develop CMM ecological agriculture accor-ding to local conditions;(2)pay equal attention to inheritance and innovation, and strengthen the theory and practical technology research of CMM ecological agriculture;(3)strengthen industrial coupling and realize the transformation of CMM ecological agriculture from a production-based to a multi-in-one compound model;(4)intensify standards and brands, building a quality assurance system for CMM ecological products;(5) publicize the demonstration and popularization of CMM ecological agriculture. In summary, the development of CMM ecological agriculture possessed a firmer theory and practice foundation, although there is still much room for improvement. A better field of Chinese medicine agricultural development with immense economic and social benefits will not a question of "if" but "when" by accurately grasp the way forward.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Agricultura , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(8): 1869-1875, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982494

RESUMO

Ecological agriculture is a crucial way for agriculture of Chinese materia medica, which emphasizes the application of ecological principles in the cultivation of traditional Chinese medicine. While long-term intensive farming and modern chemical agriculture have threatened soil health, the sustainable development of ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica is constrained. No-til-lage can reduce both frequency and intensity of tillage. Compared with conventional agriculture, no-tillage can reduce soil disturbance, maintain no-tillage for a long or permanent period and keep mulching. The application of no-tillage has a long history. More and more studies have shown that no-tillage has many advantages over conventional tillage, and the ecological and economic benefits of no-tillage are particularly outstandingin long-term. The cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials adheres to the principle of not grabbing land from farmland, making full use of the soil resources under forests, mountains and wasteland. Reducing the risk of soil loss and sustai-nable utilization are the core issues in the process of new land cultivation. No-tillage application, which not only inherits the traditional Chinese concept of natural farming, but also integrates the laws of ecological agriculture, will become the core strategies of sustainable development of Chinese materia medica ecological agriculture. This study will introduce the basic concepts and development process of no-tillage, analyze their ecological benefits in ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica, and put forward their application strategies.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Agricultura , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 277: 114216, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044076

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, a famous traditional medicinal herb for collapse, rheumatic fever, and painful joints, always raises global concerns about its fatal toxicity from toxic alkaloids when improperly processed. Therefore, it is urgent to clarify the internal molecular mechanism of processing detoxification on Aconitum and develop simple and reliable approaches for clinical application, which is also of great significance to the rational medicinal use of Aconitum. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aimed at developing a complete molecular mechanism exploration strategy in complex medicinal herb decocting system, clarifying the internal molecular mechanism of processing detoxification on Aconitum, and exploring valid approaches for detoxification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata (Fuzi) was selected as the model for exploring the complex Aconitum detoxification mechanism using an advanced online real-time platform based on extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The methods realized the sensitive capture of dynamic trace intermediates, accurate qualitative and quantitative analysis, and real-time and long-term monitoring of multi-components with satisfactory accuracy and resistance to complex matrices. RESULTS: Components in the complex Aconitum decocting system were real-timely characterized and fat meat was discovered and verified to directionally detoxify Aconitum while reserving the therapy effect. More importantly, the dynamic detoxification mechanism in the chemically complex Aconitum decoction was molecularly profiled. A novel reaction pathway based on nucleophilic substitution reaction mechanism was proposed. As confirmed by the theoretic calculations at DFT B3LYP/6-31G (d) levels, fatty acids (e.g., palmitic acid) acted as a green, cheap, and high-performance catalyst and promote the decomposition of toxic diester alkaloids to non-toxic and active benzoyl-monoester alkaloids through the discovered mechanism. CONCLUSION: The study exposed a novel detoxification molecular mechanism of Aconitum and provided an effective method for the safe use of Aconitum, which could effectively guide the development of traditional processing technology and compatibility regulation of the toxic herb and had great value to the modernization and standardization development of traditional medicine.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Diterpenos/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/toxicidade , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(5): 1117-1119, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787104

RESUMO

Based on the investigation of wild medicinal plant resources in Dexing city, Jiangxi province, and the collected plant specimens, which were identified by taxonomy, two new record species of geographical distribution were found, which are Meehania zheminensis A. Takano, Pan Li & G.-H. Xia and Corydalis huangshanensis L.Q.Huang & H.S.Peng. The voucher specimens are kept in Dexing museum of traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, the new distribution species were reported, which provides valuable information for further enriching and supplementing the species diversity of medicinal plant resources in Jiangxi province.


Assuntos
Corydalis , Lamiaceae , Plantas Medicinais , China , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Museus
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(5): 1141-1147, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787108

RESUMO

The volatile oil from Mastiche and Olibanum medicinal materials was extracted by steam distillation, and the chemical components of the volatile oil were analyzed by GC-MS technology. The differences of the volatile oil components were compared and study on the Helicobacter pylori in vitro antimicrobial activitiy was conducted. The results showed that the yields of the volatile oil from Mastiche and Olibanum were 11.93% and 2.40%, respectively. A total of 46 compounds(91.31%) were identified from the volatile oil from Mastiche annd 35 compounds(92.49%) from Olibanum. The classification and comparison study of the components showed that the content of monoterpenes in the volatile oil from Mastiche was the highest(40.69%), followed by alcohols(28.48%); while the content of alcohols in the volatile oil from Olibanum was the highest(35.81%), followed by esters(24.92%). There were significant differences in the components of volatile oil from Mastiche and Olibanum, which might be one of the reasons for the difference in efficacy and application. In vitro bacteriostatic experiments showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) of the volatile oil from Mastiche against H. pylori was 1 mg·mL~(-1), and the MIC of the volatile oil from Olibanum against H. pylori was more than 1 mg·mL~(-1). In combination with the results of the oil yield experiment, Mastiche had the advantage of inhibiting H. pylori activity. The research results provide scientific basis for the rational application of Mastiche and Olibanum.


Assuntos
Franquincenso , Helicobacter pylori , Óleos Voláteis , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(6): 1438-1449, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787142

RESUMO

In order to better utilize saffron floral bio-residues(SFB), a qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids in SFB was conducted using UPLC-MS and UPLC, respectively. On the one hand, 50 flavonols and 5 anthocyanins were putatively characte-rized by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. On the other hand, an UPLC method was established for determining the fingerprint of SFB as well as testing the main flavonoids kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside and delphinidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside. Contents of kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside and delphinidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside of 10 batches of samples were 44.21-58.73 mg·g~(-1) and 2.11-6.37 mg·g~(-1), respectively, and the similarities of 10 batches were more than 0.99. In addition, the color of the samples was digitized by using electronic eye technology, and it was found that the color of the samples was significantly correlated with the content of delphinidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside. The richness of flavonoids in SFB indicated its potential for development and utilization, and the large variation in anthocyanin content among samples from different regions suggested that more attention should be paid to the methods of sample pretreatment and storage.


Assuntos
Crocus , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavonoides , Flores , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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