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1.
Nature ; 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477154

RESUMO

The composition of the intestinal microbiome varies considerably between individuals and is correlated with health1. Understanding to what extend and how host genetics contributes to this variation is paramount yet has proven difficult as few associations have been replicated, particularly in humans2. We herein study the effect of host genotype on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in a large mosaic pig population. We show that, under conditions of exacerbated genetic diversity and environmental uniformity, microbiota composition and abundance of specific taxa are heritable. We map a quantitative trait locus affecting the abundance of Erysipelotrichaceae species and show that it is caused by a 2.3-Kb deletion in the N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-transferase gene underpinning the ABO blood group in humans. We show that this deletion is a ≥3.5 million years old trans-species polymorphism under balancing selection. We demonstrate that it decreases the concentrations of N-acetyl-galactosamine in the gut thereby reducing the abundance of Erysipelotrichaceae that can import and catabolize N-acetyl-galactosamine. Our results provide very strong evidence for an effect of host genotype on the abundance of specific bacteria in the intestine combined with insights in the molecular mechanisms that underpin this association. They pave the way towards identifying the same effect in human rural populations.

2.
Zool Res ; 43(3): 423-441, 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437972

RESUMO

In pig-to-human xenotransplantation, the transmission risk of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) is of great concern. However, the distribution of PERVs in pig genomes, their genetic variation among Eurasian pigs, and their evolutionary history remain unclear. We scanned PERVs in the current pig reference genome (assembly Build 11.1), and identified 36 long complete or near-complete PERVs (lcPERVs) and 23 short incomplete PERVs (siPERVs). Besides three known PERVs (PERV-A, -B, and -C), four novel types (PERV-JX1, -JX2, -JX3, and -JX4) were detected in this study. According to evolutionary analyses, the newly discovered PERVs were more ancient, and PERV-Bs probably experienced a bottleneck ~0.5 million years ago (Ma). By analyzing 63 high-quality porcine whole-genome resequencing data, we found that the PERV copy numbers in Chinese pigs were lower (32.0±4.0) than in Western pigs (49.1±6.5). Additionally, the PERV sequence diversity was lower in Chinese pigs than in Western pigs. Regarding the lcPERV copy numbers, PERV-A and -JX2 in Western pigs were higher than in Chinese pigs. Notably, Bama Xiang (BMX) pigs had the lowest PERV copy number (27.8±5.1), and a BMX individual had no PERV-C and the lowest PERV copy number (23), suggesting that BMX pigs were more suitable for screening and/or modification as xenograft donors. Furthermore, we identified 451 PERV transposon insertion polymorphisms (TIPs), of which 86 were shared by all 10 Chinese and Western pig breeds. Our findings provide systematic insights into the genomic distribution, variation, evolution, and possible biological function of PERVs.


Assuntos
Retrovirus Endógenos , Animais , China , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Humanos , Suínos/genética , Transplante Heterólogo/veterinária
3.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 39, 2022 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35246246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been regarded as a major threat to global health. Pigs are considered an important source of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). However, there is still a lack of large-scale quantitative data on the distribution of ARGs in the pig production industry. The bacterial species integrated ARGs in the gut microbiome have not been clarified. RESULTS: In the present study, we used deep metagenomic sequencing data of 451 samples from 425 pigs including wild boars, Tibetan pigs, and commercial or cross-bred experimental pigs under different rearing modes, to comprehensively survey the diversity and distribution of ARGs and detect the bacteria integrated in these ARGs. We identified a total of 1295 open reading frames (ORFs) recognized as antimicrobial resistance protein-coding genes. The ORFs were clustered into 349 unique types of ARGs, and these could be further classified into 69 drug resistance classes. Tetracycline resistance was most enriched in pig feces. Pigs raised on commercial farms had a significantly higher AMR level than pigs under semi-free ranging conditions or wild boars. We tracked the changes in the composition of ARGs at different growth stages and gut locations. There were 30 drug resistance classes showing significantly different abundances in pigs between 25 and 240 days of age. The richness of ARGs and 41 drug resistance classes were significantly different between cecum lumen and feces in pigs from commercial farms, but not in wild boars. We identified 24 bacterial species that existed in almost all tested samples (core bacteria) and were integrated 128 ARGs in their genomes. However, only nine ARGs of these 128 ARGs were core ARGs, suggesting that most of the ARGs in these bacterial species might be acquired rather than constitutive. We selected three subsets of ARGs as indicators for evaluating the pollution level of ARGs in samples with high accuracy (r = 0.73~0.89). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a primary overview of ARG profiles in various farms under different rearing modes, and the data serve as a reference for optimizing the use of antimicrobials and evaluating the risk of pollution by ARGs in pig farms. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenômica , Suínos
4.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2022 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122624

RESUMO

The limited knowledge of genomic noncoding and regulatory regions has restricted our ability to decipher the genetic mechanisms underlying complex traits in pigs. In this study, we characterized the spatiotemporal landscape of putative enhancers and promoters and their target genes by combining H3K27ac-targeted ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq in fetal (prenatal days 74-75) and adult (postnatal days 132-150) tissues (brain, liver, heart, muscle and small intestine) sampled from Asian aboriginal Bama Xiang and European highly selected Large White pigs of both sexes. We identified 101,290 H3K27ac peaks, marking 18,521 promoters and 82,769 enhancers, including peaks that were active across all tissues and developmental stages (which could indicate safe harbor locus for exogenous gene insertion) and tissue- and developmental stage-specific peaks (which regulate gene pathways matching tissue- and developmental stage-specific physiological functions). We found that H3K27ac and DNA methylation in the promoter region of the XIST gene may be involved in X chromosome inactivation and demonstrated the utility of the present resource for revealing the regulatory patterns of known causal genes and prioritizing candidate causal variants for complex traits in pigs. In addition, we identified an average of 1,124 super-enhancers per sample and found that they were more likely to show tissue-specific activity than ordinary peaks. We have developed a web browser to improve the accessibility of the results ( http://segtp.jxau.edu.cn/pencode/?genome=susScr11 ).

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181533

RESUMO

The mutation rate used in the previous analyses of pig evolution and demographics was cursory and hence invited potential bias in inferring evolutionary history. Herein, we estimated the de novo mutation rate of pigs as 3.6 × 10-9 per site per generation using high-quality whole-genome sequencing data from nine individuals in a three-generation pedigree through stringent filtering and validation. Using this mutation rate, we re-investigated the evolutionary history of pigs. The estimated divergence time of ∼ 10 kiloyears ago (Kya) between European wild and domesticated pigs was consistent with the domestication time of European pigs based on archaeological evidence. However, other divergence events inferred here were not as ancient as previously described. Our estimates suggested that Sus speciation occurred ∼ 1.36 million years ago (Mya); European pigs split from Asian pigs only ∼ 219 Kya; South and north Chinese wild pigs split ∼ 25 Kya. Meanwhile, our results showed that the most recent divergence event between Chinese wild and domesticated pigs occurred in the Hetao plain, north China, approximately 20 Kya, supporting the possibly independent domestication in north China along the middle Yellow River. We also found the maximum effective population size of pigs was ∼ 6 times larger than the previous estimate. An archaic migration from other Sus species originating ∼ 2 Mya to European pigs was detected during western colonization of pigs; this interfered with the previous demographic inference. Our de novo mutation rate estimation and its consequences for demographic history inference reasonably provide a new vision regarding the evolutionary history of pigs.

6.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 13(1): 8, 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short tandem repeats (STRs) were recently found to have significant impacts on gene expression and diseases in humans, but their roles on gene expression and complex traits in pigs remain unexplored. This study investigates the effects of STRs on gene expression in liver tissues based on the whole-genome sequences and RNA-Seq data of a discovery cohort of 260 F6 individuals and a validation population of 296 F7 individuals from a heterogeneous population generated from crosses among eight pig breeds. RESULTS: We identified 5203 and 5868 significantly expression STRs (eSTRs, FDR < 1%) in the F6 and F7 populations, respectively, most of which could be reciprocally validated (π1 = 0.92). The eSTRs explained 27.5% of the cis-heritability of gene expression traits on average. We further identified 235 and 298 fine-mapped STRs through the Bayesian fine-mapping approach in the F6 and F7 pigs, respectively, which were significantly enriched in intron, ATAC peak, compartment A and H3K4me3 regions. We identified 20 fine-mapped STRs located in 100 kb windows upstream and downstream of published complex trait-associated SNPs, which colocalized with epigenetic markers such as H3K27ac and ATAC peaks. These included eSTR of the CLPB, PGLS, PSMD6 and DHDH genes, which are linked with genome-wide association study (GWAS) SNPs for blood-related traits, leg conformation, growth-related traits, and meat quality traits, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into the effects of STRs on gene expression traits. The identified eSTRs are valuable resources for prioritizing causal STRs for complex traits in pigs.

7.
Sci China Life Sci ; 65(4): 781-794, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387836

RESUMO

Sequencing-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have facilitated the identification of causal associations between genetic variants and traits in diverse species. However, it is cost-prohibitive for the majority of research groups to sequence a large number of samples. Here, we carried out genotype imputation to increase the density of single nucleotide polymorphisms in a large-scale Swine F2 population using a reference panel including 117 individuals, followed by a series of GWAS analyses. The imputation accuracies reached 0.89 and 0.86 for allelic concordance and correlation, respectively. A quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) affecting the chest vertebrate was detected directly, while the investigation of another QTN affecting the residual glucose failed due to the presence of similar haplotypes carrying wild-type and mutant allelesin the reference panel used in this study. A high imputation accuracy was confirmed by Sanger sequencing technology for the most significant loci. Two candidate genes, CPNE5 and MYH3, affecting meat-related traits were proposed. Collectively, we illustrated four scenarios in imputation-based GWAS that may be encountered by researchers, and our results will provide an extensive reference for future genotype imputation-based GWAS analyses in the future.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial , Animais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Mutação , Nucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Suínos/genética
8.
Front Genet ; 12: 721600, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868200

RESUMO

Genomic selection is an approach to select elite breeding stock based on the use of dense genetic markers and that has led to the development of various models to derive a predictive equation. However, the current genomic selection software faces several issues such as low prediction accuracy, low computational efficiency, or an inability to handle large-scale sample data. We report the development of a genomic prediction model named FMixFN with four zero-mean normal distributions as the prior distributions to optimize the predictive ability and computing efficiency. The variance of the prior distributions in our model is precisely determined based on an F2 population, and genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) can be obtained accurately and quickly in combination with an iterative conditional expectation algorithm. We demonstrated that FMixFN improves computational efficiency and predictive ability compared to other methods, such as GBLUP, SSgblup, MIX, BayesR, BayesA, and BayesB. Most importantly, FMixFN may handle large-scale sample data, and thus should be able to meet the needs of large breeding companies or combined breeding schedules. Our study developed a Bayes genomic selection model called FMixFN, which combines stable predictive ability and high computational efficiency, and is a big data-oriented genomic selection model that has potential in the future. The FMixFN method can be freely accessed at https://zenodo.org/record/5560913 (DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.5560913).

9.
Genet Sel Evol ; 53(1): 94, 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carcass length is very important for body size and meat production for swine, thus understanding the genetic mechanisms that underly this trait is of great significance in genetic improvement programs for pigs. Although many quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been detected in pigs, very few have been fine-mapped to the level of the causal mutations. The aim of this study was to identify potential causal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for carcass length by integrating a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and functional assays. RESULTS: Here, we present a GWAS in a commercial Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire) (DLY) population that reveals a prominent association signal (P = 4.49E-07) on pig chromosome 17 for carcass length, which was further validated in two other DLY populations. Within the detected 1 Mb region, the BMP2 gene stood out as the most likely causal candidate because of its functions in bone growth and development. Whole-genome gene expression studies showed that the BMP2 gene was differentially expressed in the cartilage tissues of pigs with extreme carcass length. Then, we genotyped an additional 267 SNPs in 500 selected DLY pigs, followed by further whole-genome SNP imputation, combined with deep genome resequencing data on multiple pig breeds. Reassociation analyses using genotyped and imputed SNP data revealed that the rs320706814 SNP, located approximately 123 kb upstream of the BMP2 gene, was the strongest candidate causal mutation, with a large association with carcass length, with a ~ 4.2 cm difference in length across all three DLY populations (N = 1501; P = 3.66E-29). This SNP segregated in all parental lines of the DLY (Duroc, Large White and Landrace) and was also associated with a significant effect on body length in 299 pure Yorkshire pigs (P = 9.2E-4), which indicates that it has a major value for commercial breeding. Functional assays showed that this SNP is likely located within an enhancer and may affect the binding affinity of transcription factors, thereby regulating BMP2 gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that the rs320706814 SNP on pig chromosome 17 is a putative causal mutation for carcass length in the widely used DLY pigs and has great value in breeding for body size in pigs.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Suínos , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Genótipo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Suínos/genética
10.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 729039, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603257

RESUMO

Parturition is a crucial event in the sow reproduction cycle, which accompanies by a series of physiological changes, including sex hormones, metabolism, and immunity. More and more studies have indicated the changes of the gut microbiota from pregnancy to parturition. However, what bacterial species and functional capacities of the gut microbiome are changed around parturition has been largely unknown, and the correlations between the changes of gut bacterial species and host metabolome were also uncovered. In this study, by combining 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing data, and the profiles of serum metabolome and fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), we investigated the changes of gut microbiome, serum metabolite features and fecal SCFAs from late pregnancy (LP) to postpartum (PO) stage. We found the significant changes of gut microbiota from LP to PO stage in both 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomic sequencing analyses. The bacterial species from Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Clostridium were enriched at the LP stage, while the species from Bacteroides, Escherichia, and Campylobacter had higher abundances at the PO stage. Functional capacities of the gut microbiome were also significantly changed and associated with the shifts of gut bacteria. Untargeted metabolomic analyses revealed that the metabolite features related to taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, and arginine biosynthesis and metabolism were enriched at the LP stage, and positively associated with those bacterial species enriched at the LP stage, while the metabolite features associated with vitamin B6 and glycerophospholipid metabolism had higher abundances at the PO stage and were positively correlated with the bacteria enriched at the PO stage. Six kinds of SCFAs were measured in feces samples and showed higher concentrations at the LP stage. These results suggested that the changes of gut microbiome from LP to PO stage lead to the shifts of host lipid, amino acids and vitamin metabolism and SCFA production. The results from this study provided new insights for the changes of sow gut microbiome and host metabolism around parturition, and gave new knowledge for guiding the feeding and maternal care of sows from late pregnancy to lactation in the pig industry.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 690091, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489885

RESUMO

More and more studies have indicated that gut microbiota takes part in the biosynthesis and metabolism of sex hormones. Inversely, sex hormones influence the composition of gut microbiota. However, whether microbiota in the gut and vagina is associated with estrus return of weaning sows is largely unknown. Here, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in 158 fecal and 50 vaginal samples, we reported the shifts in the gut and vaginal microbiota between normal return and non-return sows. In fecal samples, Lactobacillus and S24-7 were enriched in normal return sows, while Streptococcus luteciae, Lachnospiraceae, Clostridium, and Mogibacterium had higher abundance in non-return sows. In vaginal swabs, the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) annotated to Clostridiales, Ruminoccaceae, and Oscillospira were enriched in normal return sows, while those OTUs annotated to Campylobacter, Anaerococcus, Parvimonas, Finegoldia, and Dorea had higher abundances in non-return sows. Co-abundance group (CAG) analysis repeated the identification of the bacterial taxa associated with the estrus return of weaning sows. The predicted functional capacities in both gut and vaginal microbiome were changed between normal return and non-return sows. Serum metabolome profiles were determined by non-targeted metabolome analysis in seven normal return and six non-return sows. The metabolite features having higher abundance in normal return sows were enriched in the pathways Steroid hormone biosynthesis, Starch and sucrose metabolism, Galactose metabolism, and Vitamin B6 metabolism, while the metabolite features belonging to organic acids and derivatives, indoles and derivatives, sulfoxides, and lignans and neolignans had significantly higher abundance in non-return sows. Correlation analysis found that the changes in gut microbiota were associated with the shifts of serum metabolites and suggested that certain bacteria might affect estrus return of weaning sow through serum metabolites. These findings may provide new insights for understanding the role of the gut and vaginal microbiota in sow return to estrus after weaning.

13.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 175, 2021 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive fat accumulation of pigs is undesirable, as it severely affects economic returns in the modern pig industry. Studies in humans and mice have examined the role of the gut microbiome in host energy metabolism. Commercial Duroc pigs are often fed formula diets with high energy and protein contents. Whether and how the gut microbiome under this type of diet regulates swine fat accumulation is largely unknown. RESULTS: In the present study, we systematically investigated the correlation of gut microbiome with pig lean meat percentage (LMP) in 698 commercial Duroc pigs and found that Prevotella copri was significantly associated with fat accumulation of pigs. Fat pigs had significantly higher abundance of P. copri in the gut. High abundance of P. copri was correlated with increased concentrations of serum metabolites associated with obesity, e.g., lipopolysaccharides, branched chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, and the metabolites of arachidonic acid. Host intestinal barrier permeability and chronic inflammation response were increased. A gavage experiment using germ-free mice confirmed that the P. copri isolated from experimental pigs was a causal species increasing host fat accumulation and altering serum metabolites. Colon, adipose tissue, and muscle transcriptomes in P. copri-gavaged mice indicated that P. copri colonization activated host chronic inflammatory responses through the TLR4 and mTOR signaling pathways and significantly upregulated the expression of the genes related to lipogenesis and fat accumulation, but attenuated the genes associated with lipolysis, lipid transport, and muscle growth. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results proposed that P. copri in the gut microbial communities of pigs fed with commercial formula diets activates host chronic inflammatory responses by the metabolites through the TLR4 and mTOR signaling pathways, and increases host fat deposition significantly. The results provide fundamental knowledge for reducing fat accumulation in pigs through regulating the gut microbial composition. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Prevotella , Animais , Dieta , Camundongos , Obesidade , Prevotella/genética , Suínos
14.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(11): 5051-5065, 2021 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343337

RESUMO

Throughout its distribution across Eurasia, domestic pig (Sus scrofa) populations have acquired differences through natural and artificial selection, and have often interbred. We resequenced 80 Eurasian pigs from nine different Asian and European breeds; we identify 42,288 reliable SNPs on the Y chromosome in a panel of 103 males, among which 96.1% are newly detected. Based on these new data, we elucidate the evolutionary history of pigs through the lens of the Y chromosome. We identify two highly divergent haplogroups: one present only in Asia and one fixed in Europe but present in some Asian populations. Analyzing the European haplotypes present in Asian populations, we find evidence of three independent waves of introgression from Europe to Asia in last 200 years, agreeing well with the literature and historical records. The diverse European lineages were brought in China by humans and left significant imprints not only on the autosomes but also on the Y chromosome of geographically and genetically distinct Chinese pig breeds. We also find a general excess of European ancestry on Y chromosomes relative to autosomes in Chinese pigs, an observation that cannot be explained solely by sex-biased migration and genetic drift. The European Y haplotype is associated with leaner meat production, and we hypothesize that the European Y chromosome increased in frequency in Chinese populations due to artificial selection. We find evidence of Y chromosomal gene flow between Sumatran wild boar and Chinese pigs. Our results demonstrate how human-mediated admixture and selection shaped the distribution of modern swine Y chromosomes.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Cromossomo Y , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sus scrofa/genética , Suínos/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética
15.
Anim Biotechnol ; : 1-12, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010090

RESUMO

Genetic analysis of porcine growth and fatness traits is beneficial to the swine industry and provides a reference to understand human obesity. Here, we obtained 29 growth and fatness traits for 473 individuals from a White Duroc × Erhualian F3 intercross population. Basic statistical analyses showed that: (1) Positive correlations between different-stage body weights were detected, the shorter the time interval the stronger the correlation. (2) Strong correlations existed in the paired fatness traits. (3) With the growth of age, the correlation between fatness and body weight was increasing. All pigs were genotyped by Illumina 50 K SNP chips and their whole-genome genotypes were imputed referred to 109 re-sequencing data. We performed common and imputation-based GWASs for these traits. Two genome-wide significant loci on swine chromosome (SSC) 4 and 7 were repeatedly detected. The strongest association (P = 3.24 × 10-19) was detected at 31.96 Mb on SSC7 for leaf fat weight. On this locus, seven major haplotypes were identified, of which two were novel and had an increasing-fatness effect. In the imputation-based GWAS, three new loci were identified. Our findings provide further insights into and enhance our understanding of genetic mechanism of porcine growth and fat deposition.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(22)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050015

RESUMO

Germline editing, the process by which the genome of an individual is edited in such a way that the change is heritable, has been applied to a wide variety of animals [D. A. Sorrell, A. F. Kolb, Biotechnol. Adv. 23, 431-469 (2005); D. Baltimore et al., Science 348, 36-38 (2015)]. Because of its relevancy in agricultural and biomedical research, the pig genome has been extensively modified using a multitude of technologies [K. Lee, K. Farrell, K. Uh, Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 32, 40-49 (2019); C. Proudfoot, S. Lillico, C. Tait-Burkard, Anim. Front. 9, 6-12 (2019)]. In this perspective, we will focus on using pigs as the model system to review the current methodologies, applications, and challenges of mammalian germline genome editing. We will also discuss the broad implications of animal germline editing and its clinical potential.


Assuntos
Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Edição de Genes , Células Germinativas , Suínos/genética , Animais
17.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 125, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Members of the Erysipelotrichaceae family have a high abundance in the intestinal tract of mammals, and have been reported to be associated with host metabolic disorders and inflammatory diseases. In our previous study, we found that the abundance of Erysipelotrichaceae strains in the cecum was associated with the concentration of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc). However, only a few members of Erysipelotrichaceae have been isolated and cultured, and their main characteristics, genomic information and the functional capacity of carbohydrate metabolism remain unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we tested 10 different kinds of commercially available media and successfully isolated five Erysipelotrichaceae strains from healthy porcine feces. The five isolates were Gram-positive, and their colonies on Gifu anaerobic medium (GAM) or modified GAM were approximately 0.25-1.0 mm in diameter, and they were circular, white, convex, moist, translucent, and contained colony margins. These isolates were subjected to Oxford Nanopore and Illumina whole-genome sequencing, genome assembly, and annotation. Based on whole-genome sequences, the five strains belong to Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium OH741_COT-311, Eubacterium sp. AM28-29, and Faecalitalea cylindroides. The GC content of the five strains ranged from 34.1 to 37.37%. Functional annotation based on the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathways revealed tens to hundreds of strain-specific proteins among different strains, and even between the strains showing high 16S rRNA gene sequence identity. Prediction analysis of carbohydrate metabolism revealed different capacities for metabolizing carbohydrate substrates among Erysipelotrichaceae strains. We identified that genes related to the GalNAc metabolism pathway were enriched in the genomes of all five isolates and 16 Erysipelotrichaceae strains downloaded from GenBank, suggesting the importance of GalNAc metabolism in Erysipelotrichaceae strains. Polysaccharide utilization loci (PUL) analysis revealed that the strains of Erysipelotrichaceae may have the ability to utilize plant polysaccharides. CONCLUSIONS: The present study not only reports the successful isolation of novel Erysipelotrichaceae strains that enrich the cultured strains of Erysipelotrichaceae, but also provided the genome information of Erysipelotrichaceae strains for further studying the function roles of Erysipelotrichaceae in host phenotypes.


Assuntos
Firmicutes/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Fezes/microbiologia , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
18.
Genet Sel Evol ; 53(1): 39, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short tandem repeats (STRs) are genetic markers with a greater mutation rate than single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and are widely used in genetic studies and forensics. However, most studies in pigs have focused only on SNPs or on a limited number of STRs. RESULTS: This study screened 394 deep-sequenced genomes from 22 domesticated pig breeds/populations worldwide, wild boars from both Europe and Asia, and numerous outgroup Suidaes, and identified a set of 878,967 polymorphic STRs (pSTRs), which represents the largest repository of pSTRs in pigs to date. We found multiple lines of evidence that pSTRs in coding regions were affected by purifying selection. The enrichment of trinucleotide pSTRs in coding sequences (CDS), 5'UTR and H3K4me3 regions suggests that trinucleotide STRs serve as important components in the exons and promoters of the corresponding genes. We demonstrated that, compared to SNPs, pSTRs provide comparable or even greater accuracy in determining the breed identity of individuals. We identified pSTRs that showed significant population differentiation between domestic pigs and wild boars in Asia and Europe. We also observed that some pSTRs were significantly associated with environmental variables, such as average annual temperature or altitude of the originating sites of Chinese indigenous breeds, among which we identified loss-of-function and/or expanded STRs overlapping with genes such as AHR, LAS1L and PDK1. Finally, our results revealed that several pSTRs show stronger signals in domestic pig-wild boar differentiation or association with the analysed environmental variables than the flanking SNPs within a 100-kb window. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a genome-wide high-density map of pSTRs in diverse pig populations based on genome sequencing data, enabling a more comprehensive characterization of their roles in evolutionary and environmental adaptation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Ecossistema , Evolução Molecular , Repetições de Microssatélites , Suínos/genética , Animais , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Sci China Life Sci ; 64(10): 1732-1746, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527326

RESUMO

Subcutaneous fat (SCF) and intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition is relevant to health in humans, as well as meat production and quality in pigs. In this study, we generated RNA sequence data for 122 SCF, 120 IMF, and 87 longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) samples using 155 F6 pigs from a specially designed heterogeneous population generated by intercrossing four highly selected European commercial breeds and four indigenous Chinese pig breeds. The phenotypes including waist back fat thickness and intramuscular fat content were also measured in the 155 F6 pigs. We found that the genes in SCF and IMF differed largely in both expression levels and network connectivity, and highlighted network modules that exhibited strongest gain of connectivity in SCF and IMF, containing genes that were associated with the immune process and DNA double-strand repair, respectively. We identified 215 SCF genes related to kinase inhibitor activity, mitochondrial fission, and angiogenesis, and 90 IMF genes related to lipolysis and fat cell differentiation, displayed a tissue-specific association with back fat thickness and IMF content, respectively. We found that cis-expression QTL for trait-associated genes in the two adipose tissues tended to have tissue-dependent predictability for the two adipose traits. Alternative splicing of genes was also found to be associated with SCF or IMF deposition, but the association was much less extensive than that based on expression levels. This study provides a better understanding of SCF and IMF gene transcription and network organization and identified critical genes and network modules that displayed tissue-specific associations with subcutaneous and intramuscular fat deposition. These features are helpful for designing breeding programs to genetically improve the two adipose traits in a balanced way.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fenótipo , Carne de Porco/análise , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Suínos , Transcriptoma
20.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 97(6): 617-622, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of recombinant human interferon α1b (rhIFNα1b) treatment in infants hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections on subsequent wheezing. METHODS: The clinical data of infants (n=540) with viral pneumonia, wheezy bronchitis, or bronchiolitis hospitalized in 19 Chinese hospitals from June 2009 to June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The parameters relevant to wheezing episodes within the last year were collected by telephone and questionnaires. The rhIFNα1b treatment group (n=253) and control group (n=287) were compared in terms of wheezing episodes within the last year. Moreover, the wheezing group (95 cases) and non-wheezing group (445 cases) were compared. RESULTS: Out of 540 cases, 95 (17.6%) experienced wheezing episodes, 13.8% (35/253) cases treated with rhIFNα1b, and 20.9% (60/287) cases without rhIFNα1b experienced wheezing episodes within the last year. The rhIFNα1b treatment significantly improved wheezing episodes within the last year, compared with the control peers (p=0.031). Single-factor regression showed statistically significant differences between the wheezing and non-wheezing groups in terms of age, rhIFNα1b use, childhood and family history of allergy, housing situation, and feeding history (p<0.05). Binary logistic regression showed a childhood history of allergy (OR=2.14, p=0.004), no rhIFNα1b use (OR=1.70, p=0.028), and living in a crowded house (OR=1.92, p=0.012) might be risk factors of subsequent wheezing. Accordingly, breastfeeding (OR=0.44, p=0.008) and hospitalization age of ≤1-year-old (OR=0.58, p=0.024) were protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: Early use of rhIFNα1b in infants hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections and breastfeeding could prevent subsequent wheezing. Living in a crowded house could promote subsequent wheezing.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite , Infecções Respiratórias , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Interferons , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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