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1.
Phytochemistry ; 183: 112644, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429352

RESUMO

The genus Corydalis is a botanical source of various pharmaceutically active components. Its member species have been widely used in traditional medicine systems in Southeast Asia, especially in China for thousands of years. They have been administered to treat the common cold, hypertension, hepatitis, hemorrhage, edema, gastritis, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and neurological disorders. Analgesia is the most important effect of Corydalis products, which are relatively non-addictive and associated with low tolerance compared with other analgesics. Certain Corydalis species are rich in alkaloids, which have strong biological activity, and also contain coumarins, flavonoids, steroids, organic acids and other chemical components. These constituents have pharmacological efficacy against diseases of the nervous, cardiovascular and digestive systems. Numerous investigations have been performed on these plants and their components. Here, we systemically summarized the chemical constituents of important medicinal member species of Corydalis that have been reported since 1962. A total 381 alkaloids were enumerated, including 117 quaternary isoquinoline type, 60 Benzophenanthridine type, 37 aporphine type, 10 protopine type, 59 phthalide isoquinoline type, 52 simple isoquinoline-type, 25 lignin amides and 21 other alkaloids. Thus, we have provided a basis for further explorations into the pharmacologically active constituents of Corydalissp.(Papaveraceae) to develop medicines that exert strong effects, are relatively non-addictive, and result in few side effects.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113415, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987126

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Atractylodis Rhizoma (AR), mainly includes Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC. (A. lancea) and Atractylodes chinensis (DC.) Koidz. (A. chinensis) is widely used in East Asia as a diuretic and stomachic drug, for the treatment of rheumatic diseases, digestive disorders, night blindness, and influenza as it contains a variety of sesquiterpenoids and other components of medicinal importance. AIM OF THE REVIEW: A systematic summary on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and quality control of AR was presented to explore the future therapeutic potential and scientific potential of this plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the literature was performed by consulting scientific databases including Google Scholar, Web of Science, Baidu Scholar, Springer, PubMed, ScienceDirect, CNKI, etc. Plant taxonomy was confirmed to the database "The Plant List". RESULTS: Over 200 chemical compounds have been isolated from AR, notably sesquiterpenoids and alkynes. Various pharmacological activities have been demonstrated, especially improving gastrointestinal function and thus allowed to assert most of the traditional uses of AR. CONCLUSIONS: The researches on AR are extensive, but gaps still remain. The molecular mechanism, structure-activity relationship, potential synergistic and antagonistic effects of these components need to be further elucidated. It is suggested that further studies should be carried out in the aspects of comprehensive evaluation of the quality of medicinal materials, understanding of the "effective forms" and "additive effects" of the pharmacodynamic substances based on the same pharmacophore of TCM, and its long-term toxicity in vivo and clinical efficacy.

3.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 192: 113654, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120312

RESUMO

The proprietary Chinese medicine (PCM) has become a significant supplement of modern medicine. Nevertheless, the absence of quality control standard of compatible materials in PCM has led to serious adulteration, which has an extremely bad effect on safety of drug use and clinical efficacy. Here, a quality tracing evaluation strategy of compatible materials in 32 Aconitum proprietary Chinese medicines (APCMs) was established, including data normalization, model development, model verification, and unknown prescription cracking. The model was delimited based on the weighted content of total 9 key alkaloids in 24 APCMs, which were 5.65-57.10 µg/g for extract medicines and 42.62-380.61 µg/g for powder medicines. Three newly published commercial APCMs, including Wangbi Tablet, Wangbi Granule, and Fengshigutong Capsule, were used to verify its reliability and the results proved to be positive. Moreover, a novel prescription cracking approach was proposed to decode the content of each material in five unknown prescriptions including Yaoxitong Capsule, Tongrendahuoluo Pill, Xinbao Pill, Dahuoluo Capsule, and Mugua Pill. Ultimately, the single or two compatible Aconitum materials in APCMs was successfully decoded and the processed level of the materials were effectively judged. This study for the first time established a practical strategy for supervision and cracking of compatible materials in PCMs and is of great significance to improve the quality control of PCMs.

4.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 193: 113713, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160222

RESUMO

Aconitum L., the main source of Aconitum medicinal materials, is rich in diterpenoid alkaloids. Several drugs derived from diterpenoid alkaloids are widely used to the current clinical treatment of pain, inflammation, and other symptoms. This paper aims to clarify the main metabolites and distribution of diterpenoid alkaloids in different parts of Aconitum plants. To that end, 7 species of Aconitum from three subgenera were analyzed by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS under identical conditions. The fragmentation regularity of various types of diterpene alkaloids were determined and a total of 126 metabolites were identified by comparing the reference material and secondary mass spectrometry, with the literature. 67, 49, 17, 41, 14, 17 and 21 metabolites were identified from Aconitum carmichaeli, Aconitum stylosum, Aconitum sinomontanum, Aconitum vilmorinianum, Aconitum pendulum, Aconitum tanguticum and Aconitum gymnandrum, respectively. Meanwhile, the structure type of A. carmichaeli, A. stylosum, A. vilmorinianum, A. pendulum, A. gymnandrum were identified as C19 type, A. sinomontanum was C18 type, while A. tanguticum was C20 type. A high similarity of metabolites was found between A. stylosum and A. vilmorinianum. The quantitative analysis of 19 compounds and the relative peak area of all metabolites which obtained through internal standard berberine, highlighted compounds like karakoline, talatisamine and atisine as references for future study of metabolic pathways. Furthermore, results from metabolites distribution and relative peak area analysis suggest that the leaf of A. carmichaeli, the leaf and stem of A. stylosum and A. vilmorinianum, and the flower of A. pendulum have potential as medicinal resources and are worth further development. These results establish a foundation for the comprehensive utilization of Aconitum resources.

5.
Mol Ther ; 29(1): 13-31, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278566

RESUMO

Plant exosome-like nanovesicles, being innately replete with bioactive lipids, proteins, RNA, and other pharmacologically active molecules, offer unique morphological and compositional characteristics as natural nanocarriers. Furthermore, their compelling physicochemical traits underpin their modulative role in physiological processes, all of which have fostered the concept that these nanovesicles may be highly proficient in the development of next-generation biotherapeutic and drug delivery nanoplatforms to meet the ever-stringent demands of current clinical challenges. This review systemically deals with various facets of plant exosome-like nanovesicles ranging from their origin and isolation to identification of morphological composition, biological functions, and cargo-loading mechanisms. Efforts are made to encompass their biotherapeutic roles by elucidating their immunological modulating, anti-tumor, regenerative, and anti-inflammatory roles. We also shed light on re-engineering these nanovesicles into robust, innocuous, and non-immunogenic nanovectors for drug delivery through multiple stringent biological hindrances to various targeted organs such as intestine and brain. Finally, recent advances centered around plant exosome-like nanovesicles along with new insights into transdermal, transmembrane and targeting mechanisms of these vesicles are also elucidated. We expect that the continuing development of plant exosome-like nanovesicle-based therapeutic and delivery nanoplatforms will promote their clinical applications.

6.
Food Funct ; 11(12): 10839-10851, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241234

RESUMO

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is typically mediated by antibiotic therapy, which has increased in prevalence in recent years. Previous studies have suggested that ginger, a common spice and herbal medicine, can modulate the composition of gut microbiota and is beneficial against gastrointestinal disease. This study investigates the therapeutic effects of fresh ginger extract on AAD in a rat model. Gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function were also studied. Ginger was administered to rats with AAD. Diarrhea symptoms were assessed, and 16s rRNA sequencing analysis of gut microbiota was performed. An AAD model was successfully established, and ginger was found to effectively ameliorate AAD-related diarrhea symptoms. After the intervention of ginger decoction, the diversity (rather than richness) of gut microbiota was significantly improved, and the gut microbiota recovery was accelerated. At the genus level, Escherichia_Shigella and Bacteroides levels decreased and increased the most, respectively. Additionally, these changes were demonstrated to be coincidental with the moderate restoration of intestinal barrier function, especially the restoration of tight junction protein ZO-1. Our data indicate that ginger could restore gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function during alleviation of AAD.

7.
Chin J Nat Med ; 18(9): 641-642, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928507
8.
Chin J Nat Med ; 18(9): 659-665, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928509

RESUMO

Triterpenoids have been described in Andrographis paniculata. Oleanolic acid exhibits high biological activity and is widely used in the clinic, and ß-sitosterol not only has good biological activity but also plays an important physiological role in plants. However, analysis of the biosynthetic pathway of triterpenoids in Andrographis paniculata has not been reported. Here, we provide the first report of the isolation and identification of nine 2, 3-oxidosqualene cyclases (ApOSC3 to ApOSC11) from A. paniculata. The results showed that ApOSC4 represented a monofunctional synthase that could convert 2, 3-oxidosqualene to ß-amyrin. ApOSC5 as a bifunctional 2, 3-oxidosqualene cyclases, could transfer 2, 3-oxidosqualene to ß-amyrin and α-amyrin. ApOSC6 to ApOSC8 composed the multifunctional 2, 3-oxidosqualene cyclases that could convert 2, 3-oxidosqualene to ß-amyrin, α-amyrin and one or two undetermined triterpenoids. This study provides a better understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of triterpenoids in A. paniculata, and the discovery of multifunctional 2, 3-oxidosqualene cyclases ApOSC5 to ApOSC8 of the facilitates knowledge of the compounds diversity in A. paniculata.

9.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 10(8): 1511-1520, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963946

RESUMO

Development of rapid analytical methods and establishment of toxic component limitation standards are of great importance in quality control of traditional Chinese medicine. Herein, an on-line extraction electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (oEESI-MS) coupled with a novel whole process integral quantification strategy was developed and applied to direct determination of nine key aconitine-type alkaloids in 20 Aconitum proprietary Chinese medicines (APCMs). Multi-type dosage forms (e.g., tablets, capsules, pills, granules, and liquid preparation) of APCM could be determined directly with excellent versatility. The strategy has the characteristics of high throughput, good tolerance of matrix interference, small amount of sample (∼0.5 mg) and reagent (∼240 µL) consumption, and short analysis time for single sample (<15 min). The results were proved to be credible by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, respectively. Moreover, the limitation standard for the toxic aconitines in 20 APCMs was established based on the holistic weight toxicity (HWT) evaluation and the Chinese Pharmacopoeia severally, and turned out that HWT-based toxicity evaluation results were closer to the real clinical applications. Hence, a more accurate and reliable APCM toxicity limitation was established and expected to play an important guiding role in clinics. The current study extended the power of ambient MS as a method for the direct quantification of molecules in complex samples, which is commonly required in pharmaceutical analysis, food safety control, public security, and many other disciplines.

10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3651-3658, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893554

RESUMO

As an important substitute for agarwood, mountain-agarwood, belonging to the family Oleaceae, comes from the root, stem and thick branch of Syringa pinnatifolia, which has a wide range of application in Inner Mongolia, China. It has good clinical efficacy in the use of cardiovascular diseases. However, the formation speed of mountain-agarwood is extremely slow, and its cultivated seedlings have low resin content. Therefore, how to speed up the formation of mountain-agarwood and increase the resin content is a hot research topic in this field. In this work, 16 S rDNA amplicon sequencing method was used to systematically analyze the bacterial communities of different samples of mountain-agarwood. Our data revealed that the samples of mountain-agarwood had more obvious species diversity than the ones of non-mountain-agarwood, especially the wild mountain-agarwood samples. By analysis of bacterial community composition and species abundance, Sphingomonas, Modestobacter and unidentified Cyanobacteria genus were three dominant bacterial genera in all samples. In addition, there are two identified genera of dominant bacteria, namely Actinoplanes and Microbacterium in both wild and cultivated mountain-agarwood, by bacterial community composition and species richness analysis. Meanwhile, Roseomonas was the dominant bacterial genus in both wild and cultivated non-mountain-agarwood samples. Our work could provides basic data for exploring the mechanism of the mountain-agarwood formation, and help to exploit resource of endophytic bacteria reasonably.


Assuntos
Thymelaeaceae , Bactérias/genética , China , DNA Ribossômico , Resinas Vegetais
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3666-3671, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893556

RESUMO

Gastrodia elata is a kind of traditional Chinese medicinal materials and has good medicinal value. G. elata is divided into five varieties, which includes G. elata f. elata(proto variant), G. elata f. glauca, G. elata f. viridis, G. elata f. flavid and G. elata f. alba. Among them, G. elata f. elata and G. elata f. glauca have excellent characteristics and higher contents of gastrodin and polysaccharides. The hybrid of G. elata f. elata and G. elata f. glauca is present in markets, but the characteristics between hybrid and parent are not obvious and distinguished quickly and accurately. The aim of this study is to establish a PCR specific PCR identification method, which can identify G. elata f. elata, G. elata f. glauca and their hybrid. Based on the re-sequencing results of G. elata, we screened for the single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) variation sites, and designed two pairs of specific primers(W291-F/W291-R and H255-F/H255-R). We further collected G. elata f. elata, G. elata f. glauca and their hybrid samples from different regions, established and optimized PCR method, and investigated and verified their tolerance and applicability. The results showed that when the annealing temperature was 48 ℃ and the number of cycles was 33, 255 bp specific band were obtained from G. elata f. glauca and hybrid by using specific primers W291-F/W291-R. When the annealing temperature was 51 ℃ and the number of cycles was 33, 291 bp specific band were obtained from G. elata f. elata and hybrid by using specific primers H255-F/H255-R. Our method could be used as a promising method to identify G. elata f. elata, G. elata f. glauca and their hybrid.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3797-3804, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893573

RESUMO

Mountain-agarwood plays an important role in ethnic medicine in China for its pharmaceutical value. Modern pharmacological researches demonstrated that mountain-agarwood was effective for its anti-myocardial ischemia, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and analgesic effects. Mountain-agarwood derives from the peeled roots, stems or twigs of Syringa pinnatifolia which belongs to Syringa genus. It often depends on the purple substance and fragrance to estimate the formation of mountain-agarwood. However, the mechanism of mountain-agarwood formation has not been reported. To observe the microcosmic change in the process during the formation of mountain-agarwood, this study described the microscopic and histochemical characteristics of mountain-agarwood formation through histochemical staining. Our results showed that a significant difference of the distribution of tyloses existed during mountain-agarwood formation. It was observed that inchoate mountain-agarwood had more starch granules and viable cells than mountain-agarwood formed with high level or low level. The amount of polysaccharide and degree of lignification were increased during the mountain-agarwood formation. The results indicated that the mountain-agarwood, which meets the quality requirements for pharmaceutical use, contained the following characteristics: a large amount of purple tyloses in heartwood; yellow-brown tyloses distributing in heartwood and sapwood which were less in the latter; lignification with high level; a few viable cells; lots of polysaccharide and few starch granules in xylem rays cell. This study is aimed to reveal the change of histochemical characteristics during mountain-agarwood formation, and lay the foundation for exploring the mechanism of mountain-agarwood formation.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica , Syringa , Thymelaeaceae , China , Humanos
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 3098-3103, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726017

RESUMO

Based on the theory of Q-marker, the hairy root of Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza in many provinces were studied. The relative expressions of SmCPS, SmKSL and CYP76AH1 genes in hairy roots were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and the contents of tanshinoneⅡ_A, cryptotanshinone, tanshinoneⅠ, 1,2-dihydrotanshinone, ferruginol and miltiradiene were detected by UPLC and GC-MS, respectively. Statistical analysis shows as fllows: in the hairy root of S. miltiorrhiza, the content of miltiradiene and ferruginol is positively correlated with the content of tanshinone compounds in the downstream, and the relative expression of important genes in the biosynthetic pathway of tanshinone can reflect the content of tanshinone compounds to a certain extent; in many provinces of S. miltiorrhiza, the content of ferruginol and tanshinone compounds can also be found that there is a positive correlation between the contents. Based on the biosynthetic pathway of tanshinone compounds, which is a special index component in S. miltiorrhiza, this study focused on the important relationship between the upstream gene, the middle intermediate compound and the downstream tanshinone compound content of the biosynthetic pathway, and explored the possible research ideas of improving the quality marker system of S. miltiorrhiza, and then provided the possible research ideas for understanding and studying the quality marker of traditional Chinese medicine from the biosynthetic pathway.


Assuntos
Salvia miltiorrhiza , Abietanos , Vias Biossintéticas , Raízes de Plantas
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(14): 3489-3496, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726066

RESUMO

Chinese medicine polysaccharide is an important active biological macromolecule, which has a broad application prospect. However, there are still many deficiencies in the quality evaluation and control of polysaccharides. Based on the existing problems in the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine polysaccharides, current review analyzes the methods of extraction, separation and purification, characteristic identification, content determination and structure analysis of Chinese medicine polysaccharides, and draws the following conclusions: ①Based on the clinical application of Chinese medicine, decoction is recommended as the extraction method in the basic study of effective substances of Chinese medicine polysaccharides; ②On the basis of impurity removal, HPGPC can achieve the separation, purification and content determination of Chinese medicine polysaccharides at the same time, supplemented by MS or NMR can achieve the quantitative and qualitative analysis of Chinese medicine polysaccharides; ③Based on the characteristic identification, select the suitable pure polysaccharide, dextran or monosaccharide reference; ④HPSEC-MALLS-RID is specific, accurate, and beneficial to the study of structure-activity mechanism of polysaccharides. The review suggested that the comprehensive evaluation and control of the quality of Chinese medicine polysaccharides should be based on extraction, separation and purification, on the premise of characteristic identification, on the basis of content determination, supplemented by structural analysis, which is to provide useful reference for the quality research of Chinese medicine polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Monossacarídeos , Polissacarídeos , Controle de Qualidade
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(12): 2800-2807, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627453

RESUMO

Moringa has a long history of edible and medicinal use in foreign countries, this paper collected and sorted out the traditional application of Moringa recorded in the ancient medical books and historical materials of countries and regions along the ancient Silk Road. According to preliminary research, the earliest record of Moringa in China can be traced back to The Bower Manuscript(volume Ⅱ)(about the 4 th-6 th century A.D.) unearthed in Kuqa, Xinjiang. Around the 8 th century, with the communication between countries along the ancient Silk Road becoming prosperous, more and more medical books containing Moringa and its prescriptions were introduced to Tibet, Xinjiang and other places in today's China. The leaves, root bark, seeds and stem bark of Moringa all can be used for medicinal purposes and are recorded in The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India(API). Among them, Moringa leaves have been approved as a new resource food in China. According to the API, it is of cold property and sweet taste, its post-digestive effect is sweet and has the functions of removing wind, bile and fat, relieving pain, killing abdominal worms, moistening skin, brightening eyes and clearing brain. It can be used to treat edema, parasitic diseases, spleen diseases, abscess, tumor, pharyngeal swelling and other diseases. This study explored and organized the historical evidence of communication through the Silk Road and traditional application records of Moringa, in order to provide the evidence of traditional medicine basis, medicine property and efficacy application reference for the realization of the introduction of Moringa as a new resource of traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Moringa , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicina Tradicional , Tibet
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(12): 2982-2991, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627476

RESUMO

Dao-di herbs are an important part of clinical medicine in traditional Chinese medicine. They are also precious wealth left to human beings from history, which contain deep traditional Chinese cultural connotations and play an important role in supporting and serving the Chinese medicine business. The relevant policy documents introduced by various national ministries and commissions have many contents and requirements related to the promotion of Dao-di herbs protection and industrial development. Due to the Dao-di herbs industry has a series of characteristics, such as a long chain, many involved links, long cycles, multiple production entities, multiple locations, and various types, the high-quality development of the industry has put forward higher requirements on the linkage between upstream and downstream, production entities, traceability of the whole process and information sharing. This article takes Dao-di herbs certification work as an application scenario and entry point, and discusses it from the perspective of block chain and information technology. It proposes the following work ideas: establish multi-party consensus from the macro-organizational management, business, and operational technical levels, and unblock channels for data and information, to achieve institutionalization of certification; establish certification-related standards and specifications to achieve certification standardization; build a certification hardware system to achieve certification networking; build a certification software system to develop functions for specific information content such as identity, origin, production, production process, quality, product and brand of authentic medicinal material production interactively, and realize certification programmatic; data security and sharing of related production activities to achieve socialization of certification. Make full use of modern technologies such as blockchain, the internet of things, big data and information technology, and through the joint participation of management, production, use and the public, the whole process information of Daodi herbs is integrated to form an interconnected information sharing application mode, thus, to serve and promote the high-quality development of Dao-di herbs industry.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , Blockchain , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Tecnologia
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(11): 2515-2522, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627483

RESUMO

Ethylene responsive factor(ERF), one of the largest families of transcriptional factors in plants, plays a key role in se-condary metabolism of herbal plants. To analyze the expression of ERF family genes, the heat map clustering method was used by analyzing the ginseng transcriptomes of different parts and different growth years. The contents of ginsenosides Rg_1, Re and Rb_1 in various concentrations of MeJA-treated ginseng adventitious roots were determined by UPLC-MS/MS method. The expression of key genes of ginsenoside biosynthesis(DDS, CYP716A47, CYP716A53v2) and ERF family genes in MeJA-treated ginseng adventitious roots were determined by using real-time quantitative PCR. Pearson correlation was adopted to analyze the gene expression pattern of DDS, CYP716A47, CYP716A53v2 gene and ERF family. The results showed that the content of ginseng diol ginsenoside Rb_1 in ginseng adventitious roots treated with different concentrations of MeJA increased, and the content of ginseng triol ginsenoside Rg_1 and Re decreased. It is consistent with the increase of DDS and CYP716A47 expression and the decrease of CYP716A53v2 gene expression. The expression of ERF003, ERF118 and ERF012 genes was significantly positively correlated with CYP716A53v2, but negatively correlated with DDS. While the expression of ERF1B was significantly negatively correlated with CYP716A47.It is proved that ERF003, ERF118 and ERF012 were likely to inhibit the expression of DDS and promote the expression of CYP716A53v2, and ERF1B was likely to inhibit CYP716A47. This work could provide theoretical basis of ERF functional verification of regulating the biosynthesis of ginsenosides.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/análise , Panax , Cromatografia Líquida , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Transcrição
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(9): 1969-1974, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495540

RESUMO

This paper analyzed life form, habitats and environmental stresses of medicinal plants and algal fungi collected in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2015). ①It was found that only 0.94% of the medicinal plants mainly cultivated in field. The most common habitats of medicinal plants are divided into two types: those whose natural habitats are forest margins/undergrowth(about 42.53%) and those whose natural habitats are roadside, hillside, wasteland/sand(about 43.78%). The former mainly faces environmental stresses such as weak light, pests and diseases; the latter often faces the main environmental stresses of drought, strong light, ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, low temperature(day and night or annual temperature difference is large), nutrient deficiency, pests and so on. ②Based on analyzing the strategies of medicinal plants to adapt to environmental stresses, it is pointed out that the synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites are the most important strategies of medicinal plants to protect against environmental stresses. In the process of long-term adaptation to specific stress, the accumulation of relevant genetic variation and epigenetic inheritance has become an important condition for the formation of quality of medicinal plants. ③It is proposed that "simulative habitat cultivation" has obvious advantages in balancing growth and secondary metabolism and guaranting the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , Ecossistema , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Raios Ultravioleta
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(9): 1975-1981, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495541

RESUMO

The ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica(CMM) has become the most dynamic and promising new field in the global ecological agriculture. The development of ecological planting of CMM has become the national strategy of Chinese traditional medicine agriculture. It has been highly valued and has flourished throughout the country, and has formed some more mature ecological planting models of CMM. Based on the system level, this paper sorts out the common ecological cultivation patterns of CMM, and obtains five basic patterns: landscape pattern at the ecological landscape level, circulation pattern at the ecosystem level, stereo model at the bio-community level, biodiversity patterns at the level of biological populations and well-established models at the level of biological individuals. On this basis, eight common ecological planting techniques of CMM were obtained, includingwild tending techniques, fine agricultural farming techniques, directional cultivation techniques, soil improvement techniques, soil testing and fertilization techniques, mycorrhizal cultivation techniques, green control technology for pests and diseases and facility cultivation techniques.This paper aims to provide theoretical basis for scientific research and popularization and application of CMM ecological planting.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Agricultura , Ecossistema , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(9): 1982-1989, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495542

RESUMO

As an environment-friendly agriculture, ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica(CMM) is being implemented in all parts of the country. Due to the stronger dependence on natural environmental conditions, ecological agriculture of CMM shows obvious regional differences in production practice. More mature CMM ecological planting patterns representative of each region were collected. It was found that common types of patterns in various regions of the country mainly included intercropping,intercropping,rotation planting mode, undergrowth planting mode, wild tending planting mode and landscape ecological planting mode. Based on the Construction Plan of National Dao-di Herbs Production Base(2018-2025) and Chinese Medicine Division, this paper systematically sorts out the pattern of ecological planting of CMM in the 8-avenue medicinal materials production areas according to the varieties and regions. The specific pattern of ecological planting of CMM included the ginseng undergrowth planting pattern in northeastern China, the bionics wild ecological planting of the Forsythia suspensa in northern China, the Fritillaria thunbergii-rice rotation in eastern China, the imitation wild planting pattern under the Polygonatum cyrtonema in central China, the planting pattern of the Fructus amomi under forest in southern China, the Ligusticum chuanxiong-rice rotation pattern in the Southwest, wild tending of Glycyrrhiza uralensis in the Northwest, and rhubarb imitation wild planting pattern in Qinghai-Tibet area. Finally, it is expected to provide reference for the screening and popularization of ecological planting patterns of other CMMs in various distribution areas.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ligusticum , Materia Medica , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Tibet
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