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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 171: 550-559, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444654

RESUMO

Larch arabinogalactan (AG), extracted from Larix gmelinii sawdust, was depolymerized by H2O2 oxidation and purified by gel column to yield a novel degraded fraction (AGD2). The structural analysis indicated AGD2 had lower arabinose content and molecular weight compared with AG, in which the ratio of galactose and arabinose was changed from 7:3 to 16:1, the molecular weight was decreased from 50.2 kDa to 3.7 kDa, and the chain conformation spread from highly branched structure to flexible strand. It was one kind of ß-D-(1 â†’ 3)-galactan with fewer ß-D-(1 â†’ 6)-Galp side branches at O-6 position. Further, the results of the Gal-3 binding and immunomodulatory assay suggested that the unbinding force of AGD2 onto Gal-3 was as twice as AG to be 76 ± 11 pN at the loading rate of 0.15 µm/s. It could better promote the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß) than AG in a dose-dependent manner.

2.
Food Funct ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459742

RESUMO

As a phenolic terpenoid, carnosic acid (CA) mainly exists in rosemary, which can be effectively used for the treatment of degenerative and chronic diseases by taking advantage of its health-promoting bioactivities. However, the low solubility and dissolution of CA in aqueous solutions at ambient and body temperatures result in low stability and bioaccessibility during the digestion process, which limits its application scope in the functional foods industry. In this regard, a lecithin based nanoemulsion system (CA-NE) is employed in the present work to enhance the bioaccessibility and bioactivities of CA. It is revealed that the CA-NE under investigation exhibits high loading capacity (2.80 ± 0.15%), small particle size (172.0 ± 3.5 nm) with homogeneous particle distribution (polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.231± 0.025) and high repulsive force (zeta potential = -57.2 ± 0.24 mV). More importantly, the bioaccessibility of CA-NE is improved by 2.8-fold compared to that of CA in MCT oil. In addition, the cellular antioxidant assay (CAA) and cellular uptake study of the CA-NE in HepG2 cell models demonstrate a longer endocytosis process, suggesting the well-controlled release of CA from CA-NE. Furthermore, an improved anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated via the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The results clearly demonstrated a promising application of CA-NE as a functional food.

3.
Foods ; 9(11)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158107

RESUMO

Genistein is one of major isoflavones derived from soybean products and it is believed to have beneficial effects on human health. However, its low water-solubility and poor oral bioavailability severely hamper its use as a functional food ingredient or for pharmaceutical industry. In this study, zein and zein/carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) nanoparticles were prepared to encapsulate genistein using a combined liquid-liquid phase separation method. The physicochemical properties of fabricated nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results demonstrated that genistein encapsulated with zein nanoparticles significantly improved its water dispersibility, antioxidant activity in the aqueous phase, and photostability against UV light. Moreover, genistein encapsulated in zein nanoparticles showed a sustained release property. Furthermore, it was found that encapsulation efficiency of genistein was significantly enhanced after CMCS coating, and this effect was more pronounced after the complex nanoparticles cross-linked with calcium ions when compared with the use of zein as a single encapsulant. In addition, compared to zein nanoparticles without biopolymer coating, CMCS coating significantly enhanced the thermal and storage stability of the formed nanoparticles, and delayed the release of genistein. A schematic diagram of zein and zein/carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) nanoparticles formation mechanism for encapsulation of genistein was proposed. According to the results of the current study, it could be concluded that encapsulation of genistein in zein/CMCS nanoparticles is a promising approach to improve its water dispersibility, antioxidant activity, photostability against UV light and provide controlled release for food/pharmaceutical applications.

4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 165(Pt A): 1047-1054, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002535

RESUMO

In this study, a facile drug release system was developed through a solution casting technique using a combination of sodium alginate (SA), poly(ethylene glycol)monomethyl ether (mPEG) and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CPX). The structure of the membranes was characterized using ATR-FTIR, AFM and the static contact angle (SCA) was determined to find surface nature of membranes. ATR-FTIR confirmed the existence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between SA/mPEG in bio-polymeric membranes. AFM micrographs exhibited the extent of roughness which decreased as the contents of mPEG in the membranes were increased up to 40% (w/w). The SCA values ranged between 24° to 84° (at 0 s) and 14° to 80° (at 60 s) and showed an increase in hydrophilicity due to the incorporation of mPEG. In vitro drug release profile of CPX loaded on a membrane comprising of SA/mPEG (80/20) was evaluated in SGF (pH 1.2) and PBS (pH 7.4) solutions till 3 h. At pH 1.2, the maximum amount of CPX (~80%) was released in 70-120 min while ~75% drug was released in 90-120 min at pH 7.4. The present study demonstrated a facile and cost-effective approach to prepare SA/mPEG membranes that may be potentially employed as a drug delivery system in various biomedical applications.

6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(41): 11412-11420, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935545

RESUMO

Nobiletin has received much attention for its promising biological activities. Owing to its limited solubility, various encapsulation strategies have been developed to enhance nobiletin bioavailability. However, the understanding of the bioavailability and biotransformation of nobiletin in vivo and the correlation between in vitro and in vivo data remains limited. This study developed a high-loading nobiletin (1%) emulsion. The in vitro models, which combined pH-stat lipolysis with a Franz cell, showed very good correlation with in vivo data for the relative bioavailability. Rat studies showed that nobiletin had a high absolute bioavailability (≈20% for oil suspension). Besides, the emulsification improved the amount of bioavailable nobiletin and its major metabolite in the blood by about two times, as compared to an oil suspension. This work provides scientific insights into a rapid screening method for delivery systems and a better understanding of the biological fate of nobiletin in vivo.

7.
Food Funct ; 11(9): 8141-8149, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870226

RESUMO

Carnosic acid (CA) represents one of the most effective antioxidants that can be applied for the prevention of degenerative and chronic diseases. However, the intrinsic hydrophobic nature of CA results in low solubility and poor dissolution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which limits its applications in a variety of functional food systems. In order to address these issues, we encapsulated CA in a lecithin-based nanoemulsion (CA-NE) to improve its bioaccessibility and bioavailability which are evaluated using in vitro and in vivo digestion models. The CA-NE demonstrated a loading capacity of 2.6-3.0%, an average particle size of 165 nm, a ζ-potential value of -57.2 mV, and good stability during 4-weeks of storage at 4, 25, and 37 °C. The in vitro static pH-stat lipolysis model and dynamic TNO gastrointestinal (TIM-1) model demonstrated a 12.6 and 5.6 fold increase in the total bioaccessibility of CA encapsulated in nanoemulsion, respectively, as opposed to CA in suspension form. Moreover, the in vivo pharmacokinetics study on a rat model (Male Sprague Dawley) confirmed that the bioavailability of CA in nanoemulsion showed a 2.2 fold increase, as compared to that of CA in suspension form. In conclusion, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of CA were remarkably improved by encapsulation of CA in a lecithin-based nanoemulsion. Moreover, the combined in vitro and in vivo study could serve as a useful approach for the comprehensive evaluation of oral lipid-based delivery systems.

8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(39): 10709-10718, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880448

RESUMO

Nobiletin, one of the prevalent polymethoxyflavones in citrus peels, was reported to possess various health benefits. We conducted the excretion study and pharmacokinetics study of nobiletin via oral administration and intravenous injection and 15 day consecutive dosing study using the high fat diet-induced obese rats and their lean counterparts. By comparing the demethylated metabolite profiles in the urine and feces, gut microbiota demonstrated greater biotransformation activity on nobiletin than the host. The absolute oral bioavailability of nobiletin in lean (22.37% ± 4.52%) and obese (18.67% ± 4.80%) rats has a negligible statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). However, a higher extent of demethylated metabolites was found in the feces and plasma of obese rats than lean rats (P < 0.05). Moreover, the consecutive dosing of nobiletin might lead to a higher extent of demethylated metabolites in the plasma and in feces. These results suggested that gut microbiota played important roles in nobiletin metabolism.

9.
J Food Sci ; 85(10): 3355-3362, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940354

RESUMO

Ice nucleators are substances that can initiate nucleation of pure water at and above -10 °C. Some plant pathogens possess a gene which encodes for a protein that acts as an ice nucleator, activity of which is enhanced when it is combined with the sugar and lipid components from the cell membrane. This matter retains its ice nucleation activity even after it is detached from the cell wall, and is termed extracellular ice nucleator (ECIN). In this paper, surface morphology of ECINs was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in tapping mode. ECINs were immobilized onto polyelectrolyte multilayers using the layer by layer deposition method. Effect of layer build-up, method of ECIN production, and polyelectrolytes used for multilayer fabrication were investigated. Globular and rod-like structures were observed on the AFM images of the nano-thin ECIN layers. Activity of ECINs, tested in food solutions in earlier studies, was retained when applied as a nano-thin layer onto a silicon wafer surface. Protein aggregate sizes decreased when higher centrifugation speeds were applied, and ice nucleation activity also decreased. Nucleation occurred faster and at higher temperatures when substrates were immersed in solutions of higher ECIN concentration, whereas number of bilayers formed did not have a significant effect. Higher concentration ECIN dipping solutions also led to the formation of thicker and denser ECIN layers as observed via AFM imaging. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study demonstrates the properties of nano-thin ECIN layers, which can crystallize pure water into ice at higher temperatures and in shorter time. Accelerating ice nucleation can potentially be utilized to freeze liquids in shorter time hence using less energy, or improve frozen foods' stability against the risk of cold chain breakage.


Assuntos
Congelamento , Gelo , Microscopia de Força Atômica
10.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109485, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846567

RESUMO

Mushrooms from different varieties and manufacturing methods show different flavor profiles. In order to understand the sensory attributes and aroma compounds of boletus, the discrepancy of aroma profile in four varieties of boletus was determined using gas chromatography-olfactometry combined with sensory analysis and partial least squares regression analysis (PLSR). Sensory analysis revealed that Boletus Edulis had potent roasted and buttery attributes, Boletus Aereu exhibited woody note and Boletus Auripes Pk presented powerful floral and smoky aromas, while Boletus Rubellus Krombh showed weakness in five sensory attributes. The quantitative analysis revealed that the dominant volatiles in boletus samples were esters, aldehydes, acids, alcohols, pyrazines, ketones and phenols. A total of 42 potent aroma compounds (OAVs > 1) were determined by aroma extract dilution analysis and quantitative analysis. 1-Octen-3-ol and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine were the potent aroma compounds among four boletus samples. In addition, the key aroma compounds were 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine in Boletus edulis. Isovaleric acid, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, benzeneacetaldehyde and (E)-2-octenal were the key aroma compounds in Boletus aereu. In Boletus auripes Pk, isovaleric acid, 3-ethylphenol and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine were the key aroma compounds, while 3-methylvaleric acid, isovaleric acid and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine significantly contributed to the aroma of boletus rubellus Krombh. Indeed, PLSR indicated that significant difference on aroma resulted from different varieties of boletus.

11.
Food Funct ; 11(9): 7356-7370, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820787

RESUMO

Obesity and overweight have become serious health problems in the world and are linked to a variety of metabolic disorders. Phytochemicals with a weight-loss effect have been widely studied for the past few decades. Capsaicin is the major bioactive component in red chili peppers with many beneficial functions. Its anti-obesity effects have been evaluated extensively using different model systems, including cell models, animal models and human subjects. In this paper, anti-obesity effects of capsaicin are reviewed and the underlying mechanisms are characterized.

12.
Food Funct ; 11(7): 6595-6607, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648885

RESUMO

We extracted and purified oxyresveratrol (OXY) from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. and identified its structure. The kinetics and mechanisms of OXY-induced mushroom tyrosinase inhibition were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, copper ion chelation, and circular dichroism (CD). We found that OXY significantly inhibited tyrosinase with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.03 mM. The inhibitory effect of OXY on tyrosinase was almost 25 times that of kojic acid, which had an IC50 of 0.78 mM. Additionally, OXY and the tyrosinase substrate L-dopa did not have a competitive relationship; OXY is a non-competitive inhibitor. Using a fluorescence quenching experiment, we determined the corresponding rate constant (Kq) values at 298, 303, and 310 K to be 2.24 × 1012, 1.08 × 1012 and 1.44 × 1012 L mol-1 s-1, respectively. The OXY and tyrosinase interaction occured mainly through van der Waals forces and a hydrogen bond between the -OH group and its amino acid residue. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of OXY on murine melanoma B16 cells and on age pigments in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). OXY decreased melanin production by inhibiting the tyrosinase activity in murine melanoma B16 cells, which decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH) and increased catalase (CAT), leading to apoptosis. The lifespan of nematodes in the 50 ml resveratrol-treated group was significantly longer than that in the blank group by 5%. The mean lifespan of nematodes in the 50 µM OXY-treated group was significantly longer than that in the blank group by 6.82%.The fluorescence intensity of C. elegans pigments decreased by 30.43%, 47.35% and 64.42% after the treatment with a low, middle, and high OXY dose, respectively, showing that OXY has a significant inhibitory effect on melanin and age pigment production.

13.
Food Chem ; 329: 127118, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512391

RESUMO

Sonication was applied to accelerate aroma formation and shorten fermentation time of soy sauce. Effects of sonication at 68 kHz on the aroma and aroma-producing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Tetragenococcus halophilus in moromis were investigated using sensory evaluation, SPME-GC-olfactometry/MS, viable cell counting and scanning electron microscopy. The sensory scores of caramel-like, fruity, alcoholic, floral, malty, smoky, sour and overall aroma in sonicated moromis were enhanced by 23.4%, 23.2%, 13.6%, 12.8%, 7.6%, 6.3%, 5.6% and 14.4%, respectively. Sensory scores of samples fermented for 90-180 days were higher than those of controls fermented for 180 days, suggesting that sonication could reduce fermentation time by 90 days. Thirty-four aroma-active compounds were detected from 85 volatile compounds in soy sauces. Sonication accelerated and elevated the formation of aroma compounds by chemical reactions. It also markedly increased the reproduction and cell permeability of both microorganisms in moromis, which favored the formation of aroma compounds by both strains.


Assuntos
Odorantes/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Enterococcaceae , Fermentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Sonicação , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Paladar , Zygosaccharomyces
14.
Food Chem ; 331: 127320, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562981

RESUMO

The co-existence of polysaccharides and enzymes in the food matrix could form complexes that directly influence the catalytic efficacy of enzymes. This work investigated the self-assembly behaviors of α-amylase and charged polysaccharides and fabricated the α-amylase/polysaccharides complex coacervates. The results showed that the linear charge density of polysaccharides had a critical impact on the complex formation, structure, and enzyme protection under acidic conditions. At low pH, α-amylase formed compact and tight coacervates with the λ-carrageenan. However, α-amylase/pectin coacervates dissociated when the pH was lower than 3.0. The optimized binding ratio of α-amylase/λ-carrageenan was 12:1, and α-amylase/pectin was 4:1. Finally, the α-amylase/λ-carrageenan complex coacervates effectively immobilized the enzyme and almost 70% of enzyme activity remained in coacervates after exposure to pH3.0 for 1 h. This study demonstrates that the change in the linear charge density of polysaccharides could regulate the enzyme-catalyzed process in food processing by a simple and fine-controlled method.


Assuntos
Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , alfa-Amilases/química , Carragenina/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pectinas/química
15.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(11): 3417-3425, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in predicting long-term disease prognosis for Takayasu arteritis (TA). METHODS: Sixty-seven TA patients, who had IL-6 levels detected at the first visit and had a regular follow-up of at least 2 years, were enrolled. Data recorded up to March 31, 2019, including clinical presentations, laboratory indices, treatments, and radiological images were collected and used for analysis. The value of IL-6 in predicting disease relapse and imaging progression was analyzed. RESULTS: IL-6 levels were positively related with disease activity index, including Kerr scores, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Patients were divided into three groups according to baseline serum IL-6 levels: low group (< 5.4 pg/mL, n = 29), medium group (5.4-11.5 pg/mL, n = 20), and high group (> 11.5 ng/mL, n = 18). Patients in the medium and high group had higher disease activity than those in the low group (p < 0.01). Baseline IL-6 levels were correlated with luminal stenosis (p < 0.05), although no significant correlations with long-term imaging progression were observed. Patients with more than 2 episodes of disease relapses were most commonly seen in the medium group (p < 0.05). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis indicated that medium and high IL-6 levels were positive predictors for disease relapse (HR 4.3, 95%CI 1.3-18.7 p = 0.07 for medium group; HR 2.1, 95% CI 0.7-48.9, p = 0.19 for high group) with disease status and treatment adjusted. CONCLUSIONS: IL-6 may be a valuable predictor of TA disease relapse during long-term follow-up. Treatments targeted at IL-6 pathways might reduce disease relapse and have better prognostic effects for TA. Key Points • Positive relationships between IL-6 levels and disease activity index, including Kerr scores, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, etc. were indicated. • Medium and high baseline IL-6 levels were valuable for predicting disease relapse during the 2-year follow-up. • Baseline IL-6 levels were positively correlated with luminal stenosis on imaging.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(22): 6142-6153, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394707

RESUMO

Tangeretin (TAN) exhibited antilipogenic, antidiabetic, and lipid-lowering effects. However, the lipid biomarkers and the underlying mechanisms for antiobesity and cholesterol-lowering effects of TAN have not been sufficiently investigated. Herein, we integrated biochemical analysis with lipidomics to elucidate its efficacy and mechanisms in high-fat diet-fed rats. TAN at supplementation levels of 0.04 and 0.08% not only significantly decreased body weight gain, serum total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels but also ameliorated hepatic steatosis. These beneficial effects were associated with the declining levels of fatty acids, diacylglycerols (DGs), triacylglycerols, ceramides, and cholesteryl esters by hepatic lipidomics analysis, which were attributed to downregulating lipogenesis-related genes and upregulating lipid oxidation- and bile acid biosynthesis-related genes. Additionally, 21 lipids were identified as potential lipid biomarkers, such as DGs and phosphatidylethanolamines. These findings indicated that the modulation of lipid homeostasis might be the key pathways for the mechanisms of TAN in the antiobesity and cholesterol-lowering effects.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonas/administração & dosagem , Fígado/metabolismo , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipidômica , Fígado/química , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
17.
Food Funct ; 11(4): 2848-2860, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246759

RESUMO

Capsaicin is the primary bioactive substance in red chili peppers, which produces the pungent flavor. During the past few decades, pharmacological benefits of capsaicin and its underlying mechanisms have been examined extensively. In this paper, major biological efficacies of capsaicin are reviewed, including analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, cardio-protective, and metabolic modulation effects. Novel delivery systems, such as liposomes, micelles, micro/nano-emulsions, colloidal capsules and solid nanoparticles, for enhancing the oral bioavailability of capsaicin are also evaluated depending on the stability, encapsulation efficiency and biological properties. This review provides a theoretical basis for capsaicin to be further developed into a multi-functional ingredient with health-promoting functions in the nutraceutical industry.

18.
Food Funct ; 11(3): 2439-2450, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129349

RESUMO

Oenothein B (OEB) exhibits extensive biological activities, but few investigations have been carried out on the pharmacologic influence of OEB on longevity in any organism. To explore the potential pharmacological ability of OEB to postpone the progression of age-related degenerative processes and diseases, we monitored the effects of OEB isolated from Eucalyptus leaves on the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) at four different concentrations. We found that OEB increased the median lifespan of worms by up to 22% in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies demonstrated that OEB significantly enhanced youthfulness (healthy lifespan) by increasing the whole adult life's locomotory mobility, reducing age pigment and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and enhancing thermal stress resistance. Furthermore, the genes daf-16, age-1, eat-2, sir-2.1, and isp-1 were required for the healthy longevity benefits induced by OEB, but not the genes mev-1 and clk-1. Taken together, OEB might modulate multiple genetic pathways involved in insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) via age-1 and daf-16, the dietary restriction (DR) pathway via eat-2 and sir-2.1, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain via isp-1 to promote healthy lifespan including the reduction of age pigment and ROS accumulation and the enhancement of locomotory mobility, thermal stress tolerance and lifespan. These findings indicated that OEB has the potential to be developed into the next generation of multi-target drugs for prolonging healthy lifespan and intervening in age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Eucalyptus/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/isolamento & purificação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
19.
Food Funct ; 11(3): 2667-2678, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159537

RESUMO

Aged citrus peels (chenpi) have been used as a dietary supplement for gastrointestinal health maintenance in China. Recently, it was reported to exhibit anti-obesity activity. However, the relationship between the modulation effect of chenpi on gut microbiota and obesity prevention is not clearly understood. In this study, mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with 0.25%- and 0.5%-chenpi extract, and normal diet, respectively, for 11 weeks. Chenpi extract significantly increased fecal short chain fatty acids by 43% for acetic acid and 86% for propionic acid. In addition, chenpi could decrease the prevalence of Proteobacteria and the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes by about 88% and 70%, respectively. Moreover, this study was the first work to demonstrate the dynamics of two beneficial bacteria-Akkermansia spp. and Allobaculum spp. in a dose- and time-dependent manner for chenpi treatment via monitoring the dynamic change of the gut microbiota. Metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiota showed that several pathways, such as a two-component system, a tight junction, Staphylococcus aureus infection and others, were enhanced dynamically. The improved biological process of metabolism especially in benzoate derivatives might refer to the increased metabolic transformation of polymethoxyflavones from chenpi in the colon. Our study indicated that the modulation effect of chenpi on the gut microbiota may be an important pathway for its anti-obesity mechanisms.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Citrus/química , Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Masculino , Metagenoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Metagenoma/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 152: 223-233, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068060

RESUMO

The impacts of protein nanoparticles on the interfacial distribution of antioxidants and the oxidative stability in Pickering emulsions are attracting increasing research interests. In the present work, the distribution of gallic acid (GA) in zein nanoparticles-stabilized Pickering emulsions (ZPE) was determined by employing a pseudophase kinetic model. The interfacial distribution of GA was found to be favored in ZPEs with higher zein nanoparticle concentration (Czein). Upon increasing Czein, the interfacial loading of nanoparticles (Γ) dominated the modulation of %GAI via hydrogen bonding between zein nanoparticles and GA. The interfacial percentage of GA (%GAI) increased from 28% to 39% as Γ increased from 0.48 to 1.12 mg/m2. In the presence of GA, a direct correlation between Czein or Γ and oxidation stability was recognized, whereas the oxidative stability showed a non-linear dependence on either Czein or Γ in the absence of GA. By excluding antioxidant effects of zein nanoparticles, we found that the %GAI, which was regulated by Γ, took the leading role over the physical barrier effect on the oxidative stability of emulsions. The present work extends our current knowledge on how protein based nanoparticles manipulate the interfacial distribution of antioxidant and then affect the oxidative stability of emulsions.

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