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1.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-21, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35021901

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, multifactorial and inflammatory disease occurring in the colon tract. Bioactive polysaccharides from natural resources have attracted extensive attention due to their safety, accessibility and good bioactivities. In recent years, a variety of natural bioactive polysaccharides have been proven to possess anti-inflammatory effects on treating acute colitis. The objective of this review was to give an up-to-date review on the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of natural polysaccharides on acute colitis. The anti-inflammatory effects of natural polysaccharides on acute colitis concerning clinical symptoms amelioration, colon tissue repairment, anti-oxidative stress alleviation, anti-inflammation, immune regulation, and gut microbiota modulation were comprehensively summarized. In addition, inducible murine models for assessing the anti-inflammatory effects of natural polysaccharides on acute colitis were also concluded. This review will offer the comprehensive understanding of anti-inflammatory mechanisms of natural polysaccharides in acute colitis, and render theoretical basis for the development and application of natural polysaccharides in drug and functional food.

2.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992215

RESUMO

Glioblastoma is the most common primary intracranial malignant tumor in adults and has high morbidity and high mortality. TMEM158 has been reported to promote the progression of solid tumors. However, its potential role in glioma is still unclear. Here, we found that TMEM158 expression in human glioma cells in the tumor core was significantly higher than that in noncancerous cells at the tumor edge using bioinformatics analysis. Cancer cells in patients with primary GBMs harbored significantly higher expression of TMEM158 than those in patients with WHO grade II or III gliomas. Interestingly, regardless of tumor grading, human glioma samples that were IDH1-wild-type (IDH1-WT) exhibited higher expression of TMEM158 than those with IDH1-mutant (IDH1-Mut). We also illustrated that TMEM158 mRNA expression was correlated with poor overall survival in glioma patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated that silencing TMEM158 inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells and that TMEM158 overexpression promoted the migration and invasion of glioma cells by stimulating the EMT process. We found that the underlying mechanism involves STAT3 activation mediating TMEM158-driven glioma progression. In vivo results further confirmed the inhibitory effect of the TMEM158 downregulation on glioma growth. Collectively, these findings further our understanding of the oncogenic function of TMEM158 in gliomas, which represents a potential therapeutic target, especially for GBMs.

3.
J Arthroplasty ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of perioperative dexamethasone on acute phase response (APR) after simultaneous bilateral total hip arthroplasty (SimBTHA). METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was performed on 177 SimBTHA procedures. The patients were divided into 2 cohorts: patients receiving perioperative dexamethasone and patients in whom no dexamethasone was administered. We observed the effects of perioperative dexamethasone on the APR following SimBTHA by trending C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Besides, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) score, use of antiemetic and analgesic rescue and complications were also compared. RESULTS: Compared to the no dexamethasone group, patients receiving dexamethasone yielded a significantly decreased CRP on postoperative day 1, 2 and 3. Such differences of IL-6 were also detected. In addition, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), postoperative VAS score, use of antiemetic and analgesic rescue were significantly decreased without increasing the risk of early surgical wound infection and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients receiving dexamethasone. CONCLUSION: The anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone can attenuate the APR after SimBTHA as well as decrease the PONV, postoperative VAS score, use of antiemetic and analgesic rescue.

4.
Food Chem ; 374: 131760, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915363

RESUMO

Menthol inclusion complexes (ICs) have addressed a range of opportunities in food applications due to their volatile resistance. However, previous protocols used for their synthesis give low yields and high industrial application costs. In the present investigation, metal-organic frameworks based on ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD-MOF) have been prepared for the molecular encapsulation of menthol. Menthol/ß-CD-MOF-IC was synthesized under the optimized parameters, after which release behavior was studied. In this optimized manner, a higher menthol capacity was obtained in which the menthol content and encapsulation efficiency were 27.1 and 30.6%, respectively. Compared with menthol/ß-CD-IC, menthol/ß-CD-MOF-IC is resistant to high temperature, but sensitive to moisture. In a simulated oral release experiment, the rate of menthol release from different samples followed the order of: pure menthol > ß-CD > ß-CD-MOF, which can be attributed to two mechanisms: non-specific binding and site preference. We propose that ß-CD-MOF can be used as a promising delivery system for aroma compounds.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Mentol
5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(1): 515-526, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935372

RESUMO

Organozinc reagents are among the most commonly used organometallic reagents in modern synthetic chemistry, and multifunctionalized organozinc reagents can be synthesized from structurally simple, readily available ones by means of alkyne carbozincation. However, this method suffers from poor tolerance for terminal alkynes, and transformation of the newly introduced organic groups is difficult, which limits its applications. Herein, we report a method for vinylzincation of terminal alkynes catalyzed by newly developed iron catalysts bearing 1,10-phenanthroline-imine ligands. This method provides efficient access to novel organozinc reagents with a diverse array of structures and functional groups from readily available vinylzinc reagents and terminal alkynes. The method features excellent functional group tolerance (tolerated functional groups include amino, amide, cyano, ester, hydroxyl, sulfonyl, acetal, phosphono, pyridyl), a good substrate scope (suitable terminal alkynes include aryl, alkenyl, and alkyl acetylenes bearing various functional groups), and high chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. The method could significantly improve the synthetic efficiency of various important bioactive molecules, including vitamin A. Mechanistic studies indicate that the new iron-1,10-phenanthroline-imine catalysts developed in this study have an extremely crowded reaction pocket, which promotes efficient transfer of the vinyl group to the alkynes, disfavors substitution reactions between the zinc reagent and the terminal C-H bond of the alkynes, and prevents the further reactions of the products. Our findings show that iron catalysts can be superior to other metal catalysts in terms of activity, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity when suitable ligands are used.

6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 277: 118814, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893231

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of preparation method on the characteristics and ethylene loading capacity of V-type linear dextrin (LD). LD with different degrees of polymerisation were obtained from debranched starch by gradient ethanol precipitation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of samples obtained by precipitation and anti-solvent precipitation presented A + V-type crystalline structure. However, the percentage of V-type structure of samples obtained by anti-solvent precipitation was significantly higher than for samples prepared by precipitation, which was further confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and molecular dynamics simulation supported the XRD and NMR results. The ethylene encapsulation capabilities of samples fabricated by different methods were in range of 1.15-4.68 cm3/g. Ethylene release from V-type LD was a physical process at different storage temperatures, and the higher percentage of V-type structure, the slower release rate. Thus, a higher V-type structure content was beneficial for encapsulation of gaseous molecules.

7.
Food Chem ; 370: 131001, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509148

RESUMO

In vitro digestion and fermentation of blackberry fruit was investigated, and results showed that the phenolics were mainly released in gastric phase while carbohydrates in small intestinal phase. The bioaccessibility for phenolics and carbohydrates were 42.80% and 69.30%, indicating most of phenolics still remain in colon and available for intestinal flora. The total phenolics released during the digestion account for the improvement of antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. Especially, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside with higher released amount and bioaccessibility index (63.21%), exhibited the strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. After fermentation, the non-digestible fractions of blackberry affected the ecosystem of the intestinal tract by decreasing the colonic pH (△pH = 1.10), enhancing the production of SCFAs and modulating gut microbiota composition (the ratio of Firmicute/Bacteroidetes decreased from13.18 to 0.87). The results provided insights into the digestive properties and health benefits of blackberry fruit after consumption.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Rubus , Antioxidantes , Digestão , Ecossistema , Frutas , Humanos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886142

RESUMO

Ecosystem restoration has been widely concerned with the damage and degradation of ecosystems worldwide. Scientific and reasonable formulations of ecological restoration zoning is the basis for the formulation of an ecological restoration plan. In this study, a restoration zoning index system was proposed to comprehensively consider the ecological problems of ecosystems. The linear weighted function method was used to construct the ecological restoration index (ERI) as an important index of zoning. The research showed that: (1) the ecological restoration zones of the Qilian Mountains can be divided into eight basins, namely the headwaters of the Datong River Basin, the Danghe-Dahaerteng River Basin, the northern confluence area of the Qinghai Lake, the upper Shule River to middle Heihe River, the Oasis Agricultural Area in the northern foothills of the Qilian Mountain, the Huangshui Basin Valley, Aksay (corridor region of the western Hexi Basin), and the northeastern Tsaidam Basin; (2) the restoration index of the eight ecological restoration zones of the Qilian Mountains was between 0.34-0.8, with an average of 0.61 (the smaller the index, the more prominent the comprehensive ecological problem representing the regional mountains, rivers, forests, cultivated lands, lakes, and grasslands, and thus the greater the need to implement comprehensive ecological protection and restoration projects); and (3) the ecological problems of different ecological zones are frequently numerous, and often show the phenomenon of multiple overlapping ecological problems in the same zone.

9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856214

RESUMO

In this work, a simple but effective method based on Gamma-ray initiated polymerization was reported for the first time through direct irradiation of CNCs and ionic liquid monomer to obtain poly (ionic liquids) functionalized CNCs (IL@CNCs). The adsorptive removal of Congo red (CR) from aqueous solution by IL@CNCs was also examined and the influence of contact time, pH values, initial concentrations and temperature on adsorption behavior was investigated in detail. Under the same adsorption conditions, the adsorption capacity was increased from 59.72 mg/g (CNCs) to 195.83 mg/g (IL@CNCs). The results of the adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetics showed that the experimental data were more suitable to be described by the Freundlich isotherm adsorption model and the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption process of CR on the surface of the adsorbent was endothermic and spontaneous. When the aqueous solution was acidic, it was more conducive to the adsorption of CR. At 100% breakthrough, the value of adsorption capacity is 199.95 mg/g and the value of partition coefficient is 9.64. Moreover, the adsorption capacity is expected to be further improved through adjustment of polymerization parameters and this method can also be used for preparation other poly (ionic liquids) modified composites.

10.
Int J Surg ; 96: 106183, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34863965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a very successful orthopedics procedure but associates with a significantly high transfusion rate. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to determine predictors of postoperative blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective hip and knee TJA patients and compare the accuracy of machine learning (ML) algorithms in predicting transfusion risk. METHODS: We utilized data from 12,642 patients undergoing primary unilateral TJA. Risk factors and demographic information were extracted, and predictive models were developed using seven ML algorithms. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to measure the predictive accuracy of each algorithm. RESULTS: The overall transfusion rate was 18.7%. Patient-related risk factors for transfusion included age 65-85 (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.175-1.222), female (OR: 1.246), American Society of Anesthesiologists grade Ⅱ or greater (OR: 1.264-2.758). Surgical factors included operation time (OR: 1.736), drain use (OR: 2.202) as well as intraoperative blood loss (OR: 7.895). Elevated preoperative Hb (OR: 0.615), Hct (OR: 0.800), BMI (≥24 kg/m2) (OR: 0.613-0.731) and tranexamic acid use (OR: 0.375) were associated with decreased risk of postoperative transfusion. The long short-term memory networks (LSTM) and random forest (RF) models achieved the highest predictive accuracy (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The risk factors identified in the current study can provide specific, personalized postoperative transfusion risk assessment for a patient considering lower limb TJA. Furthermore, the predictive accuracies of LSTM and RF algorithms were significantly higher than the others, making them potential tools for future personalized preoperative prediction of risk for postoperative transfusion.

11.
Trans GIS ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899033

RESUMO

The second COVID-19 outbreak in Beijing was controlled by non-pharmaceutical interventions, which avoided a second pandemic. Until mass vaccination achieves herd immunity, cities are at risk of similar outbreaks. It is vital to quantify and simulate Beijing's non-pharmaceutical interventions to find effective intervention policies for the second outbreak. Few models have achieved accurate intra-city spatio-temporal epidemic spread simulation, and most modeling studies focused on the initial pandemic. We built a dynamic module of infected case movement within the city, and established an urban spatially epidemic simulation model (USESM), using mobile phone signaling data to create scenarios to assess the impact of interventions. We found that: (1) USESM simulated the transmission process of the epidemic within Beijing; (2) USESM showed the epidemic curve and presented the spatial distribution of epidemic spread on a map; and (3) to balance resources, interventions, and economic development, nucleic acid testing intensity could be increased and restrictions on human mobility in non-epidemic areas eased.

12.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 755692, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34900958

RESUMO

IgA nephropathy is the most common glomerular disease in the world and has become a serious threat to human health. Accurate and non-invasive molecular imaging to detect and recognize the IgA nephropathy is critical for the subsequent timely treatment; otherwise, it may progress to end-stage renal disease and lead to glomerular dysfunction. In this study, we have developed a sensitive, specific, and biocompatible integrin αvß3-targeted superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) for the noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of integrin αvß3, which is overexpressed in glomerular mesangial region of IgA nephropathy. The rat model of IgA nephropathy was successfully established and verified by biochemical tests and histological staining. Meanwhile, the clinical 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 probe molecule was utilized to visualize and further confirmed the IgA nephropathy in vivo via positron emission computed tomography. Subsequently, the Fe3O4 NPs were conjugated with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) molecules (Fe3O4-RGD), and their integrin αvß3-targeted T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) potential has been carefully evaluated. The Fe3O4-RGD demonstrated great relaxation in vivo. The T2WI signal of renal layers in the targeted group at 3 h after intravenous injection of Fe3O4-RGD was distinctly lower than baseline, indicating MRI signal decreased in the established IgA nephropathy rat model. Moreover, the TEM characterization and Prussian blue staining confirmed that the Fe3O4-RGD was located at the region of glomerulus and tubular interstitium. Moreover, no obvious signal decreased was detected in the untargeted Fe3O4 treated and normal groups. Collectively, our results establish the possibility of Fe3O4-RGD serving as a feasible MRI agent for the noninvasive diagnosis of IgA nephropathy.

13.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34940260

RESUMO

Neural interfaces typically focus on one or two sites in the motoneuron system simultaneously due to the limitation of the recording technique, which restricts the scope of observation and discovery of this system. Herein, we built a system with various electrodes capable of recording a large spectrum of electrophysiological signals from the cortex, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and muscles of freely moving animals. The system integrates adjustable microarrays, floating microarrays, and microwires to a commercial connector and cuff electrode on a wireless transmitter. To illustrate the versatility of the system, we investigated its performance for the behavior of rodents during tethered treadmill walking, untethered wheel running, and open field exploration. The results indicate that the system is stable and applicable for multiple behavior conditions and can provide data to support previously inaccessible research of neural injury, rehabilitation, brain-inspired computing, and fundamental neuroscience.

15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960188

RESUMO

Infectious bursal disease (IBD), caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), is a highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease in chickens worldwide. The novel variant IBDV (nvIBDV) has been emerging in Chinese chicken farms since 2017, but there are no available vaccines that can provide effective protection. Herein, the capsid protein VP2 from nvIBDV strain FJ-18 was expressed in Kluyveromyces marxianus with the aim to produce nvIBDV subviral particles (SVPs). Two recombinant strains constructed for expression of nvIBDV VP2 (nvVP2) and His-tagged VP2 (nvHVP2) formed two types of nvIBDV subviral particles (SVPs), namely nvVP2-SVPs and nvHVP2-SVPs. TEM scans showed that both SVPs were about 25 nm in diameter, but there was a large portion of nvVP2-SVPs showing non-spherical particles. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that an N-terminal His tag strengthened the interaction of the nvHVP2 monomer and contributed to the assembly of SVPs. Vaccination of chicks with the nvHVP2-SVPs provided 100% protection against novel variant IBDV infection when challenged with the FJ-18 strain, as well as the classical strain BC6/85. By contrast, vaccination with the nvVP2-SVPs only provided 60% protection against their parent FJ-18 strain, suggesting that the stable conformation of subviral particles posed a great impact on their protective efficacy. Our results showed that the nvHVP2-SVPs produced by the recombinant K. marxianus strain is an ideal vaccine candidate for IBDV eradication.

17.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a new approach to intraoperatively identify the presence of coronal plane deformities (both valgus and varus) when treating tibial fractures with closed reduction and intramedullary nail fixation. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted by enrolling 33 consecutive patients with tibial fractures who received closed reduction and intramedullary nail fixation from January 2018 to January 2019 at our trauma center. Out of the 33 patients, 23 were males and 10 were females and the average age was 41 years (ranging 22 to 69 years of age). Standard anteroposterior and lateral preoperative radiographs were routinely performed. After intraoperatively inserting the tibial intramedullary nail through the standard entry point, the parallel relationship between the distal horizontal interlocking screw and the tibiotalar joint surface on the anteroposterior fluoroscopy was used to determine the occurrence of valgus or varus deformities of the distal tibial fragment. Radiographic and clinical outcomes were analyzed using the average interval from injury to surgery, the lateral distal tibial angle (LDTA) of the unaffected and affected sides, complications and the Olerud-Molander ankle score. RESULTS: All 33 patients were postoperatively followed for 13 to 25 months (mean 18.7 months). The fractures achieved bone union at an average of 4.3 months (ranging from 3 to 6 months). The total complication rate was 60.6% (20 cases), including four cases that showed deep vein thrombosis, one case showing an infection and delayed union and 15 cases showing slight to moderate anterior knee pain. The postoperative LDTA of the unaffected side measured 87.3° to 89.6 ° (average 88.7° ± 0.8°), and the LDTA of the affected side was 87.5° to 90.4° (average 88.9° ± 1.1°). There was no significant difference between the unaffected and affected sides (t = -1.865, P = 0.068). The intraoperative measurement indicated six cases of valgus angulation and three cases of varus angulation deformities, and all deformities were corrected during surgery. According to the Olerud-Molander ankle score, clinical outcomes demonstrated 22 excellent cases, eight good cases, two fair cases, and one poor case 12 months after surgery. CONCLUSION: The parallel relationship between the distal horizontal interlocking screw and tibiotalar joint surface on intraoperative anteroposterior films were able to determine the onset of valgus or varus angulations of the distal tibial fragment in the fracture zone after the tibial intramedullary nail was inserted through the standard entry point.

18.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA12118105, 2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is known to be multifactorial but remains incompletely understood. METHODS: In this study, single-cell RNA sequencing, which facilitates the identification of molecular profiles of samples on an individual cell level, was applied to investigate individual cell types in pulmonary endarterectomized tissues from 5 patients with CTEPH. The order of single-cell types was then traced along the developmental trajectory of CTEPH by trajectory inference analysis, and intercellular communication was characterized by analysis of ligand-receptor pairs between cell types. Finally, comprehensive bioinformatics tools were used to analyze possible functions of branch-specific cell types and the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: Eleven cell types were identified, with immune-related cell types (T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and mast cells) distributed in the left (early) branch of the pseudotime tree, cancer stem cells, and CRISPLD2+ cells as intermediate cell types, and classic disease-related cell types (fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, myofibroblasts, and endothelial cells) in the right (later) branch. Ligand-receptor interactions revealed close communication between macrophages and disease-related cell types as well as between smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts or endothelial cells. Moreover, the ligands and receptors were significantly enriched in key pathways such as the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, highly expressed genes specific to the undefined cell type were significantly enriched in important functions associated with regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress. CONCLUSIONS: This single-cell RNA sequencing analysis revealed the order of single cells along a developmental trajectory in CTEPH as well as close communication between different cell types in CTEPH pathogenesis.

19.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1335, 2021 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824369

RESUMO

DNA phosphorothioation (PT) is widely distributed in the human gut microbiome. In this work, PT-diet effect on nematodes was studied with PT-bioengineering bacteria. We found that the ROS level decreased by about 20-50% and the age-related lipofuscin accumulation was reduced by 15-25%. Moreover, the PT-feeding worms were more active at all life periods, and more resistant to acute stressors. Intriguingly, their lifespans were prolonged by ~21.7%. Comparative RNA-seq analysis indicated that many gene expressions were dramatically regulated by PT-diet, such as cysteine-rich protein (scl-11/12/13), sulfur-related enzyme (cpr-2), longevity gene (jnk-1) and stress response (sod-3/5, gps-5/6, gst-18/20, hsp-12.8). Both the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis suggested that neuroactivity pathways were upregulated, while phosphoryl transfer and DNA-repair pathways were down-regulated in good-appetite young worms. The findings pave the way for pro-longevity of multicellular organisms by PT-bacterial interference.

20.
Ecol Evol ; 11(22): 15780-15791, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824789

RESUMO

Invasive species are a major driver of ecological and environmental changes that affect human health, food security, and natural biodiversity. The success and impact of biological invasions depend on adaptations to novel abiotic and biotic selective pressures. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptations in invasive parasitic species are inadequately understood. Small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, are parasites of bee nests. Originally endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, they are now found nearly globally. Here, we investigated the molecular bases of the adaptations to novel environments underlying their invasion routes. Genomes of historic and recent adults A. tumida from both the endemic and introduced ranges were compared. Analysis of gene-environment association identified 3049 candidate loci located in 874 genes. Functional annotation showed a significant bias toward genes linked to growth and reproduction. One of the genes from the apoptosis pathway encodes an "ecdysone-related protein," which is a crucial regulator in controlling body size in response to environmental cues for holometabolous insects during cell death and renewal. Genes whose proteins regulate organ size, ovary activation, and oviposition were also detected. Functions of these enriched pathways parallel behavioral differences between introduced and native A. tumida populations, which may reflect patterns of local adaptation. The results considerably improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and ecological factors driving adaptations of invasive species. Deep functional investigation of these identified loci will help clarify the mechanisms of local adaptation in A. tumida.

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