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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125453, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505417

RESUMO

Impact of glycerol and sorbitol on assembly of iron-bound ovotransferrin (OVT) into nanofibrils was investigated. Thioflavin T fluorescence result indicated that the presence of glycerol or sorbitol could reduce the rate of OVT fibrillation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that 60% sorbitol could retard hydrolysis of OVT completely for a period of time during thermal treatment, and decoupling hydrolysis from fibril self-assembly helped to identify the building blocks of OVT nanofibrils. OVT nanofibrils were composed of both intact OVT monomers and OVT-derived peptides. Influence of glycerol and sorbitol on morphology of OVT nanofibrils was studied using atomic force microscopy. The presence of glycerol or sorbitol shortened OVT nanofibrils, and the presence of 60% glycerol or sorbitol could increase thickness of OVT nanofibrils. Hopefully, this work may provide new insight about building blocks of protein nanofibrils and impact of polyols on protein fibrillation.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784951

RESUMO

Probiotics are gaining public attention for their application in animal husbandry due to their ability to promote growth and prevent infections. Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895 are two spore-forming probiotic microorganisms that have been demonstrated to provide health benefits for poultry when supplemented into their diet. These strains can be propagated on a wide range of substrates, including soybean-derived byproducts from the food processing industry. Soybean-derived byproducts are often incorporated into animal feeds, but the value of an additive could potentially be increased by the addition of probiotic microorganisms, which may decrease production costs and reduce environmental impact. In this study, a soybean byproduct and a desalted version of this byproduct were evaluated as potential substrates for the growth of two probiotic bacilli species. Chemical analysis of these byproducts showed favorable carbohydrate, fat, and amino acid profiles, which were not affected by the desalting process. The desalted byproduct was further evaluated as a substrate for the growth of B. subtilis KATMIRA1933 and B. amyloliquefaciens B-1895 under solid-state conditions, and samples from this experiment were visualized by scanning electron microscopy. The results of this study indicate that the desalted soybean byproduct is a suitable substrate for the propagation of the two Bacillus species, which grew to numbers sufficient for the formulation of a probiotic animal feed additive.

3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730955

RESUMO

Similarities and differences of assembly for ovalbumin (OVA) and two kinds of sodium alginate (SA1 and SA2) varying in charge densities (λSA1: λSA2≈2:1) were investigated. The assembly processes of OVA/SA mixtures were characterized by phase diagram, particle size, and microstructure. Two differences between OVA/SA1 and OVA/SA2 mixtures in the phase diagram were distinctly observed. First, due to the higher charge density of SA1, the strong interaction between OVA and SA1 caused only pHφ1 to be recorded. A higher linear charge density of SA1 narrowed the pHφ1-pHφ2 range at ratios of 2:1 and 1:1. Second, OVA/SA1 complexes formed a coacervate with a relatively strong resistance to ion-induced shielding effects. This maintained the smaller size (tighter structure) with a larger number of complexes in the coacervate without 250 mM NaCl. The regulating polysaccharides with different charge densities could control the soluble region of complexes and endow various size or morphology of the coacervate assembled by proteins and polysaccharides.

4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739045

RESUMO

Recently, the use of emulsion as a delivery system for essential oils has attracted increasing attention. In this research, cinnamon essential oil Pickering emulsion (ZCCPEs) stabilized by zein-pectin composite nanoparticles (ZCPs) was constructed as an effective antimicrobial system. Thereafter, the influence of ZCPs concentration on the stability of ZCCPEs was studied. The results showed that 0.25% ZCPs could reduce the bioorganic matter by four times compared with 1% ZCPs while maintaining good physical stability. The inhibitory effect of ZCCPEs on two food-related microorganisms (i.e. Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea) was evaluated by antimicrobial assay. In addition, two fresh-cut apple slices models were constructed to systematically evaluate the application potential of ZCCPEs in food preservation. Due to the well dispersibility and sustained-release ability, ZCCPEs showed superior antibacterial performance than pure essential oil. The fabricated zein-pectin based Pickering emulsions might provide a promising alternative for the delivery of antimicrobial essential oils in the food industries.

5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12786-12795, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657926

RESUMO

EPA-enriched phosphoethanolamine plasmalogens (EPA-pPE), widely present in marine creatures, is a unique glycerophospholipid with EPA at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. EPA-pPE has been reported to exhibit numerous distinctive bioactivities. However, the digestion, absorption, and metabolism characteristics of EPA-pPE in vivo are not clear, which restrict the molecular mechanism analysis related to its distinctive activities. The aim of the present study was to illustrate the digestion, absorption, and metabolism characteristics of EPA-pPE by lipid analysis in serum, intestinal wall, and content after oral administration of EPA-pPE emulsion. Results showed the EPA percentage of total fatty acids in serum was increasing over time, with two peaks at 5 and 10 h by 1.89 ± 0.2 and 2.58 ± 0.27, respectively, and then fell from 1.89 ± 0.17 at 10 h to 1.35 ± 0.16 at 16 h. In small intestinal content, EPA-pPE was hydrolyzed to lyso-phospholipids and EPA by phospholipases A2 and the vinyl ether bond was retained at the sn-1 position. The released EPA could be quickly taken up into the enterocytes and enter circulation. The comparison of simulated digestion in vitro showed that the distinct digestion and absorption process of EPA-pPE was a unique phenomenon. EPA could be retained in serum at a high level for a substantial period of time, which suggested that EPA-pPE was not just a short-lived circulating molecule.


Assuntos
Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Etanolaminas/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Plasmalogênios/metabolismo , Animais , Digestão , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/química , Etanolaminas/química , Absorção Intestinal , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Plasmalogênios/química
6.
Food Funct ; 10(9): 5969-5980, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475720

RESUMO

High-amylose maize starch formed complexes with different fatty acids (C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1) when two hydrothermal methods were used. The resistances of these starch complexes against enzymatic hydrolysis were all higher than that of the native starch, while the hydrophobicity of these complexes was enhanced. The capabilities of these starch-fatty acid complexes to form Pickering emulsions were further characterized. Starch-saturated fatty acid complexes were able to form stable emulsions that endured heat treatment at 60, 80 and 100 °C. However, starch-unsaturated fatty acid complexes could not form stable emulsions. The barrier properties of these emulsions were adjusted by the swelling of starch granules resulting from heat treatment. Lipolysis profiles of polymethoxyflavone (PMF) loaded emulsions suggested that certain heat treatments could reduce the accessibility of lipase towards oil droplets and release of PMFs during lipolysis by enhancing the coverage of granules at the oil-water interface. The resistant starch particle stabilized Pickering emulsions have the potential to encapsulate and enhance the bioaccessibility of poorly soluble phytochemicals in food and pharmaceutical products.

7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 141: 529-537, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493457

RESUMO

Selenium is an essential trace element in human body, and kappa-selenocarrageenan (Se-car) is an organic source of selenium supplement. To further utilize Se-car in food packaging, biotherapy or biosensor, the molecular information of Se-car was characterized here and multi-functional Ag NPs synthesized by Se-car were fabricated. Results of GPC-MALLS, FTIR, potentiometric titration, and intrinsic viscosity showed that Se-car was polymerized by nearly 22 basic units of disaccharide. Sixty-four percentage of sulfated groups (SO42-) in carrageenan was replaced by selenium acid (SeO32-), which belonged to weak acid resulting from a gradually decrease of ζ-potential with acidity process to pH 1.0. Besides, the capacity of biosynthesis silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) by Se-car was studied and it made a comparison with κ-carrageenan. Results exhibited that Se-car could serve as an efficient reducing and capping agent for Ag NPs fabrication (remarked as Se-car@Ag). The kapp of Se-car@Ag NPs for catalyzing 4-NP degradation was 2.14 × 10-2 s-1. Antibacterial test revealed Se-car@Ag had an ability to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. To combine the selenium health benefit and functional metal nanoparticles, Se-car@Ag might have potential applications in multiple areas like medicine, disease diagnostic, and drug delivery.

8.
Food Res Int ; 125: 108602, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554072

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate protection and bioaccessibility of curcumin in ovotransferrin (OVT) fibril-stabilized Pickering emulsions. Curcumin protection of OVT fibril-stabilized emulsions against ultraviolet light exposure was studied. OVT fibril-stabilized Pickering emulsion at an ionic strength of 1000 mM provided the best curcumin protection. OVT fibril-stabilized Pickering emulsion at pH 6 provided better curcumin protection than those at pH 2 and 4. Afterwards, digestion of OVT fibril-stabilized curcumin emulsion was investigated in both TNO dynamic digestion model (TIM-1) and pH-stat static digestion model. In terms of TIM-1 result, curcumin bioaccessibility in OVT fibril-stabilized emulsion increased by 129% when compared with that in bulk oil. In pH-stat digestion model, curcumin bioaccessibility increased by 114% after formulated into OVT fibril-stabilized droplets, which was due to higher extent of lipolysis. Interestingly, both TIM-1 and pH-stat digestion models gave almost consistent measurements of improved percentage in curcumin bioaccessibility. Curcumin bioaccessibility of the emulsion in TIM-1 and pH-stat model was 15.3% and 33.8% respectively, indicating bioaccessibility overestimation in pH-stat model. The novel findings in this work could facilitate designing food-grade Pickerinng emulsion with excellent nutraceutical protection and enhanced nutraceutical bioaccessibility.

9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10089-10096, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423784

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms are closely associated with metabolic homeostasis. Metabolic disorders can be alleviated by many bioactive components through controlling of clock gene expressions. Capsaicin has been demonstrated with many beneficial effects including anti-obesity and anti-insulin resistance activities, yet whether the rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes are involved in the regulation of redox imbalance and glucose metabolism disorder by capsaicin remains unclear. In this work, the insulin resistance was induced in HepG2 cells by treatment of glucosamine. Glucose uptake levels, reactive oxygen species, H2O2 production, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured with/without capsaicin cotreatment. The mRNA and protein expressions of core circadian clock genes were evaluated by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. Our study revealed that circadian misalignment could be ameliorated by capsaicin. The glucosamine-induced cellular redox imbalance and glucose metabolism disorder were ameliorated by capsaicin in a Bmal1-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/administração & dosagem , Relógios Circadianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência à Insulina , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/metabolismo , Animais , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização do Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização do Ritmo Circadiano/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/genética , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/fisiopatologia , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 139: 917-924, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401275

RESUMO

To investigate the encapsulation and oral delivery efficiency of milled starch particles stabilized Pickering emulsions for lipophilic bioactive compounds, in vitro digestion model coupled with Caco-2 cells models were used. Physicochemical and biological properties of curcumin encapsulated Pickering emulsions were analyzed regarding to emulsion structure, curcumin retention, in vitro digestion, in vitro anti-proliferate ability and cellular uptake. Milled starch particles stabilized Pickering emulsion system was able to protect curcumin against harsh gastric conditions. Around 80% of the encapsulated curcumin was retained after 2 h of simulated gastric digestion. By being encapsulated in Pickering emulsion, the bioaccessibility of curcumin was increased from 11% for curcumin in bulk oil phase to 28% under simulated intestinal digestion process. The resulting curcumin-loaded micelle phase from digested emulsion exhibited significant anti-cancer ability and enhanced cellular uptake. This research provides an exploratory study on the possible future application of milled starch particles stabilized Pickering emulsions as nutraceutical delivery vehicles in the creation of novel functional foods.

11.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443488

RESUMO

As a functional polysaccharide, inulin was carboxymethylated and it formed nanocomplexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The success of obtaining carboxymethyl inulin (CMI) was confirmed by a combination of Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and titration. The effects of pH and ionic strength on the formation of CMI/BSA nanocomplexes were investigated. Our results showed that the formation of complex coacervate (pHφ1) and dissolution of CMI/BSA insoluble complexes (pHφ2) appeared in pH near 4.85 and 2.00 respectively. FT-IR and Raman data confirmed the existence of electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding between CMI and BSA. The isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) results suggested that the process of complex formation was spontaneous and exothermic. The complexation was dominated by enthalpy changes (∆Η < 0, ∆S < 0) at pH 4.00, while it was contributed by enthalpic and entropic changes (∆Η < 0, ∆S > 0) at pH 2.60. Irregularly shaped insoluble complexes and globular soluble nanocomplexes (about 150 nm) were observed in CMI/BSA complexes at pH 4.00 and 2.60 while using optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The sodium chloride suppression effect on CMI/BSA complexes was confirmed by the decrease of incipient pH for soluble complex formation (or pHc) and pHφ1 under different sodium chloride concentrations. This research presents a new functional system with the potential for delivering bioactive food ingredients.

12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9907-9915, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436102

RESUMO

The impact of covalent or non-covalent bound gallic acid (GA) on the formation, physicochemical properties, and digestion of ovotransferrin (OTF) nanofibrils was comprehensively studied. Thioflavin T fluorescence results revealed that bound GA could inhibit OTF nanofibrillation and that the fibril-inhibitory activity of bound GA was dose dependent. Covalent bound GA exerted stronger inhibition on OTF nanofibrillation than an equal amount of non-covalent bound GA. Atomic force microscopy revealed that covalent bound GA shortened OTF nanofibrils significantly, while non-covalent bound GA did not change the contour length of OTF fibrils remarkably. Bound GA altered diameter of OTF nanofibrils. Both covalent and non-covalent bound GA could alter the zeta potential, surface hydrophobicity, and rheological properties of OTF nanofibrils. Bound GA endowed OTF nanofibrils with a strong antioxidant activity. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion results showed that covalent bound GA elevated the fibril digestion rate better than non-covalent bound GA. Polyphenol binding provided a new approach to modulating the physicochemical properties of protein nanofibrils.


Assuntos
Conalbumina/química , Ácido Gálico/química , Nanofibras/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas , Conalbumina/metabolismo , Digestão , Ácido Gálico/metabolismo , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Modelos Biológicos , Reologia
13.
Food Funct ; 10(8): 4911-4923, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342040

RESUMO

The present work aimed to fabricate antioxidant particle-stabilized Pickering emulsions with outstanding protection of encapsulated nutraceuticals. Antioxidant ovotransferrin-gallic acid conjugates (OTGCONJ) were prepared using the alkaline method, and the electrostatic assembly technique was utilized to construct OTGCONJ-CMD particles with OTGCONJ and carboxymethyldextran (CMD) as the building blocks. After the investigation of the particle size, insoluble nature and intermediate wettability of the OTGCONJ-CMD particles, the OTGCONJ-CMD particles were verified as eligible Pickering stabilizers. Visual observation showed that the stable OTGCONJ-CMD particle-stabilized Pickering emulsion consisted of the emulsified phase alone. Rheological analysis revealed that the Pickering emulsion had a high viscosity and a gel-like structure. In terms of the protective effect, the OTGCONJ-CMD particle-stabilized Pickering emulsion could significantly retard curcumin degradation under UV light. An in vitro digestion study revealed that the OTGCONJ-CMD particle-stabilized Pickering emulsion improved both the extent of lipolysis and curcumin bioaccessibility remarkably, suggesting that the OTGCONJ-CMD particle-stabilized Pickering emulsion was an excellent nutraceutical delivery vehicle. The novel findings in this work could have important implications for the design of nutraceutical-loaded Pickering emulsions with an excellent protective effect and nutraceutical delivery efficiency.

14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 219: 77-86, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151548

RESUMO

In the present study, the properties of two apple sourced-pectin (AP-1 and AP-2) were comparative studied, and their influence on the formation of high internal-phase Pickering emulsions (HIPPEs) was investigated. Results showed that AP-2 has lower polydispersity index (PDI = 2.51) than AP-1. Zein/AP-2 complex nanoparticles (ZAPs-2) was able to stabilize 80% oil-phase to form HIPPEs, while ZAPs-1 failed to remain stable at same oil fraction. After correlating GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography) results of pectins with their emulsion behavior, pectin PDI was found to play an important role in HIPPEs formation. Storage experiments and rheological properties analysis showed that HIPPEs exerted excellent stability and plasticity. Besides, super-resolution microscopy (including cryo-SEM and STED nanoscopy) depicted an intuitive interface structure of HIPPEs. These findings may contribute some basis to manipulating emulsion performance by adjusting pectin properties, as well as to further understanding the behavior of ZAPs at O/W interface.

15.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 88: 129-165, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151723

RESUMO

Many functional food ingredients are poorly soluble in water, susceptible to chemical degradation, and incompatible with surrounding food matrix. Other issues are related to limited oral bioavailability, unpleasant sensory properties, and poor release profiles. Nanoencapsulation of functional food ingredients can help increase their water solubility/dispersibility in foods and beverages, improve their bioavailability by exhibiting good dose-dependent functionalities, mask undesired flavors/tastes to reduce the adverse effect on mouth-feel, enhance shelf-life and compatibility during production, storage, transportation and utilization of food products, and control release rate or specific delivery environment for better performance on their functionalities. This chapter provides an overview of different delivery systems for different functional food ingredients, the types of materials suitable for wall materials or building blocks of nanocapsules, the fabrication methods to assemble different delivery systems and release these active ingredients under different physiological conditions.

16.
Food Chem ; 293: 333-339, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151620

RESUMO

The volatile compounds of Volvariella volvacea mushroom were investigated by solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE)/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), odor activity value (OAV), combined with aroma reconstitution and omission. The results showed that a total of 63 compounds were detected after SAFE extraction. A total of 26 compounds were determined after GC-O and 17 compounds whose OAV greater than 1 were subjected to reconstitution and omission experiments. The results showed that dihydro-ß-ionone, 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, γ-undecalactone, 3-octanol, 2-octanone, hexanal, 2-methylbutanal, camphene, carvone, 2-nonanone, and phenylacetaldehyde have been successfully identified as the key aroma compounds. More significantly, dihydro-ß-ionone as a key aroma compound was first found in Volvariella volvacea mushroom.


Assuntos
Álcoois/análise , Cetonas/análise , Odorantes/análise , Volvariella/química , Adulto , Aldeídos/análise , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Cetonas/química , Masculino , Octanóis , Olfatometria/métodos , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 216: 270-281, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047067

RESUMO

The fine structure and chain conformation of a heteropolysaccharide (PCIPS3) from mycelium of Paecilomyces cicadae were investigated via the analysis of HPLC, IR, methylation, NMR spectroscopy and multiangle light scattering. It was determined to be a 2.23 × 104 g/mol heteropolysaccharide primarily composed of glucose, galactose and mannose in a molar ratio of 23.8:2.1:1.0. The PCIPS3 backbone consisted of 1,4-linked α-d-Glcp and 1,4-linked 6-O-Me-α-d-Glcp residues, which were occasionally interrupted by branched ß-Galf residues through 1,6-linkage. Moreover, the α (0.60) from Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) equation suggested that PCIPS3 adopted a flexible chain conformation in 0.1 mol/L NaNO3 at 25 °C. The worm-like chains model parameters for PCIPS3 were estimated as following: ML = 437 nm-1, q = 0.46 nm and 0.79 nm, which were further evidenced by AFM. Furthermore, PCIPS3 showed excellent scavenging capacities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, ORAC radical and moderate immunomodulatory activity.


Assuntos
Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Paecilomyces/química , Animais , Configuração de Carboidratos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/toxicidade , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/toxicidade , Radical Hidroxila/química , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Imunológicos/toxicidade , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos , Peróxidos/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Superóxidos/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
18.
Food Funct ; 10(5): 2583-2594, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011719

RESUMO

Pickering emulsions stabilized by milled starch particles have been developed as a novel food-grade formulation to enhance the bioaccessibility of poorly soluble bioactive compounds (i.e., curcumin) by controlling the digestion of lipids in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The dynamic bioaccessibilities of curcumin with and without encapsulation in the Pickering emulsion were evaluated using the dynamic TNO's gastrointestinal (TIM-1) model. For comparison, their digestion profiles were also studied using the in vitro pH-stat lipolysis model. With the combination of two in vitro models, the effect of the milled starch particle stabilized Pickering emulsions on the bioaccessibility of curcumin was fully revealed. There are large differences between the bioaccessibility values of curcumin samples obtained by these two models. Simulated small intestinal lipolysis in the pH-stat model revealed that the bioaccessibility of curcumin encapsulated in the Pickering emulsion was 27.6%, which was larger than 22.1% for free curcumin suspended in the bulk oil phase. The bioaccessibility of curcumin was 50.7% in the emulsion system and 7.8% in the bulk oil when using the TIM-1 model, which simulated the digestion conditions of the entire human GI tract. The digestion mechanism of the milled starch particle stabilized Pickering emulsions in the upper GI tract was well elucidated by the TIM-1 model. The gradual release and improved dissolution profile of the milled starch particle stabilized Pickering emulsions highlighted their potential as delivery systems for lipophilic bioactive compounds.

19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(9): 2476-2489, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740980

RESUMO

Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) have been shown to prevent obesity, ameliorate type 2 diabetes, and regulate lipid metabolism in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the contribution of 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF) to prevent obesity and regulate lipid metabolism in vivo. We aimed to investigate the potential efficacy of HMF on preventing obesity and hyperlipidemia in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and its underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal diet or an HFD with or without HMF (0.02%, 0.04% and 0.08%, w/w) for 6 weeks. The supplementation of HMF not only significantly decreased body weight gain (HFD, 336.50 ± 18.84 g; LHMF, 309.43 ± 20.74 g; MHMF, 296.83 ± 13.88 g; HHMF, 265.71 ± 19.09 g; respectively, p < 0.05) and adipose tissues weight ( p < 0.05), but also markedly lowered serum levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( p < 0.05) in the sixth week in a dose-dependent manner compared with the HFD group. HMF also significantly alleviated hepatic steatosis in the liver (liver weight g/100 g body weight of HFD, 4.86 ± 0.11%; LHMF, 4.02 ± 0.33%; MHMF, 4.05 ± 0.31%; HHMF, 3.72 ± 0.34%; respectively, p < 0.05). Furthermore, transcriptome analysis and real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that HMF supplementation markedly downregulated hepatic genes related to adipogenesis transcription and inflammatory responses, and significantly upregulated genes related to fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure. These results indicated that HMF could effectively prevent obesity and hyperlipidemia by regulation of the expression of lipid metabolism-related and inflammatory response-related genes.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Hiperlipidemias/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Inflamação/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
J Autoimmun ; 99: 39-47, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved self-rescue process. Studies have shown that autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases; however, whether autophagy is associated with the pathogenesis of Takayasu's arteritis (TA), a large vessel idiopathic inflammatory disease characterized by vascular fibrosis, remains unclear. Moreover, although IL-6 is believed to be a direct target for TA treatment, anti-IL-6 treatment could not block TA-associated fibrosis in some cases, which impairs the aortic function of patients and can result in death. Thus, identify the mechanisms associated with TA is extremely important. Based on the relationship between autophagy and IL-6, we investigated the role of autophagy in the vascular fibrosis of TA induced by IL-6. METHODS: Autophagy proteins (LC3 and Atg3), IL-6, and markers of fibrosis (collagen 1 and α-SMA) were detected in tissues with TA lesions via immunochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot, respectively. Different stages of autophagy were analyzed by the specific inhibitors, 3-methyladenosine (early stage), hydroxychloroquine sulfate (late stage), and bafilomycin A1 (late stage). Autophagosomes were detected using electron microscopy and a viral-vector transfection assay. The fibrosis profiles induced by IL-6-dependent autophagy was assessed with an ELISA. RESULTS: The expression of autophagy, IL-6, and fibrosis markers were elevated and correlated with each other in the adventitia tissues of TA patients. Furthermore, exogenous IL-6/IL-6Rα could significantly increase autophagy and fibrosis in vitro. An autophagy inhibitor was found to significantly block both autophagy and fibrosis induced by IL-6. Finally, IL-6 was found to significantly promote autophagy-induced fibrosis through the activation of the Jak1 pathway. CONCLUSIONS: IL-6-induced autophagy plays an important role in vascular fibrosis of TA. Targeting autophagy pathways might represent a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of TA.

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