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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19721, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611259

RESUMO

Acinetobacter has been frequently detected in backwater areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) region. We here employed Caenorhabditis elegans to perform biosafety assessment of Acinetobacter strains isolated from backwater area in the TGR region. Among 21 isolates and 5 reference strains of Acinetobacter, exposure to Acinetobacter strains of AC1, AC15, AC18, AC21, A. baumannii ATCC 19606T, A. junii NH88-14, and A. lwoffii DSM 2403T resulted in significant decrease in locomotion behavior and reduction in lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. In nematodes, exposure to Acinetobacter strains of AC1, AC15, AC18, AC21, A. baumannii, A. junii and A. lwoffii also resulted in significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, exposure to Acinetobacter isolates of AC1, AC15, AC18, and AC21 led to significant increase in expressions of both SOD-3::GFP and some antimicrobial genes (lys-1, spp-12, lys-7, dod-6, spp-1, dod-22, lys-8, and/or F55G11.4) in nematodes. The Acinetobacter isolates of AC1, AC15, AC18, and AC21 had different morphological, biochemical, phylogenetical, and virulence gene properties. Our results suggested that exposure risk of some Acinetobacter strains isolated from the TGR region exists for environmental organisms and human health. In addition, C. elegans is useful to assess biosafety of Acinetobacter isolates from the environment.

2.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641320

RESUMO

The nucleoid-associated protein GapR found in Caulobacter crescentus is crucial for DNA replication, transcription, and cell division. Associated with overtwisted DNA in front of replication forks and the 3' end of highly-expressed genes, GapR can stimulate gyrase and topo IV to relax (+) supercoils, thus facilitating the movement of the replication and transcription machines. GapR forms a dimer-of-dimers structure in solution that can exist in either an open or a closed conformation. It initially binds DNA through the open conformation and then undergoes structural rearrangement to form a closed tetramer, with DNA wrapped in the central channel. Here, we show that the DNA binding domain of GapR (residues 1-72, GapRΔC17) exists as a dimer in solution and adopts the same fold as the two dimer units in the full-length tetrameric protein. It binds DNA at the minor groove and reads the spatial distribution of DNA phosphate groups through a lysine/arginine network, with a preference towards AT-rich overtwisted DNA. These findings indicate that the dimer unit of GapR has an intrinsic DNA binding preference. Thus, at the initial binding step, the open tetramer of GapR with two relatively independent dimer units can be more efficiently recruited to overtwisted regions.

3.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 265, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is a condition of high blood pressure that is usually concurrent with proteinuria in pregnancy. PE complicates the management of both maternal and fetal health and contributes to most adverse pregnancy outcomes, but the mechanism underlying the development of PE remains unclear. In this study, we performed a case-control study to compare the gut microbiota of PE (n = 26), abnormal placental growth (APG, n = 25) and healthy pregnant women (n = 28) and analyzed the potential pathogenic role of gut microbiota in PE progression. RESULTS: The clinical pathophysiological state did not affect the bacterial diversity, while the compositions of the gut microbiota were significantly altered in both the PE and APG groups compared with healthy pregnant women. At the phylum level, TM7 was significantly increased in women with APG. Heterogeneity was observed at the genus level, especially in genera with positive LDA scores, suggesting the stage-dependent effect of gut microbiota on the development of PE. The beneficial bacterium Lactobacillus was markedly depleted in the PE and APG groups but was only correlated with blood pressure (BP) and proteinuria levels in the PE group. Two different bacterial taxa belonged to Lactobacillus showed different correlations (OTU255 and OTU784 were significantly related to PE and APG, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that shifts in the gut microbiota might occur from the early stages of the development of PE, which is of possible etiological and therapeutic importance.

4.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 9991255, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603487

RESUMO

Background: The majority of primary liver cancers in adults worldwide are hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs, or hepatomas). Thus, a deep understanding of the underlying mechanisms for the pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of HCC at the molecular level could facilitate the development of novel early diagnostic and therapeutic treatments to improve the approaches and prognosis for HCC patients. Our study elucidates the underlying molecular mechanisms of HBV-HCC development and progression and identifies important genes related to the early diagnosis, tumour stage, and poor outcomes of HCC. Methods: GSE55092 and GSE121248 gene expression profiling data were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. There were 119 HCC samples and 128 nontumour tissue samples. GEO2R was used to screen for differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Volcano plots and Venn diagrams were drawn by using the ggplot2 package in R. A heat map was generated by using Heatmapper. By using the clusterProfiler R package, KEGG and GO enrichment analyses of DEGs were conducted. Through PPI network construction using the STRING database, key hub genes were identified by cytoHubba. Finally, KM survival curves and ROC curves were generated to validate hub gene expression. Results: By GO enrichment analysis, 694 DEGs were enriched in the following GO terms: organic acid catabolic process, carboxylic acid catabolic process, carboxylic acid biosynthetic process, collagen-containing extracellular matrix, blood microparticle, condensed chromosome kinetochore, arachidonic acid epoxygenase activity, arachidonic acid monooxygenase activity, and monooxygenase activity. In the KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, DEGs were enriched in arachidonic acid epoxygenase activity, arachidonic acid monooxygenase activity, and monooxygenase activity. By PPI network construction and analysis of hub genes, we selected the top 10 genes, including CDK1, CCNB2, CDC20, BUB1, BUB1B, CCNB1, NDC80, CENPF, MAD2L1, and NUF2. By using TCGA and THPA databases, we found five genes, CDK1, CDC20, CCNB1, CENPF, and MAD2L1, that were related to the early diagnosis, tumour stage, and poor outcomes of HBV-HCC. Conclusions: Five abnormally expressed hub genes of HBV-HCC are informative for early diagnosis, tumour stage determination, and poor outcome prediction.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2121908, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605920

RESUMO

Importance: Financial incentives may improve health behaviors. It is unknown whether incentives are more effective if they target a key process (eg, medication adherence), an outcome (eg, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] levels), or both. Objective: To determine whether financial incentives awarded daily for process (adherence to statins), awarded quarterly for outcomes (personalized LDL-C level targets), or awarded for process plus outcomes induce reductions in LDL-C levels compared with control. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial was conducted from February 12, 2015, to October 3, 2018; data analysis was performed from October 4, 2018, to May 27, 2021, at the University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia. Participants included 764 adults with an active statin prescription, elevated risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, suboptimal LDL-C level, and evidence of imperfect adherence to statin medication. Interventions: Interventions lasted 12 months. All participants received a smart pill bottle to measure adherence and underwent LDL-C measurement every 3 months. In the process group, daily financial incentives were awarded for statin adherence. In the outcomes group, participants received incentives for achieving or sustaining at least a quarterly 10-mg/dL LDL-C level reduction. The process plus outcomes group participants were eligible for incentives split between statin adherence and quarterly LDL-C level targets. Main Outcomes and Measures: Change in LDL-C level from baseline to 12 months, determined using intention-to-treat analysis. Results: Of the 764 participants, 390 were women (51.2%); mean (SD) age was 62.4 (10.0) years, 310 (40.6%) had diabetes, 298 (39.0%) had hypertension, and mean (SD) baseline LDL-C level was 138.8 (37.6) mg/dL. Mean LDL-C level reductions from baseline to 12 months were -36.9 mg/dL (95% CI, -42.0 to -31.9 mg/dL) among control participants, -40.0 mg/dL (95% CI, -44.7 to -35.4 mg/dL) among process participants, -41.6 mg/dL (95% CI, -46.3 to -37.0 mg/dL) among outcomes participants, and -42.8 mg/dL (95% CI, -47.4 to -38.1 mg/dL) among process plus outcomes participants. In exploratory analysis among participants with diabetes and hypertension, no spillover effects of incentives were detected compared with the control group on hemoglobin A1c level and blood pressure over 12 months. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, process-, outcomes-, or process plus outcomes-based financial incentives did not improve LDL-C levels vs control. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02246959.

6.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 7276-7285, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612765

RESUMO

Human stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) is an ortholog of fish stanniocalcins (STCs) and is widely expressed in various organs and tissues. The gene is localized on chromosome 5q33 or 5q35. STC2 has been implicated in glucose homeostasis and phosphorus metabolism. It is also reported to be implicated in various malignancies. STC2 was found to be implicated in breast cancer and gynecologic cancers, suggesting hormone-specific or -dependent activities in these malignancies. Moreover, it was reported to be involved in gastrointestinal tumors, including esophageal, gastric, colorectal, and liver cancers, and respiratory cancers, including laryngeal and lung cancers. It also influenced renal carcinoma and prostate cancer. Notably, as a secreted phosphoprotein, STC2 was detectable in serum and possessed promising predictive value in several malignancies. This review aims to improve the understanding of the role of STC2 in patient diagnosis and prognosis, and tumor development and progression, as well as the mechanisms involved.

7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 3010-3022, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664476

RESUMO

The ecological corridors considering bird movement characteristics and habitat requirements would mitigate species extinction caused by habitat loss or habitat fragmentation and facilitate species gene dispersal and exchange. These functions may in turn benefit urban residents' physical and mental health as well as appreciation of real estates. Nonetheless, main ecological corridor construction methods developed by foreign scholars have not internally considered the movement and habitat characteristics of birds, while corridor research for birds by domestic scholars have focused on explorations of foreign technical methods yet lacked enough knowledge on studied birds' characteristics. Therefore, there is still much room for improvement in the study of urban ecological corridor construction from the perspective of birds. Based on the analyses of domestic and foreign related research from 1975 to 2020, we identified seven corridor construction methods and three corridor optimization methods within which bird ecology can be integrated. The advantages, drawbacks, and applicable scenarios of all the methods were explored accordingly. Finally, we argued that the develop-ment of computational models, which could not only combine bird species' observation data and spatial movement data with landscape structures but could also possess efficient computation power as well as simulate corridor's ecological benefits, would be a trend for constructing ecological corridor for birds.

8.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(9): 984-90, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical therapeutic effect on diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) of spleen deficiency and damp excess among fire needling therapy with filiform needle combined with acupoint application therapy, simple acupoint application therapy and pinaverium bromide tablets, and explore the mechanism on the improvements in IBS-D. METHODS: A total of 150 patients with IBS-D of spleen deficiency and damp excess were randomized into a combined treatment group (50 cases, 14 cases dropped off), an acupoint application group (50 cases, 16 cases dropped off ) and a western medication group (50 cases, 13 cases dropped off ). In the western medication group, pinaverium bromide tablets were prescribed for oral administration, 50 mg per time, three times a day. In the acupoint application group, the herbal plaster of shenling baizhu powder mixed with fresh ginger juice was placed on Shenque (CV 8), once every two days. In the combined treatment group, on the base of the treatment as the acupoint application group, the fire needling therapy with filiform needle was exerted at Tianshu (ST 25), Shangjuxu (ST 37), Yinlingquan (SP 9) and Dachangshu (BL 25), once every two days. The duration of treatment in each group was 4 weeks. Separately, before treatment and after 7 and 28 days of treatment, the score of clinical symptoms and the score of quality of life scale for IBS (IBS-QOL) were observed in each group. Before treatment and after 28 days of treatment, the levels of , and T lymphocytes, and the ratio of / in peripheral blood of patients were detected successively; as well as the expressions of 5-HT3R mRNA and 5-HT4R mRNA in colon mucosal tissues in each group separately. RESULTS: Except the score for abdominal pain in the acupoint application group and the scores for abdominal pain and abdominal distention in the western medication group after 7 days of treatment, the scores for abdominal pain, abdominal distention, defecation frequency, stool form and incomplete bowel movement after 7 and 28 days of treatment were all reduced as compared with those before treatment in each group separately (P<0.05). After 7 days of treatment, the scores for abdominal distention, defecation frequency and stool form in the combined treatment group were all lower than those in the western medication group (P<0.05). After 28 days of treatment, the score of each clinical symptom in the combined treatment group was lower than either of the rest two groups respectively (P<0.05); and the scores for abdominal pain, abdominal distention and incomplete bowel movement in the acupoint application group were lower than those in the western medication group separately (P<0.05). After 7 and 28 days of treatment, the score of each item in IBS-QOL was increased as compared with that before treatment in each group (P<0.05). After 7 days of treatment, except the scores for heterosexual relationship and human relations, scores of the other items, other scores of IBS-QOL in the combined treatment group were higher than those in the western medication group separately (P<0.05); while the scores of anxiety and behavior disorder in the acupoint application group were higher than those in the western medication group (P<0.05). After 28 days of treatment, the each score of IBS-QOL in the combined treatment group was higher than the other two groups respectively (P<0.05), while the scores of anxiety, behavior disorder, dietary control, social reaction and human relations in the acupoint application group were all higher than the western medication group (P<0.05). After treatment, the levels of and T lymphocytes and the ratio of /in peripheral blood, as well as the expressions of 5-HT4R mRNA in colon tissue were all increased in each group (P<0.05), but the levels of T lymphocyte and 5-HT3R mRNA expressions in colon tissue were reduced in each group (P<0.05). After treatment, regarding the levels of and T lymphocytes and the ratio of /in peripheral blood, as well as the expressions of 5-HT4R mRNA in colon tissue, the values in the combined treatment group were all higher than either of the rest two groups respectively (P<0.05), while the values in the acupoint application group were higher than the western medication group (P<0.05). Concerning to the level of T lymphocytes and 5-HT3R mRNA expression, the values in the combined treatment group were lower than the rest two groups respectively (P<0.05), and the values in the acupoint application group were lower than the western medication group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The combined treatment with the fire needling therapy with filiform needle and the acupoint application therapy effectively relieves the clinical symptoms, improves the quality of life and strengthens the immunity in the patients with IBS-D. The therapeutic effect of this combined regimen is better than either simple acupoint application therapy or the oral medication of pinaverium bromide. The mechanism may be related to the regulation of the levels of T lymphocyte subsets and the modulation of the expressions of 5-HT3R and 5-HT4R mRNA in colon tissue.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Pontos de Acupuntura , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Baço , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(4): 545-550, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494524

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the knowledge about human papillomavirus(HPV)and its vaccines,HPV vaccination status,and vaccination willingness among the freshmen majoring in liberal arts,sciences,and medicine in western China,so as to provide evidence-based suggestions for health education among university students and to increase their vaccination. Methods By convenience sampling,stratified sampling,and cluster sampling,an online questionnaire survey was conducted among freshmen in a comprehensive university in Chengdu.The differences among the groups were compared by χ2 test,and non-conditional logistic regression was performed to analyze the influencing factors of willingness to vaccination. Results A total of 881 participants were included in this study,including 419 males and 462 females.The vaccination rate of females was 3.5%(16/462).Of all the university students,59.1%,67.5%,and 56.3% had heard of HPV,HPV-related diseases,and HPV vaccines,respectively,and only 10.4%,10.6%,and 27.8% knew "HPV infection usually does not cause symptoms","HPV infection is usually transient and mostly spontaneous regressive",and "HPV infection is very common".Females and medical students had more related knowledge than males and non-medical students(P=0.035,P=0.021).Of all the university students,65.7% were willing to be vaccinated against HPV.The high cost of vaccination(50.8%),worry about the side effects adverse reaction(46.3%),and lack of sexual life(43.4%)were the main reasons for the reluctance to be vaccinated.Gender,education background of parents,history of self-financed vaccination,attitude towards premarital sexual behavior,history of sexual behavior,and knowledge of HPV were the influencing factors of vaccination willingness. Conclusions The freshmen had a low rate of HPV vaccination and limited detailed knowledge about HPV and its vaccines.Health education campaign is urgently called for among university students regarding HPV infection as well as the safety,effectiveness,and side effects of HPV vaccines.More attention should be paid to the health education of male and non-medical students.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Vacinação
10.
Chemosphere ; 282: 130897, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470145

RESUMO

Mussel shell (MS) and biochar (BC) are commonly used for the remediation of metal contaminated soil. However, less research has been focused to examine the efficacy of their combinations to reduce metal toxicity in crop plants. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the effects of BC, MS and their activated concoctions on the soil properties, enzyme activities and nickel (Ni) immobilization in aged Ni contaminated soil. Moreover, the growth, photosynthetic pigments and anti-oxidative machnery of Brassica napus plants has also been investigated in order to determine amendments efficiency in reducing soil Ni toxicity for plants. The results showed that the application of Ni adversely affected soil health and trigged stress responses by inducing oxidative stress in B. napus. However, the incorporation of amendments reduced the bioavailability of Ni, and the concoctions of BC and MS showed promising results in the immobilization of Ni. Among various combinations of BC and MS, treatment with BC + MS (3:1) significantly reduced Ni uptake, decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enhanced antioxidant defense of B. napus plants. Results showed that amendment's combinations stimulated the transcriptional levels of ROS scavenging enzymes and suppressed the expression level of Ni transporters. The morphological and physical characterization techniques (i.e. SEM, BET, EDS, FTIR and X-ray diffraction analyses) showed that amendment's combinations had relatively higher Ni adsorption capacity, indicating that BC and MS concoctions are efficient immobilizing agents for minimizing Ni availability, preventing oxidative toxicity and promoting growth and biomass production in rapeseed plants under metal stress conditions.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Brassica napus , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Níquel/análise , Níquel/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
11.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480693

RESUMO

Directed evolution (DE) inspired by natural evolution (NE) has been achieving tremendous successes in protein/enzyme engineering. However, the conventional "one-protein-for-one-task" DE cannot match the "multi-proteins-for-multi-tasks" NE in terms of screening throughput and efficiency, thus often failing to meet the fast-growing demands for biocatalysts with desired properties. In this study, we design a novel "multi-enzymes-for-multi-substrates" (MEMS) DE model and establish the proof-of-concept by running a NE-mimicking and higher-throughput screening on the basis of "two-P450s-against-seven-substrates" (2P×7S) in one pot. With the multiplied throughput and improved hit rate, we witness a series of convergent evolution events of the two archetypal cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450 BM3 and P450cam) in laboratory. It is anticipated that the new strategy of MEMS DE will find broader application for a larger repertoire of enzymes in the future. Furthermore, structural and substrate docking analysis of the two functionally convergent P450 variants provide important insights into how distinct P450 active-sites can reach a common catalytic goal.

12.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(15): 3581-3587, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522185

RESUMO

Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinal disease that causes blindness in premature infants. This study aimed to reveal the changes in amino acids and derivatives in the plasma of ROP patients compared with premature infants without ROP. Methods: Metabolomics targeting amino acids and their derivatives was conducted to assess their plasma levels in ROP patients (n=58) and premature infants without ROP (n=25), and KEGG pathway analysis was used to identify the involved pathways. Results: Among the 31 assessed metabolites, the levels of 4 amino acids were significantly altered in the ROP group. Creatinine was downregulated in the plasma of the ROP patients, while the levels of citrulline, arginine, and aminoadipic acid were upregulated in the ROP group. Significant correlations were identified between the ROP stage and plasma levels of citrulline, creatinine, and aminoadipic acid. The involved pathways included biosynthesis of amino acids, arginine and proline metabolism, and arginine biosynthesis. Conclusion: The plasma levels of citrulline, creatinine, arginine, and aminoadipic acid were significantly changed in ROP patients. These metabolites could be considered potential biomarkers of ROP, and their related metabolic pathways might be involved in ROP pathogenesis.

13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2124132, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491350

RESUMO

Importance: Modest weight loss can lead to meaningful risk reduction in adults with obesity. Although both behavioral economic incentives and environmental change strategies have shown promise for initial weight loss, to date they have not been combined, or compared, in a randomized clinical trial. Objective: To test the relative effectiveness of financial incentives and environmental strategies, alone and in combination, on initial weight loss and maintenance of weight loss in adults with obesity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was conducted from 2015 to 2019 at 3 large employers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A 2-by-2 factorial design was used to compare the effects of lottery-based financial incentives, environmental strategies, and their combination vs usual care on weight loss and maintenance. Interventions were delivered via website, text messages, and social media. Participants included adult employees with a body mass index (BMI; weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 30 to 55 and at least 1 other cardiovascular risk factor. Data analysis was performed from June to July 2021. Interventions: Interventions included lottery-based financial incentives based on meeting weight loss goals, environmental change strategies tailored for individuals and delivered by text messages and social media, and combined incentives and environmental strategies. Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome was weight change from baseline to 18 months, measured in person. Results: A total of 344 participants were enrolled, with 86 participants each randomized to the financial incentives group, environmental strategies group, combined financial incentives and environmental strategies group, and usual care (control) group. Participants had a mean (SD) age of 45.6 (10.5) years and a mean (SD) BMI of 36.5 (7.1); 247 participants (71.8%) were women, 172 (50.0%) were Black, and 138 (40.1%) were White. At the primary end point of 18 months, participants in the incentives group lost a mean of 5.4 lb (95% CI, -11.3 to 0.5 lb [mean, 2.45 kg; 95% CI, -5.09 to 0.23 kg]), those in the environmental strategies group lost a mean of a 2.2 lb (95% CI, -7.7 to 3.3 lb [mean, 1.00 kg; 95% CI, -3.47 to 1.49 kg]), and the combination group lost a mean of 2.4 lb (95% CI, -8.2 to 3.3 lb [mean, 1.09 kg; 95% CI, -3.69 to 1.49 kg]) more than participants in the usual care group. Financial incentives, environmental change strategies, and their combination were not significantly more effective than usual care. At 24 months, after 6 months without an intervention, the difference in the change from baseline was similar to the 18-month results, with no significant differences among groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, across all study groups, participants lost a modest amount of weight but those who received financial incentives, environmental change, or the combined intervention did not lose significantly more weight than those in the usual care group. Employees with obesity may benefit from more intensive individualized weight loss strategies. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02878343.

14.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 189, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To study the competency of general practitioners (GPs) in Shanghai, China on prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, also understand factors that may prohibit it. METHODS: A survey questionnaire with 25 questions was designed based on 2013 Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Guidelines and Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Guidelines (Grassroots Edition) and conducted among 789 GPs who work at 54 community healthcare centers (CHCs) within 16 districts at Shanghai, China. Excel 2016 and SPSS 24.0 were used for data analysis, and a difference of P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: The GPs did poorly on three aspect of diabetes prevention and treatment: (1) treatment goals in elderly patients, (2) screening methods for high-risk population, and (3) aspirin contraindications. The statistical analysis data showed that GPs who finished standardized training had correct answer on 13.58 ± 3.31 questions out of total 25, with mean accuracy rate of 54.32%. Except the questions for high-risk population screening method and the diagnostic criteria for type 2 diabetes, there was no difference in the accuracy of other questions between GPs with or without standardized training (P < 0.05). However, sex, educational level, and subspecialty experience are affective factors on their competency in type 2 diabetes prevention and treatment knowledge. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that communities should strengthen the training of GPs in diabetes management and bidirectional referral. Frequent continuing education and skills training should be provided among GPs at CHCs to ensure their competency of type 2 diabetes prevention and treatment knowledge after obtaining their GP license disregard of their standardized training. In addition, attention should be paid to GPs who had lower education background or non-clinical subspecialty experience to strengthen their clinical knowledge of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Clínicos Gerais , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125921, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492853

RESUMO

In-situ stabilization has been considered an effective way to remediate metal contaminated soil. Thus, pot experiments were undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of multiple stabilization agents such as biochar (BC), mussel shell (MS), zeolite (ZE) and limestone (LS) on the immobilization of Ni, physicochemical features and enzyme activities in polluted soil. Results showed that the sole application of Ni adversely affected the rapeseed growth, photosynthetic pigments, and antioxidative defense. However, the addition of amendments to the contaminated soil significantly reduced Ni bioavailability. The XRD analysis confirmed the formation of Ni related ligands and FTIR showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and sulfur functional groups, as well as complexation and adsorption of Ni on amendments. Among multiple amendments, biochar significantly enhanced plant biomass attributes and total chlorophyll content. Moreover, addition of amendments also strengthened the antioxidant defense by decreasing Ni induced oxidative stress (H2O2 and O2.-), increased macronutrient availability, reduced Ni uptake and improved soil health. The qPCR analysis showed that the Ni transporters were significantly suppressed by amendments, which is correlated with the lower accumulation of Ni in rapeseed. The present study showed that immobilizing agents, especially biochar, is an effective amendment to immobilize Ni in soil, which restricts its entry into the food chain.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Poluentes do Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Níquel/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590406

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the anti-tumour effect of apatinib on extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and elucidate the associated mechanisms. NCI-H345 cells were selected as model cells because of high expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and phosphorylated-VEGFR2 (pVEGFR2). Cells were exposed to recombinant human VEGF (rhVEGF) and apatinib. Cells were then divided into eight groups, namely, control, rhVEGF, apatinib, rhVEGF+apatinib, serum-free medium (SM), SM+rhVEGF, SM+apatinib and SM+rhVEGF+apatinib. In comparison with the control group, cell proliferation in vitro in apatinib, SM, SM+apatinib and SM+rhVEGF+apatinib groups was inhibited, particularly in SM+apatinib group. The effect of apatinib on tumour growth in vivo was investigated using a mouse xenograft tumour model. In comparison with the control group, tumour sizes were reduced in apatinib-treated group on days 34 and 37. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining revealed that VEGF, pVEGFR2, PI3K, AKT, p-ERK1/2, Ki-67 and CD31 in the tumour cells of apatinib-treated group were downregulated compared with control group. Haematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that apatinib promoted the necrosis of SCLC cells in vivo. In conclusion, apatinib inhibited the growth of SCLC cells by downregulating the expression of VEGF, pVEGFR2, p-PI3K, p-AKT, p-ERK1/2, Ki-67 and CD31.

17.
Cytokine ; 148: 155707, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated cytokines, like IL-1ßand IL-6, are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of labor. However, the change of inflammatory mediators in maternal-fetal interface to fetal circulation is obscure. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated the changes of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and macrophage in maternal-fetal interface tissues and fetal circulation of women in labor vs. non-labor. Human myometrium, placenta, decidua, fetal membrane and umbilical blood were obtained from in-labor and non-in-labor women who eventually delivered live, singleton infants at term (>37 weeks gestation) by elective caesarean section. Luminex was used to measure the level of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8) and chemokines (MCP-1, GM-CSF, MIP-1α, MIP-1ß) in each sample (tissue and umbilical blood). Macrophage infiltration was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: During labor, the level of cytokines TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-8 and chemokine MCP-1 and MIP-1ß in myometrium is significantly higher (p < 0.05), than those obtained from non-laboring patients. This increase coincides with the influx of macrophage into the myometrium. In addition, IL-1ß and IL-8 (p < 0.05) are also up regulated in fetal membrane during labor compared to non-labor. The cytokines do not change significantly in placenta and decidua tissue. In fetal circulation, IL-6 (p < 0.05) is up regulated in umbilical vein blood in labor group. IL-8 (p = 0.08) in umbilical vein also show an increasing trend during labor. CONCLUSIONS: There are markedly elevated inflammatory mediators in maternal-fetal interface during labor. The increased maternal inflammatory factors released into the fetal circulation through placenta circulation at the time of labor. This increase coincides with the influx of macrophage into the pregnancy tissue, suggesting that the inflammatory response might play an important role in the onset of labor.

18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 711337, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566966

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a highly prevalent chronic inflammatory disease leading to periodontal tissue breakdown and subsequent tooth loss, in which excessive host immune response accounts for most of the tissue damage and disease progression. Despite of the imperative need to develop host modulation therapy, the inflammatory responses and cell population dynamics which are finely tuned by the pathological microenvironment in periodontitis remained unclear. To investigate the local microenvironment of the inflammatory response in periodontitis, 10 periodontitis patients and 10 healthy volunteers were involved in this study. Single-cell transcriptomic profilings of gingival tissues from two patients and two healthy donors were performed. Histology, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry analysis were performed to further validate the identified cell subtypes and their involvement in periodontitis. Based on our single-cell resolution analysis, we identified HLA-DR-expressing endothelial cells and CXCL13+ fibroblasts which are highly associated with immune regulation. We also revealed the involvement of the proinflammatory NLRP3+ macrophages in periodontitis. We further showed the increased cell-cell communication between macrophage and T/B cells in the inflammatory periodontal tissues. Our data generated an intriguing catalog of cell types and interaction networks in the human gingiva and identified new inflammation-promoting cell subtypes involved in chronic periodontitis, which will be helpful in advancing host modulation therapy.

19.
20.
Nat Prod Bioprospect ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529253

RESUMO

Ten 3,5-dimethylcoumarins (1-6 and 8‒11) involving six new ones (1-6), together with a known 3-methylcoumarin (7), were isolated from the aerial parts of three Chelonopsis plants, C. praecox, C. odontochila, and C. pseudobracteata. The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. According to the substitution at C-5, these coumarins were classified into 5-methyl, 5-hydroxymethyl, 5-formyl, and 5-nor types. All the isolates were assayed for their inhibition on α-glucosidase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, and T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase in vitro.

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