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1.
Food Funct ; 9(11): 5891-5902, 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375606

RESUMO

Acetaminophen (APAP) is commonly used to relieve pain and fever in a clinical setting, but its excessive use can lead to serious hepatotoxicity. Our previous study demonstrated that polydatin (PD) can effectively attenuate d-galactose- and alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity, however, its effect on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown. In this study, we explore the protective effect and potential mechanism of PD against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The results indicate that PD effectively improves the survival of mice with APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, significantly alleviating histopathologic alterations in the liver, and decreasing the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). PD significantly and dose-dependently reduces oxidative stress by lowering the content of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and malonaldehyde (MDA), while enhancing the hepatic activities of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the GSH/GSSG ratio. Meanwhile, PD also substantially inhibits the levels and mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2). Additionally, PD markedly arrests apoptosis by assuaging TUNEL-positive hepatocytes and the apoptotic index, decreasing the levels and expression of cytochrome c (CytC), cleaved-caspase-9, apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), cleaved-caspase-3, and Bax and increasing the level and expression of Bcl-2. Overall, PD pretreatment shows a potent protective effect against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by relieving oxidative stress and inhibiting apoptosis.

2.
Phytomedicine ; 39: 111-118, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29433672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are most widely used as effective anti-inflammatory agents. However, their clinical application brings about inevasible gastrointestinal side effects. Pogostemon cablin is a traditional herbal medicine used for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases in China. One of its representative components, the tricyclic triterpenoid ß-patchoulone (ß-PAE) has demonstrated great anti-inflammatory activity and gastroprotective effect against ethanol-induced gastric injury, but its protective effect against gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin is still unknown. PURPOSE: To assess the protective effect of ß-PAE against ulcer produced by indomethacin and reveal the underlying pharmacological mechanism. STUDY DESIGN: We used an indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer model of rats in vivo. METHODS: Gastroprotective activity of ß-PAE (10, 20, 40 mg/kg, i.g.) was estimated via indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Histopathological and histochemical assessment of ulcerated tissues were performed. Protein and mRNA expression were determined by Elisa, Western blotting and qRT-PCR. RESULTS: ß-PAE could inhibit ulcer formation. Histopathological and histochemical assessment macroscopically demonstrated that ß-PAE alleviates indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in dose-dependent manner. After administration of ß-PAE, elevated tumor necrosis factor -α level was significantly decreased and the phosphorylation of JNK and IκB was markedly inhibited. ß-PAE suppressed the levels of E-selectin, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, as well as myeloperoxidase. Meanwhile, ß-PAE increased cyclooxygenase enzyme activities (COX-1 and COX-2) to enhance the production of prostaglandin E2. Proangiogenic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 mRNA expression were promoted while anti-angiogenic protein, endostatin-1 and its receptor ETAR mRNA expression were decreased. CONCLUSION: ß-PAE may provide gastroprotection in indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats by reducing inflammatory response and improving angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Indometacina/efeitos adversos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Masculino , Pogostemon/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
3.
Mol Med Rep ; 17(1): 789-800, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29115625

RESUMO

Silymarin has been used in the treatment of a number of liver diseases for a long time, but its efficacy in preventing triptolide induced acute hepatotoxicity has not been reported previously. The present study aimed to assess the protective effect of silymarin against triptolide (TP)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were orally administrated with silymarin (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) for 7 days and received intraperitoneal TP (2 mg/kg) on the day 8. Hepatic injuries were comprehensively evaluated in terms of serum parameters, morphological changes, oxidative damage, inflammation and apoptosis. The results demonstrated that TP-induced increases in serum parameters, including alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, which were determined using a biochemical analyzer, and histopathological alterations and hepatocyte apoptosis as determined by hematoxylin and eosin and TUNEL staining, respectively, were prevented by silymarin pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. TP-induced depletions in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and catalase, and glutathione levels, were also significantly reversed by silymarin, as determined using specific kits. Additionally, silymarin dose-dependently exhibited inhibitory effects on malonaldehyde content in the liver. The production of proinflammatory cytokines was investigated using ELISA kits, and the results demonstrated that silymarin dose-dependently inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and IL-1ß in the liver. To determine the mechanism of silymarin, western blot analysis was performed to investigate the protein expression of phosphorylated (p)-p38 and p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) of the TNF-α induced inflammatory response and apoptotic pathways. Silymarin significantly blocked p38 and JNK phosphorylation and activation. Additionally, the expression of the proapoptotic proteins cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2-associated X was also reduced following treatment with silymarin, as determined by ELISA, western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. In conclusion, silymarin was demonstrated to dose-dependently protect rat liver from TP-induced acute hepatotoxicity, with the high dose (200 mg/kg) achieving a superior effect. This protective effect may be associated with the improvement of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status, as well as the prevention of hepatocyte apoptosis. Therefore, silymarin may have the potential to be applied clinically to prevent TP-induced acute hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Fenantrenos/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Silimarina/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Diterpenos/química , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Compostos de Epóxi/toxicidade , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenantrenos/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Silimarina/química
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29250126

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol consumption leads to serious liver injury, associating with oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Previous study has demonstrated that polydatin (PD) exerted antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and attenuated ethanol-induced liver damage, but the research remained insufficient. Hence, this experiment aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect and potential mechanisms of PD on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results showed that PD pretreatment dramatically decreased the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the serum, suppressed the malonaldehyde (MDA) and triglyceride (TG) content and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), andalcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), paralleled by an improvement of histopathology alterations. The protective effect of PD against oxidative stress was probably associated with downregulation of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and upregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target gene haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Moreover, PD inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) via downregulating toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65. To conclude, PD pretreatment protects against ethanol-induced liver injury via suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation.

5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 198: 389-398, 2017 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28119098

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Brucea javanica is an important traditional medicinal herb used for the treatment of dysentery, malaria, inflammation and cancer in southeast Asia for many years. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Brucea javanica in the treatment of dysentery (also known as ulcerative colitis, UC) has not been fully illuminated. Brucea javanica oil emulsion (BJOE) is the major active and most common application form of Brucea javanica oil (BJO), which has a variety of pharmacological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of BJOE and possible mechanism of action on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The components of BJOE were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Balb/C mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 30mg/mL) induced colitis were treated with BJOE (0.5, 1 and 2g/kg) and two positive drugs (sulfasalazine, SASP, 200mg/kg; and azathioprine, AZA, 13mg/kg) once daily by gavage for 7 days. Mice in normal control group and DSS group were orally given the same volume of distilled water and soybean lecithin suspension (0.15g/kg) respectively. The effects of BJOE on DSS-induced UC were assessed by determination of body weight loss, disease activity index (DAI), colon length, histological analysis, as well as levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The mRNA expression of MPO, iNOS and COX-2 in colon tissues was detected by qRT-PCR. In addition, NF-κB p65, p-p65 and IκB-α, p-IκBα protein expression levels in colon tissues were investigated using Western blotting. RESULTS: The major components of BJOE were found to be oleic acid (62.68%) and linoleic acid (19.53%) as detected by GC-MS. Our results indicated that BJOE, SASP and AZA showed beneficial effect on DSS-induced colitis in mice, and significantly reduced the body weight loss and DAI, restored the colon length, repaired colonic pathological variations, decreased histological scores, and decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17 and IFN-γ) as compared with the DSS group. In addition, the mRNA expression of MPO, iNOS and COX-2 induced by DSS treatment was remarkably inhibited by BJOE, SASP or AZA treatments. Furthermore, when compared with DSS-treated mice, the activation of NF-κB was significantly inhibited by AZA and BJOE treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that BJOE possessed appreciable anti-inflammatory effect against murine experimental UC induced by DSS. The protective mechanism of BJOE may involve inhibition of NF-κB signal transduction pathways and subsequent down-regulation of inflammatory mediators. These findings suggest that BJOE might be an efficacious and promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of UC. Our investigation might also provide experimental evidence for the traditional application of Brucea javanica in the treatment of dysentery and might add new dimension to the clinical indications for BJOE.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Brucea/química , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Azatioprina/farmacologia , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Emulsões , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfassalazina/farmacologia
6.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 16(6): 624-8, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24927440

RESUMO

Menkes disease is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by multi-systemic disorder of copper deficiency caused by ATP7A gene mutation. In this study, the clinical and laboratory features of three patients with Menkes disease were analyzed. Prenatal diagnosis had been performed for a fetus of a family. Three patients were admitted at the age of 8-9 months due to severe epilepsies and marked delayed psychomotor development. Significantly light complexion, pudgy cheeks and sparse fuzzy wooly hair were observed. On their cranial MR imaging, cortical atrophy, leukoencephalopathy, basal ganglia damage and tormesity of the intracranial vessels were found. Their plasma ceruloplasmin decreased to 70.2, 73.5 and 81 mg/L, significantly lower than normal range (210-530 mg/L). c.3914A>G (p. D1305G) was detected on ATP7A gene of case 1 and 2. A novel mutation, c.3265G>T (p.G1089X) was found in case 3. Both of them were firstly found in Chinese patients of Menkes disease. The mother of case 1 was tested at 20 weeks of pregnancy. Karyotype and ATP7A gene studies of the amniocytes were performed for the prenatal diagnosis of her fetus. Normal male karyotypes without c.3914A>G mutation on ATP7A gene was showed. Postnatal genetic analysis and normal development confirmed the prenatal diagnosis.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Síndrome dos Cabelos Torcidos/genética , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , ATPases Transportadoras de Cobre , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome dos Cabelos Torcidos/diagnóstico , Mutação
7.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(2): 211-6, 2013 Apr 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23591339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate epidemiological characteristics of prevalence, impact factors and etiology on developmental delay of 18-month-old children from four districts/counties in Beijing. METHODS: An epidemiological study on developmental delay was designed to investigate all the 18-month-old children enrolled from Shunyi,Daxing,Miyun and Yanqing districts/counties in Beijing from May to September, 2011. Combining the tertiary network of child health with hospital clinical study was used. Child developmental questionnaires were completed by doctors in communities of the first network of child health. Gesell Developmental Schedules for children with Denver developmental screening test (DDST) screening positive results were assessed by doctors in districts/counties hospitals of the second network of child health. The children diagnosed as developmental delay were transferred to the tertiary hospitals of the third network of child health for further etiological diagnosis, follow-up and developmental evaluation. The case-control study compared between children with/without developmental delay were performed in accordance with the 1:4 ratios by gender and residence community matched. SPSS 16.0 was adopted for data analysis of the case-control study. RESULTS: A total of 3 182 children were screened among the 4 037 children fitting the criteria,and the coverage rate was 78.8% (3 182/4 037). Of the 3 182 screened children, 22 children were diagnosed as developmental delay. The prevalence rate was 6.91 ‰ (22/3 182). Out of the 22 children with developmental delay, 15 were boys and 7 were girls. The sex ratio was 2.1:1. The prevalence rates of the children with developmental delay in Shunyi, Daxing, Miyun and Yanqing were 3.45 ‰ (4/1 160), 4.50 ‰(5/1 111), 15.87 ‰(7/441) and 12.77 ‰ (6/479), respectively. The results from one-way ANOVA analysis showed the main risk factors in children with developmental delay included low-income families, mothers' low educational level, small size for gestational age infant, multiple fetuses, serious diseases after birth, congenital malformations and physical retardation (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The screening coverage rate of this study is 78.8%. The prevalence rate of children with developmental delay is 6.91 ‰, which is significantly different in sex ratio and districts of the subjects. The etiology of developmental delay might be associated with social-economic and biological factors.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 50(1): 50-5, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22456076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) is a rare autosomal recessive disease. Affected individuals are invariably compound heterozygous for two mutations in DARS2. No reports of LBSL patients have been published in the mainland of China. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical and genetic features of a family with LBSL, which may contribute to definite diagnosis, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis of this rare disease in China. METHODS: Clinical data of the proband and other family members as well as DNA samples were collected. Clinical features including symptoms, signs and cranial MRI were analyzed. All 17 exons and exon-intron boundaries of DARS2 gene were amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and directly sequenced for genomic DNA. The mutation was proved by DNA restriction enzyme digestion of PCR-amplified fragments. RESULTS: (1) The clinical features of patient with LBSL included slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and spasticity, the neurologic dysfunction involving the legs more than the arms, and with characteristic abnormalities observed on brain and spinal cord MRI. (2) Two mutations were identified, one was a novel missense mutation [c.665 G > A(p.Gly222Asp)] in DARS2 gene exon 8, the other (c.228-16 C > G) was in DARS2 gene intron 3. CONCLUSION: This is the first report on LBSL patient and DARS2 mutation in China. p.Gly222Asp mutation is a novel mutation not reported around the world yet.


Assuntos
Aspartato-tRNA Ligase/genética , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Leucoencefalopatias/metabolismo , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons , Humanos , Leucoencefalopatias/patologia , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Medula Espinal/patologia
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