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1.
Dermatology ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are great interindividual variations in the clinical efficacy of methotrexate (MTX) treatment and patients' genetic background seems promising in its explanation. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to test whether the polymorphism of annexin A6 (ANxA6) gene, a susceptibility factor for psoriasis, was associated with the clinical response to MTX therapy. METHODS: A total of 325 patients enrolled in the study received oral MTX treatment, of whom 310 completed the 1-year study and performed the genotype analysis. They were defined as responders (a reduction of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index [PASI] score ≥75%) and nonresponders (a reduction of PASI <50%) compared to baseline after 12 weeks of short-time therapy. On 1-year treatment, they were defined as responders if they achieved PASI75 and absolute PASI ≤3, otherwise as nonresponders. The genotypes of 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ANxA6 gene were verified using the Sequenom platform. Potential predictors associated with the treatment outcome of MTX were assessed by binary logistic regression. RESULTS: We found significant associations for the ANxA6 SNPs of rs11960458, rs960709, and rs13168551 with psoriasis severity. Patients with rs11960458 CC genotype and rs960709 GG genotype showed higher percentages of PASI75 and improvement rates of PASI at 12 weeks. And on 1-year treatment, statistical difference occurred in rs11960458 rather than other SNPs compared between responders and nonresponders that the frequency of CC genotype was higher in responders (p = 0.019). After adjustment for potential confounders, patients with rs11960458 TT/CT genotype (at 12 weeks: OR 0.483, 95% CI 0.245-0.951, p = 0.035; at 1 year: OR 0.483, 95% CI 0.280-0.833, p = 0.009) were significantly more likely to not respond to MTX both on the short-term and long-term treatment, while rs960709 and rs13168551 polymorphisms were only associated with the short-term efficacy of MTX (p = 0.018 and p = 0.036, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The CC ge-notype of ANxA6 (rs11960458) was significantly associated with a better response when compared to those patients with the TT/CT genotype, thus being a potential predictor for the clinical efficacy of MTX.

2.
Thorax ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efficient therapy and potential prophylaxis are confounded by current ignorance of the pathogenesis of airway remodelling and blockade in COPD. OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of the IL-33/ST2 axis in cigarette smoke (CS) exposure-induced airways remodelling. METHODS: C57BL/6, BALB/c and IL-1RL1 -/- mice exposed to CS were used to establish an animal surrogate of COPD (air-exposed=5~8, CS-exposed=6~12). Hallmarks of remodelling were measured in mice. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced proliferation and protein production in vitro by fibroblasts in the presence of anti-interleukin-33 (anti-IL-33) or hST2 antibodies were measured. Expression of IL-33 and ST2 and other remodelling hallmarks were measured, respectively, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (controls=20, COPD=20), serum (controls=59, COPD=90) and lung tissue sections (controls=11, COPD=7) from patients with COPD and controls. RESULTS: Wild-type mice exposed to CS elevated expression of hallmarks of tissue remodelling in the lungs and also in the heart, spleen and kidneys, which were significantly abrogated in the IL-1RL1 -/- mice. Fibroblasts exposed to CSE, compared with control, exhibited early cellular translocation of IL-33, accompanied by proliferation and elevated protein synthesis, all inhabitable by blockade of IL-33/ST2 signalling. Expression of IL-33 and ST2 and hallmarks of tissue remodelling were significantly and proportionally elevated in BALF, serum and tissue samples from patients with COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to CS induces remodelling changes in multiple organs. The data support the hypothesis that CS-induced lung collagen deposition is at least partly a result of CS-induced IL-33 translocation and release from local fibroblasts.

3.
Front Chem ; 8: 565782, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282824

RESUMO

Polydiacetylenes are prepared from amphiphilic diacetylenes first through self-assembly and then polymerization. Different from common supramolecular assemblies, polydiacetylenes have stable structure and very special optical properties such as absorption, fluorescence, and Raman. The hydrophilic head of PDAs is easy to be chemically modified with functional groups for detection and imaging applications. PDAs will undergo a specific color change from blue to red, fluorescence enhancement and Raman spectrum changes in the presence of receptor ligands. These properties allow PDA-based sensors to have high sensitivity and specificity during analysis. Therefore, the PDAs have been widely used for detection of viruses, bacteria, proteins, antibiotics, hormones, sialic acid, metal ions and as probes for bioimaging in recent years. In this review, the preparation, polymerization, and detection mechanisms of PDAs are discussed, and some representative research advances in the field of bio-detection and bioimaging are highlighted.

4.
Insects ; 11(12)2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260684

RESUMO

Numerous gut microbes are associated with insects, but their composition remains largely unknown for many insect groups, along with factors influencing their composition. Here, we compared gut bacterial microbiota of two co-occurring agricultural pests, the peach fruit moth (PFM), Carposina sasakii, and the oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta, collected from different orchards and host plant species. Gut microbiota of both species was mainly composed of bacteria from Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes. The two species shared bacteria from the genera Pseudomonas, Gluconobacter, Acetobacter, and Pantoea. When we compared two pairs of PFM and OFM populations collected from the same host species and the same orchard, there is no difference in alpha and beta diversity in gut microbiota. When we compared gut microbiota of the same species and host plant from different orchards, alpha and beta diversity was different in populations of PFM collected from two pear orchards but not in other comparisons. Our study suggests that the two pests share many features of gut microbiota and environment in orchards is a main factor influencing their gut microbiota.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the time-varying transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in China, Wuhan City and Guangdong province, and compared them with that of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). METHODS: Data on COVID-19 cases by March 20, 2020 in China was collected from epidemiological investigations or official websites. Data on SARS cases in Guangdong Province, Beijing and Hong Kong during 2002-2003 were also obtained. We estimated the doubling time, basic reproduction number (R0) and time-varying reproduction number (Rt) of COVID-19 and SARS. RESULTS: As of March 20, 2020, 80,739 COVID-19 indigenous cases were identified in mainland China. Most cases were reported between January 20 and February 29. The R0 of COVID-19 nationwide and in Wuhan were 5.0 and 4.8 respectively, which were greater than R0 of SARS in Guangdong (R0=2.3), Hong Kong (R0 = 2.3), and Beijing (R0 = 2.6). During the epidemic of COVID-19, the Rt nationwide first increased to a peak of 8.4 and declined quickly to below 1 in one month. In terms of SARS, the Rt curve saw a fluctuation change with more than one peak though the peak was lower than COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has much higher transmissibility than SARS, and a series of major actions for suppressing the outbreak are effective. However, persistent efforts are needed to prevent the rebound of the epidemic in the context of the global pandemic.

6.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206019

RESUMO

Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. Juss) Müll. Arg.) is used for the extraction of natural rubber and is an economically and socially important estate crop commodity in many Asian countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, China and several countries in Africa (Pu et al, 2007). Xishuangbanna City and Wenshan City are the main rubber cultivation areas in Yunnan Province, China. In November 2012, rubber tree showing typical wilt symptoms (Fig. 1 A) and vascular stains (Fig. 1 B) were found in Mengla County, Xishuangbanna City. This disease was destructive in these trees and plant wilt death rate reached 5%. The diseased wood pieces (0.5cm long) from trunk of rubber was surface disinfected with 75% ethanol for 30s and 0.1% mercuric chloride (HgCl2) for 2min, rinsed three times with sterile distilled water, plated onto malt extract agar medium (MEA), and incubated at 28℃. After 7 days, fungal-like filaments were growing from the diseased trunk. Six cultures from 6 rubber trunk were obtained and incubated on MEA at 28℃, after 7 days to observe the cultural features. The mycelium of each culture was white initially on MEA, and then became dark green. Cylindrical endoconidia apices rounded, non-septate, smooth, single or borne in chains (8.9 to 23.6 × 3.81 to 6.3µm) (Fig. 1 C). Chlamydospores (Fig. 1 D) were abundant, thick walled, smooth, forming singly or in chains (11.1 to 19.2 × 9.4 to 12.0µm). The mould fungus was identifed as Chalaropsis based on morphology (Paulin-Mahady et al. 2002). PCR amplification was carried out for 3 isolates, using rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primer pairs ITS1F and ITS4 (Thorpe et al. 2005). The nucleotide sequences were deposited in the GenBank data base and used in a Blast search of GenBank. Blast analysis of sequenced isolates XJm8-2-6, XJm8-2 and XJm10-2-6 (accessions KJ511486, KJ511487, KJ511489 respectively) had 99% identity to Ch. thielavioides strains hy (KF356186) and C1630 (AF275491). Thus the pathogen was identified as Ch. thielavioides based on morphological characteristics and rDNA-ITS sequence analysis. Pathogenicity test of the isolate (XJm8-2) was conducted on five 1-year-old rubber seedlings. The soil of 5 rubber seedlings was inoculated by drenching with 40 ml spore suspension (106 spores / ml). Five control seedlings were inoculated with 40 ml of sterile distilled water. All the seedlings were maintained in a controlled greenhouse at 25°C and watered weekly. After inoculated 6 weeks, all the seedlings with spore suspension produced wilt symptoms, as disease progressed, inoculated leaves withered (Fig. 1 E) and vascular stains (Fig. 1 F) by 4 months. While control seedlings inoculated with sterile distilled water remained healthy. The pathogen re-isolated from all inoculated symptomatic trunk was identical to the isolates by morphology and ITS analysis. But no pathogen was isolated from the control seedlings. The pathogenicity assay showed that Ch. thielavioides was pathogenic to rubber trees. Blight caused on rubber tree by Ceratocystis fimbriata previously in Brazil (Valdetaro et al. 2015), and wilt by Ch. thielavioides was not reported. The asexual states of most species in Ceratocystis are "chalara" or "thielaviopsis" (de Beer et al. 2014). To our knowledge, this is the first report of this fungus causing wilt of rubber in China. The spread of this disease may pose a threat to rubber production in China.

7.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210966

RESUMO

The peach (Prunus persica (L) Batsch) is a predominant commercially grown stone fruit in China (Lee et al. 1990). Ceratocystis changhui is an aggressive pathogen causing typical black rot symptoms on corms of taro (Colocasia esculenta) (Liu et al. 2018), it has not been reported on other hosts. During the summer and autumn of 2013, a postharvest fruit rot disease was observed on several peaches at a farmer's market (N 25°02'; E 102°42') in Kunming City, Yunnan Province, China. The incidence of the disease varied from 5 to 20%. Necrotic spots were first observed on the infected peach fruit (Prunus persica cv. shuimitao). The spots enlarged gradually and developed into a brown, water-soaked and rotted lesion. Eventually, the whole fruit became soft, rotted and covered with a gray-brown mycelium (Fig. 1 A, B). The isolates were obtained from the symptomatic tissues incubated on slices of fresh carrot root (Moller et al. 1968). After 5 to 10 days of incubation, perithecia and mycelium were observed growing on carrot slices. Spore masses were removed from the apices of perithecia, transferred to potato dextrose agar medium (PDA) and incubated at 25°C for 5 to 10 days, followed by single-spore isolation. All eight single-spore isolates from peach fruits obtained in this study were deposited in the State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources in Yunnan, Yunnan Agricultural University, China. In culture, mycelium was initially white, gradually turned to greyish-green or brown (Fig. 1E, F). Measurements were made 7 days after the formation of perithecia. Perithecia (Fig. 1G) were black, globose, 185.71 to 305.56 µm × 142.86 to 264.29 µm and showed a long black neck, 600 to 957.14 µm (Fig. 1H). Ascospores (Fig. 1I) were helmet-hat shaped and 2.86 to 6.67 µm ×3.81 to 4.76 µm. Cylindrical conidia (Fig. 1J) 6.67 to 38. 95 µm × 2.86 to7.62 µm were observed. Chlamydospore (Fig. 1K), 8.57 to 13.33 µm × 5.71 to 9.52 µm, were ovoid or obpyriform, smooth. To further verify pathogen identity the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA was amplified using primers ITS1F and ITS4 (Thorpe et al. 2005), and the total genomic DNA from the mycelia of five isolates was extracted using a CTAB method (Lee &Taylor 1990). The nucleotide sequences have been blasted and deposited in the GenBank database. Analysis of the ITS sequences from the isolates T1-1yp, T1-2yp, T2-1yp (GenBank accession no. KY580895-KY580897) showed 99% to 100% similarity with isolates C. changhui CMW43272 (KY643886), CMW43281 (KY643884), CMW46112 (KY643891) and CMW46113 (KY643892) from taro in China. Phylogenetic trees based on the maximum-likelihood (ML) method were constructed using MEGA 7. ITS sequences of other Ceratocystis spp. were attained from NCBI for comparative analysis (Liu et al. 2018), and Davidsoniella virescens (CMW11164) served as outgroup. The robustness of ML tree was evaluated with 1,000 bootstrap (BS) values. The pathogen was identified as C. changhui based on the phylogenetic analysis (Fig. 2). Three isolates (T1-1yp, T1-2yp, T2-1yp) were used for pathogenicity. Nine Prunus persica cv. yingzuitao fruits at early maturity (8 points out of 10) were wound inoculated with 200µL conidia suspension of the fungus (approximately 2.0 × 106 conidia / mL). Degreasing cotton dipped in sterile water was used to raise the humidity in preservation boxes. Boxes were incubated for 10 days at 25°C. Three peaches as controls were treated only with sterile distilled water in the same way. Symptoms of sunken lesions and fruit rot were observed two days after inoculation, and measured at 1.8 to 3.2 cm from the inoculation point within 5 days (Fig. 1C: right, D). The same pathogen was re-isolated from them confirming Koch's postulates. Control peaches remained symptomless. This fungus was morphologically and phylogenetically identified as C. changhui. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. changhui on postharvest peach in Yunnan, China. The disease will affect quality and taste of peach, so it is critical to deploy appropriate management strategies to limit the fungus spread.

8.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 14: 2243-2252, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244222

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to simplify the version-1 Chinese and Western medication adherence scale for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to a version-2 scale using item response theory (IRT) analyses, and to further evaluate the performance of the version-2 scale. Materials and Methods: Firstly, we refined the version-1 scale using IRT analyses to examine the discrimination parameter (a), difficulty parameter (b) and maximum information function peak (Imax). The final scale refinement from version-1 to version-2 scale was also decided upon clinical considerations. Secondly, we analyzed the reliability and validity of version-2 scale using classical test theory (CTT), as well as difficulty, discrimination and Imax of version-1 and version-2 scale using IRT in order to conduct scale evaluation. Results: For scale refinement, the 26-item version-1 scale was reduced to a 15-item version-2 scale after IRT analyses. For scale evaluation using CTT, internal consistency reliability (total Cronbach α = 0.842) and test-rest reliability (r = 0.909) of version-2 scale were desirable. Content validity indicated 3 components of knowledge, belief and behaviors. We found meritorious construct validity with 3 detected components as the same construct of medication knowledge (items 1-9), medication behavior (items 13-15), and medication belief (items 10-12) based upon exploratory factor analysis. The correlation between the version-2 scale and Morisky, Green and Levine scale (MGL scale) was weak (Pearson coefficient = 0.349). For scale evaluation with IRT, the findings showed enhanced discrimination and decreased difficulty of most retained items (items 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15), decreased Imax of items 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 11, 14, as well as increased Imax of items 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15 in the version-2 scale than in the version-1 scale. Conclusion: The original Chinese and Western medication adherence scale was refined to a 15-item version-2 scale after IRT analyses. The scale evaluation using CTT and IRT showed the version-2 scale had the desirable reliability, validity, discrimination, difficulty, and information providedoverall. Therefore, the version-2 scale is clinically feasible to assess the medication adherence of CKD patients.

9.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 173755, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245899

RESUMO

CTRP6, a newly identified adiponectin analogue, has been shown to be involved in inflammation, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that CTRP6 plays a critical role in fibrotic diseases, such as myocardial fibrosis and skin fibrosis. FAO, an important energy source for kidney proximal tubular cells, also participates in the process of fibrosis. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the effect of CTRP6 on mediating FAO in kidney fibrosis and the underlying associated mechanism. Firstly, the activity of CTRP6 and the key enzymes of FAO (CPT1A, ACOX1) were tested in vivo and vitro. Next, the regulatory effect of CTRP6/AMPK on FAO was accessed in animal models and in cell lines. Additionally, we explored the effect of exogenous recombinant CTRP6 on renal tubular epithelial cell differentiation. Decreased CTRP6 and p-AMPK were detected in UUO-induced kidney fibrosis and in TGF-ß1-treated HK-2 cells. We also observed that defective FAO occurred during kidney fibrosis. Moreover, the human CTRP6 peptide could inhibit the ECM deposition and promote the phosphorylation of AMPK by promoting FAO. However, the inhibitory effects of CTRP6 on TGF-ß1-induced ECM deposition and the protective effects of CTRP6 on FAO could be abolished by compound C, a selective inhibitor of AMPK. Compound C also reversed the CTRP6-mediated upregulation of p-AMPK. The mediation of FAO by CTRP6 plays a key role in kidney fibrosis by regulating TGF-ß1-induced renal tubular epithelial cell differentiation by promoting FAO, which is mediated via AMPK activation.

10.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237844

RESUMO

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is an herb that has been grown in China for more than 2500 years. It can be used as both a spice and a therapeutic drug. In July 2013, ginger plants were found to have wilting symptoms and yellowing leaves with netrotics leaf tips in a farm in Kunming city of Yunnan province (25. 02 N; 102.42 E), southwest China, and we also found gray-black lesion on the surface of the harvest gingers in a market in Kunming. Initial symptoms on harvest gingers appeared as gray-black mycelia growth on the surface of the harvested ginger, which enlarged and extended internally. Carrot baiting was used to isolate the pathogen from rotted gingers and diseased ginger leaves (Moller and Devay. 1968). After two weeks, spores developing from perithecia on the carrot pieces were transferred to malt extract agar (MEA) and incubate at 25°C constant-temperature incubator. Six single-spore isolates (ZOR-1 to ZOR-6) were obtained, the isolates were stored in 15% glycerol at -80°C refrigerator in State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources in Yunnan Agricultural University. Cultures varied in color from white to brownish green to brown. N = 50 for all measurements. Blackish brown, globose perithecia (131.9 to 186.0 µm × 138.5 to 188.3 µm) with a long black neck (400.2 to 644.7 µm) were immersed, partially embedded or superficial on the substrate. Ascospores were globose or had a "hat-like" morphology typical of Ceratocystis fimbriata, and were 4.0 to 5.3 µm × 4.8 to 6.2 µm. Endoconidia were cylindrical and clavate (2.9 to 7.4 µm × 7.5 to 32.8 µm), conidia were barrel-shaped (4.4 to 10.4 µm× 6.2 to 12.9 µm), and chlamydospores were smooth, blackish brown, ovoid or obpyriform (8.42 to 12.21 µm × 10.47 to 17.65 µm) (Webster and Butler. 1967; Engelbrecht and Harrington. 2005). Genomic DNA was extracted from two isolates (ZOR-1, ZOR-2) using the CTAB method (Lee and Taylor 1990). The internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region of rDNA was amplified using primers ITS1F/ITS4 (Thorpe et al. 2005). The nucleotide sequences of ZOR-1 and ZOR-2 (GenBank accessions KJ511490 and KJ511491) were 100% homologous to those of the isolates of C. fimbriata from diseased Cucumis sativus L. and Punica granatum L. in China (GenBank accessions MH535909 and KT963159). Thus, the pathogen was identified as C. fimbriata. Pathogenicity tests were made on fresh ginger rhizomes in laboratory, the pathogen was cultured for 14 days on MEA (ZOR-1, ZOR-2), which were washed with sterilized water and the resulting spore suspensions diluted to 1.0 × 106 spores/ml . Wounds (0.5 × 0.5 cm) were made on the surface of healthy mature ginger rhizomes by scraping with a sterile scalpel, then treated with a 100 ul spore suspension. Control ginger rhizomes were coated sterile water. Ginger rhizomes were stored at room temperature. Each treatment was performed in triplicate. After 5 days, grey-black mycelia developed on the rhizome surface, becoming a visible black mould after 1 week. We reisolated the pathogen from infected tissues, but not from the controls. In the greenhouse, 20ml of 1.0 × 106 spores/ml suspensions from isolates ZOR-1 and ZOR-2, or sterile water were injected into two-month- old ginger seedlings in triplicate. The inoculated site on the stem turned black in 5 days. 6 weeks after inoculation, the inoculated plants developed yellowing leaves and wilting symptoms. The same fungus was re-isolated from inoculated plants, but not from the controls. According to Koch's Postulation, the inoculated strains of ZOR-1 and ZOR-2 were the pathogens causing ginger wilt and rot disease. To the best of our knowledge, ginger is a new host plant of Ceratocystis fimbriata from China. In recent years, we have found that this disease incidence was approxmiatelt 5 to 10% of the farmland and 5 to 15% of the stored condition respectively in Yunnan Province. If not prevented ginger production in China will be affected.

11.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 4069-4084, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116398

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the factors that results in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and different aspects of cardiovascular diseases. Moringa oleifera seeds (MOS), traditionally used as an antidiabetic food and traditional medicine in tropical Asia and Africa, have exhibited potential effects in improving IR. To systematically explore the pharmacological mechanism of the anti-IR effects of MOS, we adopted a network pharmacology approach at the molecular level. Methods: By incorporating compound screening and target prediction, a feasible compound-target-pathway network pharmacology model was established to systematically predict the potential active components and mechanisms of the anti-IR effects of MOS. Biological methods were then used to verify the results of the network pharmacology analysis. Results: Our comprehensive systematic approach successfully identified 32 bioactive compounds in MOS and 44 potential targets of these compounds related to IR, as well as 37 potential pathways related to IR. Moreover, the network pharmacology analysis revealed that glycosidic isothiocyanates and glycosidic benzylamines were the major active components that improved IR by acting on key targets, such as SRC, PTPN1, and CASP3, which were involved in inflammatory responses and insulin-related pathways. Further biological research demonstrated that the anti-IR effects of MOS were mediated by increasing glucose uptake and modulating the expression of SRC and PTPN1. Conclusion: Our study successfully predicts the active ingredients and potential targets of MOS for improving IR and helps to illustrate mechanism of action at a systemic level. This study not only provides new insights into the chemical basis and pharmacology of MOS but also demonstrates a feasible method for discovering potential drugs from traditional medicines.

12.
Neurosci Lett ; 737: 135323, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860889

RESUMO

Test anxiety is associated with impaired attentional control, and spontaneous electroencephalography (EEG) theta/beta power ratio (TBR) may reflect the cortical-subcortical interactions involved in attentional control. The present study investigated how test anxiety influences spontaneous EEG TBR. Individuals undertook a 10-minute Raven's intelligence test. Spontaneous EEG data were recorded before and after the test and subsequently analyzed. TAS score showed a significant positive correlation with parietal EEG TBR before the test. Individuals with high test anxiety exhibited a significantly larger parietal EEG TBR than did individuals with low test anxiety, both before and after the test. The findings suggest that parietal spontaneous EEG TBR is related to test anxiety and can distinguish between individuals with high and low test anxiety.

13.
Pharmacogenomics ; 21(13): 945-956, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838647

RESUMO

Background: The pharmacogenomics and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of 400 mg efavirenz have rarely been reported. Materials & methods: A total of 184 treatment-naive HIV-infected patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive a lower dose (tenofovir disoproxil 200 mg, efavirenz 400 mg and lamivudine) or a standard dose regimen. Relationships between pharmacogenomics and efavirenz pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics were explored at 48 weeks. Results: There was no relationship between pharmacogenomics and adverse reactions of the central nervous system and antiretoviral efficacy. CYP2B6 516G>T, 785A>G, 18492C>T and ABCB1 3435C>T T/C were associated with higher efavirenz plasma levels in the standard but not the lower dose group. No relationship was found between pharmacogenomics and antiretoviral efficacy. Patients who were <60 kg had higher efavirenz concentration compared with those with weight ≥60 kg when using 600 mg efavirenz, this was not observed with 400 mg efavirenz. Conclusion: The effect of pharmacogenomics and body weight on the efavirenz concentration was significant in the 600 mg group but not in the 400 mg group.

14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1546-1553, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608325

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate the attack rates, and identify the risk factors of COVID-19 infection. Based on a retrospective cohort study, we investigated 11,580 contacts of COVID-19 cases in Guangdong Province from 10 January to 15 March 2020. All contacts were tested by RT-PCR to detect their infection of SARS-COV-2. Attack rates by characteristics were calculated. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk factors of infection for COVID-19. A total of 515 of 11,580 contacts were identified to be infected with SARS-COV-2. Compared to young adults aged 20-29 years, the infected risk was higher in children (RR: 2.59, 95%CI: 1.79-3.76), and old people aged 60-69 years (RR: 5.29, 95%CI: 3.76-7.46). Females also had higher infected risk (RR: 1.66, 95%CI: 1.39-2.00). People having close relationship with index cases encountered higher infected risk (RR for spouse: 20.68, 95%CI: 14.28-29.95; RR for non-spouse family members: 9.55, 95%CI: 6.73-13.55; RR for close relatives: 5.90, 95%CI: 4.06-8.59). Moreover, contacts exposed to index case in symptomatic period (RR: 2.15, 95%CI: 1.67-2.79), with critically severe symptoms (RR: 1.61, 95%CI: 1.00-2.57), with symptoms of dizzy (RR: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.08-2.30), myalgia (RR: 1.49, 95%CI: 1.15-1.94), and chill (RR: 1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) had higher infected risks. Children, old people, females, and family members are susceptible of COVID-19 infection, while index cases in the incubation period had lower contagiousness. Our findings will be helpful for developing targeted prevention and control strategies to combat the worldwide pandemic.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos de Coortes , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Quarentena , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e923758, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing bleeding in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who are on aspirin and ticagrelor as dual antiplatelet therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective case-control study included 50 patients with ACS (25 with reported bleeding events and 25 without) on aspirin and ticagrelor. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)- and arachidonic acid (ACA)-induced platelet aggregation rates were measured using light transmission aggregometry. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PEAR1, GP1BA, and GSTP1 were genotyped. RESULTS ACA-induced platelet aggregation rates were obviously lower in patients with bleeding events than in those without (13.28±8.46% vs. 24.93±9.89%, P<0.001). No significant differences in ADP-induced platelet aggregation rates were observed between the 2 groups (16.17±9.74% vs. 16.88±12.69%, P>0.05). Among those with bleeding events and among controls, 70% and 80% had an ACA-induced platelet aggregation rate of 0-18% and 18-50%, respectively. Mutation rates of rs6065 in GP1BA and rs1695, rs4891, and rs8191439 in GSTP1 also differed significantly between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS Lower ACA-induced platelet aggregation rates are associated with increased risk of bleeding in patients with ACS who are on aspirin and ticagrelor. An ACA-induced platelet aggregation rate of 18% may be considered the cutoff point for identifying high risk of aspirin-associated bleeding events in patients with ACS. SNP genotyping may also help predict the risk of bleeding in patients with ACS.

16.
Hum Mutat ; 41(9): 1588-1599, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485022

RESUMO

Co-occurring and mutually exclusive gene alteration events are helpful for understanding carcinogenesis but systematic screening for such events is quite limited. We conducted pairwise screening tests to identify "hit pairs" in colorectal cancer (CRC) by utilizing the cross-omics data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Numerous hit pairs involving somatic mutations, copy number variations, and DNA methylation were found to occur nonrandomly in CRC, such as KRAS and HOXB6, SMAD4 and PMEPA1. Based on these hit pairs, we identified 32 synthetic lethal pairs and 7,527 co-occurring pairs relating to drug response. Our further biological experiments showed that the co-occurrence of mutant FCGBP and NUDT12 silencing (or mutant TMC3 and RPS6KA6 silencing) with small interfering RNA reduced cell viability. Moreover, novel hit pairs could influence prognosis. The patients who carried concurrent mutations of IRF5 and NEFH, SYNE1 and TTN, or MUC16 and NEFH had worse survival outcomes. Particularly, the presence of mutant SYNE1 and TTN pair not only affects prognosis, but also is related to CRC patients' response to drug treatment. Our "hit pair" genes may provide insights into colorectal carcinogenesis and help open new avenues for CRC therapy.

17.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 42(3): 837-845, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410206

RESUMO

Background Clinical characteristics of patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may present differently within and outside the epicenter of Wuhan, China. More clinical investigations are needed. Objective The study was aimed to describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, and therapeutic methods of COVID-19 patients in Hunan, China. Setting The First Hospital of Changsha, First People's Hospital of Huaihua, and the Central Hospital of Loudi, Hunan province, China. Methods This was a retrospective multi-center case-series analysis. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis hospitalized at the study centers from January 17 to February 10, 2020, were included. The following data were obtained from electronic medical records: demographics, medical history, exposure history, underlying comorbidities, symptoms, signs, laboratory findings, computer tomography scans, and treatment measures. Main outcome measure Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatments. Results A total of 54 patients were included (51 had the common-type COVID-19, three had the severe-type), the median age was 41, and 52% of them were men. The median time from the first symptoms to hospital admission was seven days. Among patients with the common-type COVID-19, the median length of stay was nine days, and 21 days among patients with severe COVID-19. The most common symptoms at the onset of illness were fever (74.5%), cough (56.9%), and fatigue (43.1%) among patients in the common-type group. Fourteen patients (37.8%) had a reduced WBC count, 23 (62.2%) had reduced eosinophil ratio, and 21 (56.76%) had decreased eosinophil count. The most common patterns on chest-computed tomography were ground-glass opacity (52.2%) and patchy bilateral shadowing (73.9%). Pharmacotherapy included recombinant human interferon α2b, lopinavir/ritonavir, novaferon, antibiotics, systematic corticosteroids and traditional Chinese medicine prescription. The outcome of treatment indicated that in patients with the common-type COVID-19, interferon-α2b, but not novaferon, had some benefits, antibiotics treatment was not needed, and corticosteroids should be used cautiously. Conclusion As of February 10, 2020, the symptoms of COVID-19 patients in Hunan province were relatively mild comparing to patients in Wuhan, the epicenter. We observed some treatment benefits with interferon-α2b and corticosteroid therapies but not with novaferon and antibiotic treatment in our study population.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 499, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390844

RESUMO

The beneficial effect of quercetin in rheumatic diseases is unclear. Studies have already confirmed that human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) alleviate some symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by their immunosuppressive capacities. This study explored whether there are additive effects of quercetin and hUCMSCs on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) under simulated rheumatic conditions. hUCMSCs were pretreated with quercetin (10 µM) before coculture with TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated PBMCs at a ratio of 1:1 for 3 days. PBMC proliferation was inhibited, and the proportion of Th17 cells was shifted. These effects may be related to the effect of quercetin on functional molecules in hUCMSCs, including nitric oxide (NO), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3) and the Akt/IκB pathways. These results suggest that quercetin effectively promoted the immunoregulatory effect of hUCMSCs by inhibiting the Akt/IκB pathway, activating the Toll-like receptor-3 pathway, and regulating downstream cytokines.

19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 843-850, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267205

RESUMO

Reduced doses of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs may lower toxicity while preserving efficacy. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of reduced doses of both tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and efavirenz for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. In this open-label, non-inferiority trial, HIV-1-infected antiretroviral-naive adults were randomly assigned to receive either a lower dose anti-retroviral regimen comprised of TDF (200 mg), efavirenz (400 mg), and standard dose lamivudine (300 mg) or the standard dose regimen. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants with HIV-1 RNA≤ 50 copies/mL at week 48 using a non-inferiority margin of -10%. At week 48, 79 of 92 (85.9%) participants in the lower dose regimen group and 78 of 92 (84.8%) in the standard dose regimen group achieved HIV-1 RNA≤ 50 copies/mL (treatment difference 1.1%, 95% CI -9.1 to 11.3) in the intention-to-treat analysis. Drug-related adverse events occurred more frequently in the participants receiving the standard dose regimen compared with the lower dose one (63.0% vs 80.4%). Changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate and bone mineral density were comparable between the two groups. The non-inferior efficacy and better safety profile of the lower dose ARV regimen support its use as alternative initial therapy for HIV-1 infected patients.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Alquinos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Ciclopropanos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Viral/sangue , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Bioorg Chem ; 99: 103866, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330737

RESUMO

Aberrant expression of c-MYC oncogene is significantly associated with the occurrence and development of malignant melanoma. Suppression of the c-MYC transcriptional activity accordingly provides a new idea for treating melanoma. Notably, stabilizing the G-quadruplex (G4) structure in the promoter is proved to be effective in downregulating c-MYC transcription. In this work, we developed a drug-like imidazole-benzothiazole conjugate called IZTZ-1, which was confirmed to preferentially stabilize the promoter G4 and thus lower c-MYC expression. Intracellular assays revealed that IZTZ-1 induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. Furthermore, IZTZ-1 was demonstrated to effectively inhibit tumor growth in a melanoma mouse model. Consequently, IZTZ-1 showed good potential in the treatment of melanoma. This study provides an alternative strategy to treat melanoma by targeting the c-MYC G4.

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